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    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESSScience & Sports (2011) xxx, xxx—xxxORIGINAL ARTICLEEstimated aerobic power, muscular strength andflexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletesEstimation de la puissance aérobie, de la force musculaire et de lasouplesse chez des athlètes d’élite de Jiu-Jitsu brésiliensL. Vidal Andreato a,∗, S.M. Franzói de Moraes a, T. Lopes de Moraes Gomes a,J.V. Del Conti Esteves a, T. Vidal Andreato a, E. Franchini ba Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, University State of Maringá, Maringá, Brazilb Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research Group, Sport Department, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of SãoPaulo, São Paulo, BrazilReceived 22 June 2010; accepted 23 December 2010 KEYWORDS Summary Physical evaluation; Objective. — This study was designed to estimate the maximum oxygen uptake, muscular Physical fitness; strength and flexibility of elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. High performance Methods. — The sample consisted of eleven Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes (25.8 ± 3.3 years old) who were medallists at national and/or international competitions. The aerobic power was estimated by a treadmill test, according to the Bruce Protocol. The maximal isometric strength (hand, leg and back) was measured by specific dynamometric tests. We used sit-ups and push- ups to evaluate abdominal and upper limb strength endurance, respectively. We applied the sit-and-reach test to determine hip, back and posterior flexibility of the muscles of the lower limbs. Results. — We observed a VO2max of 49.4 ± 3.6 mL/kg per minute for the treadmill test. We observed measures of 43.7 ± 4.8 kgf for the right maximal isometric handgrip strength, 40.1 ± 3.8 kgf for the left maximal isometric handgrip strength, 185.5 ± 36.0 kgf for the maxi- mal isometric back strength and 154.3 ± 41.9 kgf for the maximal isometric leg strength. In the strength endurance test, the athletes performed 52 ± 7 repetitions in a 1-min sit-up test, and 40 ± 8 repetitions in the push-up test. In the sit-and-reach test, the athletes had an average score of 36 ± 9 cm. Conclusions. — The elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes had medium aerobic power and flexibility, excellent abdominal and upper body strength endurance and maximal isometric back strength. However, these athletes did not have high maximal isometric handgrip or leg strength. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. ∗ Corresponding author. E-mail address: vidal.leo@hotmail.com (L. Vidal Andreato).0765-1597/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015 Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESS2 L. Vidal Andreato et al. Résumé Objectif. — Cette étude visait à estimer la consommation maximale d’oxygène, la force MOTS CLÉS musculaire et la souplesse chez des athlètes d’élite de Jiu-Jitsu brésiliens. Évaluation physique ; Méthode. — L’échantillon était composé de onze athlètes de Jiu-Jitsu (âge : 25,8 ± 3,3 ans) Condition physique ; médaillés dans des compétitions au niveau national et/ou international. La puissance aérobie Haute performance a été estimée par le test sur tapis roulant selon le protocole de Bruce. La force maxi- male isométrique (à la main, jambes et dos) a été mesurée par des tests spécifiques au dynamomètre. Sit-ups et push-ups ont été utilisés respectivement afin d’évaluer la force des muscles abdominaux et des membres supérieurs. Souplesse de la hanche, du dos et des muscles des jambes ont été déterminés par le test de flexion du tron (sit-and-reach test). Résultats. — Le VO2max sur test sur tapis roulant est de 49,4 ± 3,6 mL/kg par minute. On observe des valeurs de 43,7 ± 4,8 kgf sur la poignée droite et de 40,1 ± 3,8 kgf pour la force à la poignée gauche, 185.5 ± 36,0 de force maximale isométrique kgf pour le dos, et 153 ± 41,9 kgf pour la force isométrique des jambes. Pour évaluer la résistance du muscle, les athlètes ont effectué 52 ± 7 répétitions de sit-ups, et 40 ± 8 répétitions de push-ups. Lors du test de flexion du dos, les athlètes ont obtenu un score moyen de 36 ± 9 cm. Conclusion. — Il a été constaté que les athlètes d’élite de Jiu-Jitsu brésiliens ont une puissance aérobie et une souplesse moyennes, une grande force abdominale, des membres supérieurs et une force isométrique maximale du dos. Cependant, ils n’ont pas une force maximale de préhension ainsi qu’au niveau des jambes. