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Dancing Durga at Cham Po Nagar Kalan

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  • 1. Architecture: Po Nagar Kalan Sculpture: Dancing Durga
  • 2. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 3. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 4. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 5.  It is the main temple-tower (kalan)  22.8 meters tall  Dedicated to the goddess of the kingdom, Yan Po (Inu) Nagar or Goddess Bhagavati  Early 8th century wood temple burnt down by Javanese raiders  Built of clay “spongy”8 bricks joined with molasses2
  • 6. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 7.  3-tier step-pyramidal structure on a square base10 Source: Trán, Kỳ Ph ng.ươ Vestiges of Champa Civilisation
  • 8.  Body of the tower has undecorated oblong double pilasters10  5 columns on each wall
  • 9.  Unique spearhead (or maybe lotus petal?) arcature on the vestibule and false doorways
  • 10.  Inscription on the pillars of vestibule (11th to 13th centuries)10  Stylised lotus petal designs on vestibule  Mixed technique of high and low relief  Small corridor that leads to the sanctum sanctorum  Main deity: Goddess Bhagavati or Goddess Po Inu Nagar
  • 11.  False-doors feature figures holding swords (barely visible)10  Possible to be Dvarapala? Source: Wikipedia, “Dvarapala” Dvarapala Bantaey Kdei Angkor, Cambodia c. 12 century Dvarapala or Standing Shiva Khuong My style Vietnam (Champa) c. 10 century Metropolitan Museum of Art
  • 12.  Design are carved directly on the walls8  Not carved on soft bricks, fired then arranged as walls8
  • 13.  Repeated motifs on each tier  The central kalan, archways / doorways repeated, apsaras and leaf-like motifs repeated  Multiplicity of images
  • 14. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 15.  Kalan: temple-tower  Based on the Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) notion of Mount Meru – abode of deities  Abides by strict guidelines:  Centripetal in layout  Axes oriented in 4 cardinal points  Main entrance facing eastwards  Relationship between politics and power for the kalan?
  • 16. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 17.  Described as “pyramidal”5 (Parmentier, 1918)  Dated as 10th to 14th centuries  Classified under Po Nagar Nha Trang5 Style or Intermediate5 / Transitional3 Style (Stern, 1942)  Transitions from My Son A1 to Binh Dinh style  Dated as 11th – 12th century  Characterised by: three-storied, conical roof rising10  Reduced architectural ornamentation and simplified motifs3
  • 18. Source: Trán, K Ph ng.ỳ ươ Vestiges of Champa Civilisation Conical roof rising
  • 19.  Comparison of Styles: My Son A1, Intermediate Style & Binh Dinh Styles My Son Kalan My Son A1 Style (10th century) Thap Nham Kalan Binh Dinh Style (12th- 13th century) Po Nagar Kalan Intermediate Style (11th -12th century)
  • 20.  According to Stern: Other Intermediate Style buildings Chien Dan Kalan Intermediate Style (11th -12th century) Thap Nham Kalan Intermediate Style (11th -12th century) Po Nagar Kalan Intermediate Style (11th -12th century)
  • 21.  Much damage from nature, the war and vandalism has been done to ruin or completely destroy the artistic legacy of Champa8  Restoration Issues Source: Ngô, V n Doanh.ă Champa Ancient Towers: Reality & Legend
  • 22.  The various models for iconographical identification (at this point) are still generalising and sometimes contradictory5  Different models had different preoccupations  There’s still a lot that we do not know about Champa (dead culture).  Archaeological research has barely begun for any real insight4  Models conjured up based on just primary information; insufficient experience with the subject5  Dating by characteristics may be problematic  Could the stylistic differences between the kalans due to regional development (i.e.: Kauthura-style, Vijara-style) instead of progressive time development?
