According to Chaney, speaking is“ the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.” Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Speaking is the action of conveying information or expressing one‟s thoughts and feelings in spoken language.
1. Transactional function: (to buy something and so on)2. Interpersonal function: ( to be sociable, to express our feelings or opinion, and so on)
The following statements are English learners‟ response to the question: „ This is the problem, I have been learning English long, but I can‟t speak, I understand the conversation but I can‟t answer immediately as I like.” „ The problem is to speak English with other people face to face. I can‟t find words. I always use the same sentences.‟
• Shyness and inhibitions1 • Finding things to say2 • Low participation of individuals3 • L1 use4
The students should actually talk a lot. The language used should be of an acceptance level.
Is fluency the ability to speak fast? - Speed is a factor but it is by no means the only-or even the most important-one. Research suggests that pausing is equally important. Fluency: the features which give speech the qualities of being natural and normal, including native-like use pausing, rhythm, intonations, stress, rate of speaking, and use of interjections and interruptions.
Accuracy: the learners need to produce a message that is accurate enough in terms of word order, word endings, pronunciation, and so on for the listener to understand. Controlled activities generally focus on the learners producing language accurately, while less controlled activities focus on developing the learners‟ fluency.
In the classroom we need to get our learners to practice both production and interaction.1) Drillsa. Substitution drillsb. Transformation drillsc. Functional-situational drills2) Pair work and group work
3) Interactive activities:a. Information gap.b. Discussion activitiesc. Role playsd. Gamese. Informal interaction
Feedback: Learners need encouragement and they need to know when they are making mistakes that cause other people not to understand or misunderstand them. Correction: It is more difficult to decide when to correct. Teachers can choose to correct as soon as the mistake is made or at the end of the activity or class.
Brown and her colleagues found that prior experience as a listener helps speakers improve their performance as a speaker.There are two reasons for this findings:1. In the first place, being a listener gives learners models to deploy when acting as a speaker.2. And being a hearer helps the learner appreciate the difficulties inherent in the task.
Writing can act as a way of easing the transition from learning to using. Learners tend to rely on a very narrow repertoire of memorized expressions in face to face interaction.a. Dictationb. Paper conversationsc. Computer mediated chatd. Rewriting
InterviewsLive monologues Recorded monologues Role-plays Collaborative tasks and discussions
Practice makes if not perfect at leastfluent speaker, therefore speaking activities arethe fundamental for speaking. I can saywhoever knows speaking a language, it meansthey know the language, and vice-versa.
Florez, M. C. (1999, 06 00). Improving Adult English Language Learners Speaking Skills. Retrieved from Ericdigests.org: http://www.ericdigests.org/2000-3/adult.htm Harmer, J. (1998). How to Teach English. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Lindsay, C., & Knight, P. (2006). Learning and Teaching English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. New Oxford English Dictionary. (2012). Retrieved from www.oxforddictionaries.com: http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/speaking Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning. Boston: University of Hong Kong. Richards, J. C., Schmidt, R., Kindricks, H., & Kim, Y. (2002). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Ur, P. (2012). A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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