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.1. Introduction lete has to be able to hold the opponent’s uniform (gi) [6,10].Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a Brazilian sport that originated by Another relevant physical component of Brazilian Jiu-adapting techniques from traditional Japanese jujutsu, Jitsu is the flexibility, specifically in the trunk and hamstringswhich was used by samurai to defend the homeland and its that is required to perform specific movements. Good flex-feudal lords [1]. These adaptations occurred around 1920 ibility can facilitate the learning of motor gestures [11,12].[2]. Accordingly, Yoon [13] noted that flexibility levels could However, the rise of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu began with the differentiate the performances of combat athletes, andcreation of the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship in Rio de wrestlers with a higher competitive level have shown greaterJaneiro in 1996. The first eleven editions of this champi- flexibility compared with low-level wrestlers.onship took place in Rio de Janeiro. In 2007, the twelfth Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the levelsWorld Jiu-Jitsu Championship was held outside of Brazil for of aerobic power, strength endurance and flexibility of elitethe first time. This was a major achievement for the sport Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes.and was unavoidable due to the popularisation of BrazilianJiu-Jitsu [3]. Although Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu has acquired thousands of 2. Methodsfans, there have only been a few scientific studies designedto try to understand the physiological demands involved 2.1. Samplesin the sport [4—6]. The lack of knowledge results in anempirical character of the training prescription and planning The sample consisted of eleven elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu maleapplied to Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. athletes (25.8 ± 3.3 years old) who belonged to adult male To quantify mechanical work during the combat sports, categories and graduations of black and brown belts. To bethere are some limitations. Faced with this reality, the phys- part of this group, the athletes needed to be medallists atical abilities used in this kind of sport should be measured national and/or international competitions. These eleven[7]. The common perception in combat sports is that high athletes were divided into the following categories basedlevels of aerobic power and capacity allow athletes to main- on their weight:tain a high intensity throughout the match, delay H+ and Piaccumulation and have a better/faster recovery between • one was a feather weight (up to 67 kg);matches [8]. • four were light weights (73 kg); In addition to aerobic capacity, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu ath- • three were middle weights (79 kg);letes need high isometric strength endurance, which is used • two were heavy weights (up to 91 kg);to keep a good hold on an opponent and apply a sub- • one was a super heavy weight (up to 97 kg).mission technique [5]. Upper body isometric strength isimportant because the techniques generally involve extreme One athlete was excluded from the treadmill test, andcontact and do not provide space for dynamic move- two athletes were excluded from the back and leg dynamo-ments [9]. Handgrip strength endurance also seems to be metric tests. These athletes still participated in the otherimportant for good athletic performance, because the ath- tests and were only excluded from the tests mentioned Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESSEstimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 3because of injuries that prevented them from correctly per- Table 1 Physical fitness characteristics of elite Brazilianforming those