  • 23. Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan Po Nagar Kalan
  • 24. Champa Khmer 11th century 12th century Temple-Mountain Temple-Mountain-City Hindu (Saivaite) Hindu (Vaishnavaite) then Buddhist (Theravada) Intermediate Style (Stern) High classical style of Khmer Clay bricks & molasses Sandstone & slaked lime ORIGINS BUILT IN CONCEPT RELIGION STYLE MATERIAL
  • 25. Designs carved on directly Designs carved then laid 3-tier step pyramidal tower Redented towers shaped like rose buds Mini tower & doorways repeated on tower Mini tower & doorways repeated on tower DECOR TOWERS MULTIPLI- CITY
  • 26. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga
  • 27. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga
  • 28.  Found on the pediment* above the entrance to the Po Nagar Kalan14  Carved in 1065  Identified as:  Bhagavathi (means Goddess in sanskrit)  Mahishasuramardhi (lit. the One who crushes Asura Mahisha)14
  • 29.  Who is Durga?7  Shakti (energy of a god) or consort of Shiva; the inaccessible  Popular shakti of Shiva: Uma, Gauri, Parvarti, Kali, Mahadevi9  Terrifying form of the goddess  Born of the anger of Vishnu and Shiva  Destroyed the great demon, Mahisa (buffalo appearance)  Bears the weapons of all the great Gods (10 weapons in all)  Dressed and adorned in jewellery from the mythical milk ocean  Dawon (lion) as vehicle
  • 30. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga
  • 31.  Embedded in a leaf (or lotus petal?) -shaped design  Carved in high relief on stone, three-dimensionality  Main figure robust volumes and full forms  Accompanied by 2 dancing figures
  • 32.  Torso not draped  Full-breasted (Mother Goddess)  Tribhunga posture (dancing or active engagement); maybe even athi bhunga posture?  Limbs appear large and solid  Four-arms, holding discus, lotus and trident  1 hand performing a mudra? Durga Mahisasuramardini statues in athi bhunga; Source: Internet (http://ssubbanna.sulekha.com/)
  • 33.  Feather-like skirt  Bare-feet  Right foot standing on a buffalo figure  Submissive buffalo
  • 34.  Heads are disproportionately bigger  Eyes are partially open  Very slight eyebrows (low-relief)  Gentle smile  Rounded features,  Fleshy cheeks and lips  Introverted, passive demeanour
  • 35.  Crown of Kitira  Heavily adorned with jewellery: Beaded necklace, bracelets and a loop earring with adornment  Dancers are equally vested with jewellery
  • 36.  Dancers and musical accompaniment  Less intricate crowns  Left dancer more extroverted  Posture and dynamic movement  Long, attenuated limbs (“heptic”?)  Durga’s apsaras?
  • 37.  The Cham’s appearance and dressing as reference point for their sculpture? “The Cham people had dark complexions, protruding noses, deep eye sockets and curly hair….They wrapped a single cotton cloth around their bodies and walked barefoot, save the wealthy and the aristocracy who wore shoes. They wore necklaces and earrings of metal loops.” A History of Vietnam by Oscar Chapius, Pg 40
  • 38.  The sculptors were also inspired by their environment: corporal appearance and clothing were those of people around them; nature became a model for decorative motifs5
  • 39. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga
  • 40.  A representation of Durga in tribhunga (or in a dance posture) is not very common  What could be the reasons why Durga is represented in tribhunga here? From left: Durga Mahisasuramardini statues from Chittaranjan Park (New Delhi), Singahasari (Java) and Rotunda South16 (Java); Source: Internet
  • 41.  To establish a relationship with Shiva Nataraja? (Saivaite cult)  Or was dance a very vital aspect of the Cham culture?  “heptic” sense of the body; coursing of the rasa From left: Dancing Siva, Gupta, 5th century and Dancer, Laos/Vietnam, 10th century Source: ADM210 Lecture 5, ADM215 Lecture 5 Shiva with twenty-eight arms dancing on Nandi, My Son A1 Style, Laos/Vietnam, early 10th century, Grey sandstone, Danang Museum Source: Hindu –Buddhist Art of Vietnam: Treasures from Champa by Emmanuel Guillon
  • 42.  Is Goddess Po Nagar also Durga? Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis
