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Photography1 Photography1 Presentation Transcript

  • So, maganda ako!
  • Photography • the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface (Merriam-Webster) • From Greek ‘photos’ (light) and ‘graphos’ (drawing)
  • A picture paints a thousand words.
  • 10 Basic Camera Parts
  • 1. Lens • The lens is one of the most vital parts of a camera. The light enters through the lens, and this is where the photo process begins. Lenses can be either fixed permanently to the body or interchangeable. They can also vary in focal length, aperture, and other details.
  • 2. Viewfinder • The viewfinder can be found on all DSLRs and some models of digital compacts. On DSLRs, it will be the main visual source for image- taking, but many of today’s digital compacts have replaced the typical viewfinder with an LCD screen.
  • 3. Body • The body is the main portion of the camera, and bodies can be a number of different shapes and sizes. DSLRs tend to be larger bodied and a bit heavier, while there are other consumer cameras that are a conveniently smaller size and even able to fit into a pocket.
  • 4. Shutter Release • The shutter release button is the mechanism that “releases” the shutter and therefore enables the ability to capture the image. The length of time the shutter is left open or “exposed” is determined by the shutter speed.
  • 5. Aperture • The aperture affects the image’s exposure by changing the diameter of the lens opening, which controls the amount of light reaching the image sensor. Some digital compacts will have a fixed aperture lens, but most of today’s compact cameras have at least a small aperture range. This range will be expressed in f/stops. For DSLRs, the lens will vary on f/stop limits, but it is usually easily defined by reading the side of the lens. There will be a set of numbers stating the f/stop or f/stop range, ex: f/2.8 or f/3.5-5.6. This will be your lowest settings available with that lens.
  • 6. Image Sensor • The image sensor converts the optical image to an electronic signal, which is then sent to your memory card. There are two main types of image sensors that are used in most digital cameras: CMOS and CCD. Both forms of the sensor accomplish the same task, but each has a different method of performance.
  • 7. Memory Card • The memory card stores all of the image information, and they range in size and speed capacity. The main types of memory cards available are CF and SD cards, and cameras vary on which type that they require.
  • 8. LCD Screen • The LCD screen is found on the back of the body and can vary in size. On digital compact cameras, the LCD has typically begun to replace the viewfinder completely. On DSLRs, the LCD is mainly for viewing photos after shooting, but some cameras do have a “live mode” as well.
  • 9. Flash • The on-board flash will be available on all cameras except some professional grade DSLRs. It can sometimes be useful to provide a bit of extra light during dim, low light situations.
  • 10. User Controls • The controls on each camera will vary depending on the model and type. Your basic digital compacts may only have auto settings that can be used for different environments, while a DSLR will have numerous controls for auto and manual shooting along with custom settings.
  • How a Digital Camera Works • Just before you click the action button on the digital camera, you might want to adjust the brightness or sharpness of the picture so simply turn the diopter adjustment dial to have a good picture as a result. • When you click the action button on digital camera, the light strikes a digital sensor array instead of a piece of film. • The digital sensor is a computer chip which is used in place of a piece of film. • The digital sensor is made of millions of tiny sensor points known as pixels.
  • How a Digital Camera Works • These pixels are arranged in an array with rows and columns like in a wall calendar. • The pixels become excited when image strikes the sensor. The image then passes through color filters. • The sensor converts the image from light waves into an analog signal. • The analog signal is converted to a pure digital signal by the digital converter. • The signal will pass through a series of filters, during which white balance and color adjustments occur.
  • How a Digital Camera Works • Next the image size is adjusted by dumping unnecessary pixels, and this is important for effective storage. • Now the camera has a nice compressed & filtered digital image. • After the process, the image is transferred into a temporary storage inside the camera which is the buffer memory. • When the buffer memory is full, the image is stored in the memory card. • The size of the buffer memory is important, since it will tell how many images you can take and store.
  • BASICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY
  • Understanding the Most Primary Controls of Camera
  • Use of Aperture • Typical F stop numbers are: F1.4, F.1.8, F2, F2.8, F4, F5.6, F8, F11, F16, F22 • As they get smaller, the opening in the lens gets larger. And vice versa. • As we create small apertures, the depth of field increases. Depth of field is the range of the scene that stays sharp and focused. As we set large apertures the depth of field decreases. • The amount of light entering the camera also gets affected. Small apertures bring less light into the camera. Large apertures bring more.
  • Use of Aperture • Therefore small apertures are useful for landscape photographers because they can keep vast extensions of space focused and sharp. However because less light is entering the camera, there is more danger of camera shake producing blurry images. That’s why landscape photographers tend to use a tripod to keep the camera firmly in place during the long exposures that they need to use to capture enough light when they use small apertures.
  • Use of Aperture • Large apertures are useful for portrait photography, where you want to focus on the face of the subject and blur the background to avoid it becoming a distraction. The small depth of field means that you can keep in focus the head of the person and blur all the rest behind the subject. Because by using a large aperture you are also bringing more light into the camera, large apertures are also easier to use without a tripod.
  • Shutter Speed • Shutter speed is the amount of time which the shutter is open to allow the film/sensor to be exposed to light. This speed is generally measured in fractions of a second such as 1/250. The faster the shutter opens and closes, the less light strikes the film or digital sensor.
  • Depth of Field • Depth of field describes how much of an image is in focus from front to back. Depth of field is controlled by the aperture as well as the lens magnification. Some images, such as portraits, have traditionally used mostly small depth of field in order to blur the background. Other images, such as landscapes, traditionally use much larger depth of field in order for the entire vista to be in focus.
  • Focal Point • Interesting photographs have interesting things in them – they need a visual point of interest (a focal point). • How are you going to enhance your focal point?
  • Focal Point • Position – Place it in a prominent position – you might want to start with the rule of thirds for some ideas. • Focus – Learn to use Depth of Field to blur out other aspects in front or behind your focal point. • Blur – If you really want to get tricky you might want to play with slower shutter speeds if your main subject is still and things around it are moving • .Size – making your focal point large is not the only way to make it prominent – but it definitely can help.
  • Focal Point • Color – using contrasting colors can also be a way of setting your point of interest apart from it’s surroundings. • Shape – similarly contrasting shapes and textures can make a subject stand out – especially patterns that are repeated around a subject.
  • Shooting Modes • Auto • Program (P) • Aperture Priority Mode (A or AV) • Shutter Priority Mode (S or TV) • Manual Mode (M)
  • Rule of Thirds • The rule of thirds is a powerful compositional technique for making photos more interesting and dynamic. It's also perhaps one of the most well known. • The basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts.
  • Sources • http://cameras.about.com/od/photographytips/a/camera- shooting-modes.htm • http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/rule-of- thirds.htm • http://digital-photography-school.com/rule-of-thirds • http://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/how-to-use-aperture- and-f-stops-in-photography/ • http://photoinf.com/General/KODAK/guidelines_for_better _photographic_composition_rule_of_thirds.html • http://photography.about.com/od/takingpictures/tp/backt obasics.htm • http://www.steves-digicams.com/knowledge-center/how- tos/photography-tips/10-basic-camera-parts.html#b