specific tests. Jiu-Jitsu athletes (n = 11). Variable Mean SD Range2.2. Apparatus and procedures Anthropometric Body mass (kg) 83.1 8.7 71.6—99.8Before testing, the athletes were informed about the risks Height (cm) 180.1 6.5 172—191and benefits of research and signed their written informed BMI (kg/m2 ) 25.6 1.5 23.1—27.4consent. Subsequently, the data collection was conductedat the Exercise Physiology Laboratory (LABFISE) in Maringá VO2max (ml/kg/min)State University (UEM). The athletes were in the preparatory VO2max a 49.4 3.6 42.0—54.0period during the evaluation. Each athlete’s body mass was measured with the Isometric strength (kgf)Fillizola® scale with 0.1-kg precision, and height was deter- Right handgrip 43.7 4.8 34.0—53.0mined by a Seca® stadiometer with 0.1-cm precision. Body Left handgrip 40.1 3.8 32.0—45.0mass index (BMI) was calculated according to body mass and Back strengthb 185 36 126—248height measurements. Leg strengthb 154 41 96—230 Each athlete was monitored by electrocardiogram ERGOPC 13® , and the measurement of aerobic power was Isometric strength (kgf/kg)obtained by the treadmill test in an INBRASPORT CLAS- Right handgrip 0.53 0.08 0.39—0.70SIC I® treadmill. This test followed the Bruce Protocol Left handgrip 0.49 0.06 0.35—0.55using the prediction equation for active men [14]. To mea- Back strengthb 2.28 0.58 1.53—3.16sure the maximum isometric strength, athletes were tested Leg strengthb 1.91 0.65 1.16—3.21for maximal handgrip [15] using a Takei Kiki Kogyo® Gripdynamometer with 1-kg precision. This dynamometer was Resistance (repetitions/min)adjusted according to the size of the athlete’s hand. Three Push-ups 39 8 25—52nonsequential attempts were made for each hand, and the Sit-ups 52 7 42—64highest value was used as the measure of handgrip strength. The values of leg and back maximal isometric strength Flexibility (cm)[15] were determined using a Takei Kiki Kogyo® Back and Sit-and-reach test 35 8 22—52Leg Dynamometer with 1-kg precision. In these tests, theathletes performed three attempts, and the best score was BMI: body mass index; SD: standard deviation. a n = 10.considered in our analysis. b n = 9. The measurement of abdominal and upper limb strengthendurance was obtained by using one-minute sit-up andpush-up tests, respectively. The sit-and-reach test was usedto determine the hip, back and posterior flexibility of the For relative strength, the coefficient of variationlower limb muscles [16]. increased when compared to its absolute values: • right maximal isometric handgrip strength: 15.1%;2.3. Statistics • left maximal isometric handgrip strength: 12.8%; • maximal isometric back strength: 25.4%;The data were analysed with Excel® and presented as mean, • maximal isometric leg strength: 34%.standard deviation (SD) and range (minimum and maximumvalues). The coefficient of variation was also calculated. 4. Discussion3. Results The results demonstrated medium levels of VO2max [17] and flexibility and excellent values for abdominal and upperThe physical fitness characteristics of elite Brazilian Jiu- body strength endurance [18]. The maximal isometric backJitsu athletes are presented in Table 1. strength score was also high. However, the athletes did not For absolute performance variables, the following coef- have high values in either the right or left hand in the isomet-ficient of variations were observed: ric handgrip test, and they also presented low maximal leg isometric strength score. The classifications on dynamome- ter tests were compared with data from athletes in similar• estimated VO2max : 7.3%; events.