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David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities
 

David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities

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The presentation was part of the Brussels Development Briefing on the topic of fish-farming, organized by the Technical Centre for Agriculture (CTA), the European Commission, and the African, ...

The presentation was part of the Brussels Development Briefing on the topic of fish-farming, organized by the Technical Centre for Agriculture (CTA), the European Commission, and the African, Carribean, and Pacific (ACP) Secretariat on 3rd of July 2013 in Brussels.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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    David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities David Little: Overview of the significance of fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities Presentation Transcript

    • Brussels Development Briefing n.32 Fish-farming the new driver of the blue economy? 3rd July 2013 http://brusselsbriefings.net Overview of the significance of the fish- farming sector: challenges and opportunities. David Little, University of Stirling
    • EU FP7 Funded Project No. 222889 (2009-2013) Overview of the significance of the fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities African, Caribbean and Pacific -ACP- countries David Little Institute of Aquaculture University of Stirling
    • Farming in water Photo Trevor Telfer Photo Andrew Shinn
    • CTAs agenda • CTA is committed to sustainable development, increasing prosperity and improving the wellbeing of agricultural and rural populations in ACP countries in a cost- effective and environmentally friendly manner • Small-holders, sustainable intensification
    • Relative contribution of aquaculture and capture fisheries to food fish consumption Capture Aquaculture FAO, 2012
    • Overview of global fisheries, including aquaculture http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/jpg/0314- fishcatch-EN.jpg
    • Fish consumption in terms of protein http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/articl e176.html
    • Production intensity Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010
    • Contributions to the economy Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010
    • Sector growth Modified from FAO, 2012Mean data:2008-2010 compared to 2003-2005
    • Rapid transformation • From domestic demand to global trade • Led by shrimp but now being followed by white fish species, pangasius and tilapia • Exotic or local species? Source FAO, 2010, modified by Zhang et al, 2012 Shrimp and tilapia in China
    • Export or local? Belton et al, 2011
    • Seafood –Number 1 exported commodity from developing countries FAO, 2012
    • A story of cities and deltas… • Rapid growth of urban settlement • Increasing demand for animal source foods • Comparative change to aquatic food as a commodity……….. • Transformation of land and water use on deltas towards value-added products • Growth in national, regional and international trade
    • ..from production to consumption
    • Urbanisation PHOTO. P.EDWARDS Aquaculture has often developed and been sustained nearer high centres of population…..
    • Urban aquaculture -Africa Clarias, Abuja,Nigeria Photo AtandeTunde Tilapia, Lake Volta, Ghana Photo Will Leschen
    • Aquaculture development or aquaculture for development Belton and Little, 2011
    • Development and change • Immanent: on-going, undirected • Interventionist: intentional, externally inserted • Returns to ‘small-scale’ typically less than 10-15% of household income • But often multiple, complex benefits – -more than 70% of farming families identified more than ten benefits of rice-fish in NW Bangladesh (Haque et al, 2010) • Incremental rather than transformational • Complexity of social structure and market incentives • Rapid uptake of commercial aquaculture by entrepreneurs rather than farmers
    • Does size matter- ‘small-scale’ and poverty Belton, Haque and Little, 2012
    • Commodity aquaculture • ‘Small-scale’ as a term is often misleading and generally not comparable to a small-holder producing a staple crop • Maybe many benefits elsewhere in the value chain • Commodity-orientated aquaculture is not always intensive
    • Can export be compatible with local food security? Extensive ‘free-range’ shrimp ponds in Southwest Bangladesh
    • Local food chains and employment • Income from extensive ‘shrimp’ ponds in southeast Bangladesh less than half of income from shrimp • Employment gains for the poorest groups
    • Local fish for local people Photo:Susan Thompson– Inconsistent quality seed and feed often undermine sustainability post-intervention
    • Cage aquaculture Cage farming in Ghana • Crystal lakes- overseas investm • Local markets • Site limitations
    • Limited freshwater sites • Cages Lake Victoria Uganda • Access to sites, exclusion of other users? Photo Will Leschen
    • Challenges in attaining positive livelihood impacts • Aquatic animals in the diet-coastal, lake or delta living people • Markets-urbanisation, export (not just the West!) • Seed and hatchery • Feed and nutrient management • Markets • Governance • ….and broader development • Benefits not as producers but elsewhere in the value chain (employment, consumption)
    • ‘Local’ international markets • Regional trade within Asia and between Asia and elsewhere is growing faster than conventional South- North trade • Traditional trade between African states in dried, smoked fish
    • Input costs, output value FAO, 2012
    • Jamaica • Beginning in the 1940s • by the late 1990s, >500ha, 100 farms • >3000MT - 85% one company • significant exports Photo Janielle Wallace
    • 2007-8 • Loss of export markets • Focus on domestic but lack of competitiveness also • Post Hurricane damage interruptions in fry supply • Gradual contraction ; change from intensive to semi-intensive – Local price $4.50/ lb – Imported $2.10/ lb – Failure of ‘eat local tilapia’ campaign
    • Seed and feed Broodfish selection, Son hatchery Uganda Extruded feeds in Ghana, Raanan Feeds Photo Will Leschen
    • …not just fish and shellfish • Womens’ cooperative producing seaweed in Tanzania
    • Linking Asia and Africa
    • Examples of new projects • Development of insect larvae production to support high quality feed ingredients for fish and livestock production and off-set costs of sanitary waste disposal (Ghana) • Fisheries and aquaculture value chain development in Malawi and Uganda • Developing African Aquaculture Networks Towards Sustainable Innovation
    • SARNISSA-networking Visit www.sarnissa.org and sign up now
    • Thanks • CTA for the invitation • Will Leschen for African photographs • Neil Handisyde for graphics • Colleagues on the Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade project • www.seatglobal.eu • Contact me on dcl1@stir.ac.uk