  • 43.  Legend of Po Nagar:  Mother Goddess of the Chams  Born from sea form and clouds5  Creator of the earth and at the hierarchical summit of all natural beings5  Durga as Mother Goddess7  Worshipped as Mother of the Universe (Jaganmata) and Earth Mother Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis
  • 44.  Stele inscriptions8 :  918: Building of golden statue of Bhagavati  965: Built a new statue out of sandstone (sailamagi) after it was stolen by Khome ethnic  1143: Recorded praying statement to Yan Po Nagar  1165: Offering gold crown to Bhagavati Kautharesvati Goddess
  • 45.  Name translation8 :  In sanskrit, name of Goddess in stele would be written as Bhagavati  In Cham language, it would Yan Po Nagar
  • 46.  Statue8 :  Kala-Makara-Torana styled arch  Dressed only skirt, bare upper body, flabby breasts  Has 10 arms, carrying weapons associated with Durga  Seated cross-legged on a lotus throne over a set of yoni10  Indian religious influence (Hinduism) has integrated into the worship of Yan Po Nagar Goddess8 Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis
  • 47.  Is Goddess Po Nagar statue inspired from Quan Am statues? Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis Thousand-armed Quam Am statues, Lê Dynasty (980 to 1009), Vietnam, Hanoi Fine Arts Museum Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tuey/2394684729/
  • 48. Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing DurgaDancing Durga
  • 49. Mahishasuramardani, western pediment, gopura II, Bantreay Srei Source: Images of the Gods: Khmer Mythology in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Bangkok by Vittorio Roveda, 2005
  • 50. Champa Khmer 11th century c. 12th century On pediment (Po Nagar Kalan) On pediment (West pediment, Gopura 2) Mahishasuramardini Mahishasuramardini Stone Sandstone Higher relief Lower relief ORIGINS BUILT IN WHERE SCENE MATERIAL RELIEF
  • 51. War discus, lotus and trident Spear, shield, war discus, noose No Yes Yes Yes, with Naga binding it9 Tribhanga Slight tribhanga Eyes partial open, gentle smile Eyes partial open, gentle smile Yes Yes WEAPONS VEHICLE BUFFALO POSTURE FACE CROWN
  • 52. Yes No Rounded, soft and full Slender and gentle6 No Leaf/swirl ornaments6 Po Nagar/Durga/Bhagavati Protective power of the lintel6 JEWELLERY FIGURE ORNAMEN- TATION SIGNI- FICANCE
  • 53. 1 Bassoul, Aziz. Human and Divine: The Hindu and Buddhist Iconography of Southeast Asian Art from the Claire and Aziz Bassoul Collection. Lebanon: Cedar of Lebanon, 2006 2 Chapius, Oscar. A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bac to Tu Duc. USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995 3 Chihara, Daigoro. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia. New York: Leiden, 1996 4 Higham, Charles. Early Cultures of Mainland Southeast Asia. Bangkok: River Books, 2002 5 Hubert, Jean-François. The Art of Champa. New York: Parkstone, 2005 6 Kerlogue, Fiona. Arts of Southeast Asia. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004 7 Nagar, Shantilal. Durga The Great Goddess. India: B.R. Publishing Corporation, 2006 8 Ngô, V n Doanh.ă Champa Ancient Towers: Reality & Legend. Hanoi: Thê giói, 2002 9 Roveda, Vittorio. Images of the Gods: Khmer Mythology in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Bangkok: River Books, 2005
  • 54. 10 Trán, K Ph ng.ỳ ươ Vestiges of Champa Civilisation. Hanoi: Thê giói, 2004 11 Wikipedia. “Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/champa (accessed 15th January 2009) 12 Wikipedia. “Art of Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/art_of_champa (accessed 23rd January 2009) 13 Wikipedia. “Durga”. http://en.wikipedia.org/durga (accessed 23rd January 2009) 14 Wikipedia. “Po Nagar”. http://en.wikipedia.org/po_nagar (accessed 23rd January 2009) 15 Vietnam Explorer. “Po Nagar Towers illuminate the myths of the Cham Goddess”. http://vietnamexplorer.com/index.php? option=comcontent& task=view&id= 100&Itemid=34 (accessed 5th February 2009) 16 Knirck-Bumke, Krista., Gillian S. Clough, and Laraine Nelson. “Victorious Durga: Javanese Images of the Hindu Goddess who conquered the Buffalo Demon”. Indonesian Heritage Society, December 2003