• right maximal isometric handgrip strength: 11%; It is difficult to analyse data from Brazilian Jiu-• left maximal isometric handgrip strength: 9.5%; Jitsu athletes because there are few studies involv-• maximal isometric back strength: 19.4%; maximal isomet- ing the sport. Because there are not many studies ric leg strength: 27.2%; on Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu to compare with the results of• push-ups: 20%; sit-ups: 13.5%; the present study, we used results of similar sports,• push-ups: 22.9%. such as wrestling, judo and jujutsu. Table 2 presents Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESS4 L. Vidal Andreato et al. Table 2 VO2max of athletes from different grappling combat sports. References Athletes n Age (years) Body mass (kg) Franchini et al. Members of Brazilian judo 7 25.6 ± 4.0 90.6 ± 23.8 [19] team Reserves of Brazilian judo 15 25.5 ± 4.6 86.5 ± 16.3 team Franchini et al. Brazilian judo athletes; 15 22.8 ± 3.4 81.6 ± 18.7 [20] national and international levels State level 31 19.2 ± 4.5 70.4 ± 14.7 Franchini et al. Brazilian judo athletes; 5 22.3 ± 3.6 74.4 ± 18.0 [21] national and international levels Thomas et al. [22] Canadian judo Team 22 24 ± 4 75.4 ± 12.3 Degoutte et al. Regional level French Judo 16 18.4 ± 1.6 74.9 ± 4.7 [23] athletes Callister et al. [24] USA judo athletes 18 24.4 ± 0.9 83.1 ± 3.8 Horswill et al. [25] Elite junior wrestlers 18 17.0 ± 0.2 63.1 ± 2.9 Horswill et al. [26] Elite USA wrestlers 14 25.6 ± 3.3 68.9 ± 17.9 Little [27] Junior judo athletes 9 17.3 ± 0.8 67.2 ± 7.2 Senior judo athletes 17 26.0 ± 5.3 79.3 ± 14.6 Sbriccoli et al. Italian olympic judo 6 26.0 ± 3.8 109.0 ± 29.3 [28] athletes (2004) References Athletes VO2max (ml/kg/min) Test Period Franchini et al. Members of Brazilian judo 48.3 ± 8.1 Cooper Test CP [19] team Reserves of Brazilian judo 49.6 ± 5.5 Cooper Test CP team Franchini et al. Brazilian judo athletes; 58.1 ± 10.8 Treadmill (DM) CP [20] national and international levels State level 63.3 ± 10.6 Treadmill (DM) CP Franchini et al. Brazilian judo athletes; 63.0 ± 10.3 Treadmill CP [21] national and international levels Thomas et al. [22] Canadian judo Team 59.2 ± 5.2 Treadmill CP Degoutte et al. Regional level French Judo 55.0 ± 2.9 Bicycle (DM) NR [23] athletes Callister et al. [24] USA judo athletes 55.6 ± 1.8 Treadmill (DM) CP Horswill et al. [25] Elite junior wrestlers 52.6 ± 2.0 Treadmill (DM) CP Horswill et al. [26] Elite USA wrestlers 50.9 ± 5.1 Treadmill (DM) P Little [27] Junior judo athletes 59.3 ± 4.0 Treadmill (DM) P Senior judo athletes 53.8 ± 5.6 Treadmill (DM) P Sbriccoli et al. Italian olympic judo 47.3 ± 10.9 Treadmill (DM) P [28] athletes (2004) CP: competitive period; P: preparatory; DM: direct measurement.values for VO2max of athletes from different combat [20—24,27] and wrestlers [25]. Interestingly, they showedsports. much lower values when compared to state-level Brazilian In this study, the estimated aerobic power could be con- judo athletes (n = 31; 62.3 ± 10.6 ml/kg per minute) [20].sidered medium according to the American College Sports The results of the present study were similar to the resultsMedicine (ACSM)[17]. However, the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu ath- reported by Franchini et al. [19] with Brazilian judo teamletes showed lower values compared with judo athletes members and reserves. In addition, our findings were simi- Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESSEstimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 5 Table 3 Maximal isometric handgrip strength in athletes from different grappling combat sports. References Athletes n Age (years) Body mass (kg) Oliveira et al. [10] Brown belt and black belt Brazilian 21 23.9 ± 2.4a NR Jiu-Jitsu Blue belt and purple belt Brazilian 29 23.9 ± 2.4a NR Jiu-Jitsu Franchini et al. [35] Black belt Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 8 25 ± 3 80.5 ± 13.6 Franchini et al. [6] Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 22 24.5 ± 5.8 76.7 ± 11.2 Franchini et al. [36] Brazilian University judo Team 6 22.9 ± 1.9 86.9 ± 34.4 Franchini et al. [20] Elite Brazilian judo athletes 26 22.8 ± 3.4 81.6 ± 18.7 Non-elite Brazilian judo athletes 66 19.2 ± 4.5 70.4 ± 14.7 Meloni et al. [37] Brazilian judo athletes (until 73 kg) 26 23.2 ± 3.2b 63.4 ± 6.2 Brazilian judo athletes (more than73 20 23.2 ± 3.2b 95.9 ± 13.0 kg) Franchini et al. [38] Cadets judo athletes 8 15.6 ± 1.0 64.0 ± 5.6 Little [27] Junior judo athletes 9 17.3 ± 0.8 67.2 ± 7.2 Senior judo athletes 17 26.0 ± 5.3 79.3 ± 14.6 Thomas et al. [22] Canadian judo team 22 24 ± 4 75.4 ± 12.3 Arabaci; Cankaya [39] ¸ Junior wrestlers 10 18.3 ± 0.7 73.1 ± 10.4 Junior wrestlers (CG) 10 18.5 ± 0.7 70.0 ± 9.7 References RHG (kgf) LHG (kgf) Period Dynamometer Oliveira et al. [10] 51.2 ± 10.7 48.2 ± 10.3 CP Jamar 49.6 ± 8.2 46.2 ± 8.2 CP Jamar Franchini et al. [35] 58.8 ± 11.7c — NR Jamar Franchini et al. [6] 54.2 ± 6.7 51.4 ± 6.1 NR Jamar Franchini et al. [36] 49.5 ± 12.8 47.2 ± 12.4 P Takey Kogyo Franchini et al. [20] 51 ± 10 49 ± 10 CP Takey Kogyo 42 ± 11 40 ± 10 CP Takey Kogyo Meloni et al. [37] 50.5 ± 9.4 47.8 ± 8.8 CP NR 55.9 ± 7.6 55.7 ± 8.1 CP NR Franchini et al. [38] 38.3 ± 6.0 46.8 ± 6.6 P Takey Kogyo Little [27] 52.0 ± 8.3 50.6 ± 8.4 P NR 57.7 ± 9.0 54.0 ± 10.4 P — Thomas et al. [22] 56.4 ± 6.6 55.7 ± 6.6 CP Harpen British Arabaci; Cankaya [39] ¸ 54.4 ± 5.6 53.5 ± 7.5 P NR 46.5 ± 4.3 45.2 ± 6.5 P NR CP: competitive period; P: preparatory; CG: control group; NR: not reported; RHG: right handgrip; LHG: left handgrip. a mean age considering athletes from all belt ranks. b mean age considering all athletes c dominant hand. Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESS6 L. Vidal Andreato et al. Table 4 Maximal isometric back strength of athletes from different grappling combat sports. References Athletes n Age (years) Body mass (kg) Meloni et al. [37] Brazilian judo athletes 26 23.2 ± 3.2a 63.4 ± 6.2 (until 73 kg) Brazilian judo athletes 20 23.2 ± 3.2a 95.9 ± 13.0 (more than 73 kg) Franchini et al. [36] Brazilian University 6 22.9 ± 1.9 86.9 ± 34.4 judo team Franchini et al. [38] Cadet judo athletes 8 15.6 ± 1.0 64.0 ± 5.6 Cadet judo athletes 8 15.6 ± 1.0 66.6 ± 6.3 Little [27] Junior judo athletes 9 17.3 ± 0.8 67.2 ± 7.2 Senior judo athletes 17 26.0 ± 5.3 79.3 ± 14.6 Mansilla et al. [40] Spanish judo athletes 28 NR NR Arabaci; Cankaya [39] ¸ Juniors wrestlers 10 18.3 ± 0.7 73.1 ± 10.4 Juniors wrestlers (CG) 10 18.5 ± 0.7 70.0 ± 9.7 Brito et al. [41] Brazilian University 15 22.1 ± 2.1 78.4 ± 8.9 judo athletes References Athletes Back Strength (kgf) Period Dynamometer Meloni et al. [37] Brazilian judo athletes 129.9 ± 23.2 CP NR (until 73 kg) Brazilian judo athletes 161.8 ± 28.6 CP NR (more than 73 kg) Franchini et al. [36] Brazilian University 143.7 ± 23.4 P Takei Kiki Kogyo judo team Franchini et al. [38] Cadet judo athletes 130.0 ± 26.0 P Katros Cadet judo athletes 151.0 ± 20.0 CP Katros Little [27] Junior judo athletes 120.5 ± 20.6 P NR Senior judo athletes 122.3 ± 32.3 P NR Mansilla et al. [40] Spanish judo athletes 165.2 ± 3.9 NR NR Arabaci; Cankaya [39] ¸ Juniors wrestlers 149.5 ± 19.9 P NR Juniors wrestlers (CG) 127.0 ± 16.2 P NR Brito et al. [41] Brazilian University 172.1 ± 30.3 P Medical Hibérica judo athletes CP: competitive period; P: preparatory; CG: control group. a mean age considering all athletes.lar to the results observed by Horswill et al. [26] with elite intensity followed by brief recovery periods are more effec-USA wrestlers and by Sbriccoli et al. [28] with Italian Olympic tive for developing aerobic power compared with continuousjudo athletes. efforts [33]. Furthermore, these short intervals are insuf- The higher values of aerobic power found in judo ath- ficient for the re-synthesis of creatine phosphate, whichletes and wrestlers can be explained by the fact that causes the activation of the lactic anaerobic system in thematches between black belt Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes last beginning of the match and the aerobic system in the final10 minutes whereas judo and wrestling matches are gener- stage [34].ally less than six minutes (unless they go into extra time). For Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu beyond aerobic power, other rel-Indeed, longer matches result in a lower expected VO2max evant aspect to be analysed is the muscular strength,(aerobic power) and higher anaerobic threshold (aerobic specially the isometric strength. In this aspect, the Table 3capacity) values [29,30]. presents values of maximal isometric handgrip strength of The typical Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu match comprises periods of athletes from different combat sports.170 s of activity (groundwork: 146 ± 119 s; standing combat: Maximal isometric right handgrip (RHG) and left hand-25 ± 17 s) followed by 13 ± 6 s intervals [5]. In judo, this grip strength (LHG) results were lower than previous resultsproportion is about 18 ± 9 s of activity separated by approx- reported in Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes [6,10,20] and judoimately 12 ± 4 s intervals [31], and wrestling averages about athletes [20,22,27,35,37], but they were similar to results37 ± 10 s of activity separated by 14 ± 6 s intervals [32]. reported in junior wrestlers [39], cadets judo athletes [38]These statistics may also explain the differences in aerobic and non-elite judo athletes [20]. These results suggestedpower, and it has been suggested that short efforts of high that Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes do not have high maximal Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESSEstimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 7 Table 5 Endurance strength of athletes from different grappling combat sports. Test References Athletes n Age (years) Sit-ups Franchini [42] Brazilian University judo team 5 NR Taylor; Brassard [43] Canadian judo team 19 22 ± 3 Krstulovi´ et al. [44] c Croatian junior judo athletes 40 17 ± 5 Bratic et al. [45] Elite cadet judo athletes 20 NR Push-ups Franchini [42] Brazilian University judo team 5 NR Taylor; Brassard [43] Canadian judo team 19 22 ± 3 Krstulovi´ et al. [44] c Croatian junior judo athletes 40 17 ± 5 Bratic et al. [45] Elite cadet judo athletes 20 NR Mirzaei et al. [46] Elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers 70 19.8 ± 0.9 Mirzaei; Mansour [47] Iranian senior freestyle wrestlers 73 24.4 ± 2.6 Sertic et al. [48] Elite Croatian judo athletes 6 20.7 ± 3.2 Sterkowicz-Przybycien [49] Polish Ju-jitsu coaches 14 35.6 ± 9 Test References Body mass (kg) Repetitions Period Sit-ups Franchini [42] NR 49 ± 3 NR Taylor; Brassard [43] 80.2 ± 14.9 48 ± 10 P Krstulovi´ et al. [44] c 76.9 ± 13.3 42 ± 12 P Bratic et al. [45] NR 36 ± 4 NR Push-ups Franchini [42] NR 45 ± 4 NR Taylor; Brassard [43] 80.2 ± 14.9 72 ± 16 P Krstulovi´ et al. [44] c 76.9 ± 13.3 56 ± 8 P Bratic et al. [45] NR 40 ± 8 NR Mirzaei et al. [46] 77.5 ± 19.8 67 ± 8 P Mirzaei; Mansour [47] 79.9 ± 18.4 36 ± 11 P Sertic et al. [48] NR 58 ± 6 NR Sterkowicz-Przybycien [49] 72.3 ± 13.7 29 ± 14 P P: preparatory; CP: competitive period; NR: not reported. Table 6 Flexibility in athletes from different grappling combat sports. References Athletes n Age (years) Body mass (kg) Flexibility (cm) Period Pertence et al. [4] Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners 20 18—30 NR 34 NR Del Vecchio et al. [5] High-level Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 7 25.3 ± 2.9 78.9 ± 12.2 43 ± 3 NR Mota et al. [50] Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes 30 20—29 NR 32 ± 9 NR Sertic et al. [48] Elite Croatian judo athletes 6 20.7 ± 3.2 NR 14 ± 9 NR Franchini [42] Brazilian University judo team 5 NR NR 36 ± 5 NR Meloni et al. [37] Brazilian judo athletes (until 73 kg) 26 23.2 ± 3.2 a 63.4 ± 6.2 32 ± 7 CP Brazilian judo athletes (more than 73 kg) 20 23.2 ± 3.2a 95.9 ± 13.0 26 ± 7 CP Thomas et al. [22] Canadian judo team 22 24 ± 4 75.4 ± 12.3 43 ± 6 CP Belgian judo athletes 24 21.9 74.3 31 NR Little [27] Junior judo athletes 9 17.3 ± 0.8 67.2 ± 7.2 39 ± 4 P Senior judo athletes 17 26.0 ± 5.3 79.3 ± 14.6 38 ± 9 P Mansilla et al. [40] Spanish judo athletes 28 NR NR 13 ± 1 NR Arabaci; Cankaya [39] ¸ Juniors wrestlers 10 18.3 ± 0.7 73.1 ± 10.4 18 ± 4 P Juniors Wrestlers (CG) 10 18.5 ± 0.7 70.0 ± 9.7 13 ± 4 P CP: competitive period; P: preparatory; NR: not reported; CG: control group. a mean age considering all athletes. Please cite this article in press as: Vidal Andreato L, et al. Estimated aerobic power, muscular strength and flexibility in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes. Sci sports (2011), doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.12.015
    • +ModelSCISPO-2587; No. of Pages 9 ARTICLE IN PRESS8 L. Vidal Andreato et al.isometric handgrip strength. This result corroborated the judo athletes [27]. Thus, the results indicated that Brazil-findings of Franchini et al. [6] and Oliveira et al. [10], which ian Jiu-Jitsu athletes had above average flexibility of thereported that Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes did not have high hips, back and posterior muscles of the lower limbs, but themaximal isometric strength but were able to maintain cons- results were still lower than other athletes from this sport.tant levels of strength throughout combat. This indicated These results could limit performance in the struggles ofthe need for muscle strength endurance in the muscles Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu because a good range of motion of theseresponsible for the grip on the gi. Additionally, the lower joints and muscles are needed in some positions [11].maximal isometric handgrip strength in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsuathletes compared with judo athletes may be due to the type 5. Conclusionof grappling adopted in judo combat. Indeed, judo combatrequires more maintenance of force during the match, which The results of this study allow us to conclude thatresults in a greater development of maximal isometric hand- elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes have good aerobic power,grip in judo athletes [6]. medium flexibility, excellent maximal isometric back Besides the isometric strength, other capacity involved strength, excellent abdominal and upper body strengthin this sport is the strength back. In this aspect, the Table 4 endurance, and poor values of both maximal isometric hand-presents values from maximal isometric back strength of grip and leg strength.athletes from different grappling combat sports. The athletes in this study had a greater maximalisometric back strength in comparison with other stud- Disclosure of interesties involving judo athletes [27,36,37,40,41] and juniorwrestlers [39]. The results indicated that Brazilian Jiu- None.Jitsu elite athletes have developed maximal isometric backstrength, which may be a requirement for success in thissport. References The results established by the dynamometry test for max-imal isometric leg strength showed that the sample had good [1] Andreato LV, Silva ADC, Gomes TLM, Esteves JVDC, Andreato TV. A história do brazilian jiu-jitsu. Lecturas Educación Físicalower limb strength, but it was lower than the findings by y Deportes 2010;14(142). www.efdeportes.com/efd142/a-Franchini et al. [36] (n = 6; 190 ± 62 kg) in judo athletes from historia-do-brazilian-jiu-jitsu.htm (accessed on 15.05.2010).the Brazilian University team and the results of the Brazilian [2] Gracie R, Gracie C. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu: theory and technique.juvenile judo athletes (n = 8; 161 ± 10 kg) [38]. With kid Peligro. Montpelier, Vermon: Invisible Cities Press; Although the isometric force is very important to physi- 2000.cal performance in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, muscular endurance [3] International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation (IBJJF). The his-is also presented in this kind of fight. Therefore, Table 5 tory of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. www.ibjjf.org/jjh.htm (accessed onpresents values for endurance strength of athletes from dif- 15.05.2010).ferent grappling combat sports. [4] Pertence LC, Filho MLF, Souza GF, Venturini GRO, Matos The Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu elite athletes were rated as excel- DG. A flexibilidade da articulacão do quadril em atle- ¸ tas que praticam Jiu Jitsu. Lecturas Educación Físicalent [18] for the abdominal strength endurance during the y Deportes 2009;(14)139. www.efdeportes.com/efd139/a-1-min sit-up test, which exceeded the values for judo ath- flexibilidade-em-atletas-que-praticam-jiu-jitsu.htm (accessedletes [42—45]. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that on 15.05.2010).Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes have high abdominal strength [5] Del Vecchio FB, Bianchi S, Hirata SM, Chacon-Mikahili MPT.endurance, which indicates a high demand of these muscles Análise morfo-funcional de praticantes de brazilian jiu-jitsu ein this sport. estudo da temporalidade e da quantificacão das acões motoras ¸ ¸ The Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes received an excellent na modalidade. Movimento e Percepcão 2007;(7)10:263—81. ¸classification index in the push-up test [18]. This rating was [6] Franchini E, Takito MY, Pereira JNDC. 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