Discuss in groups of 3-4 people. A variety show: essentially pleasing and involves mixed, stimulating components; if you choose it you see variety and enjoyment as key factors in a lesson. You probably see the learners as na audience to be motivated and stimulated Climbing montain is essentially a challenge. The corresponding lesson involves, therefore, na investment of effort on the part of the learners and teacher. It may not be pleasurable while in progress, but provides rewards in the form of successful achievement of the aim. Eating a meal is like the lesson is seen basically as the performance of some important or necessary function, combined with some feelings of satisfaction or pleasure A wedding is a largely ritual, though meaninful, event. The corresponding lesson is therefore to some extent structures, with certain set routines and conventions. A menu, in contrast, involves choice and flexibility, not so much concerned with the outcomes If you chose conversation, you probably see the lesson as a rather informal social event, where what is important is communication, and the formation and maintenance of good relationships between the participants Doing the shopping is the sucessful performance of a series of necessary business transactions, where the shopper has usually pre-planned a list of things to do and an itinerary. A football game, like montain climbing, involves the investment of effort in order to achieve a defined aim, but the effort is made as a team If you ssee a lesson as a symphony, then what interests you perhaps is the aspect of aesthetic variation and order – the combination of different aspects to make a full and balanced programme If the lesson is seen as a consultation with a doctor implies a certain relationship between the teacher and the learner where the teacher has the authority and takes most of the responsibility and initiciative, and the student is mainly receptive.
Let’s talk about the plan itself - ACTIVITY
1. Why do I want to teach the class this way?
Who exactly are the students for this activity?
How will it fit? What comes before and after?
Material, engaging, attentive, enjoyed, active, according to plan, communicatively
4. Learners’ attention is at a low ebb
A written plan is evidence that you have done thinking. It can also serve as a useful in-lesson reminder to you of your pre-lesson teaching. As a general rule: prepare, but in class, teach the learners, not the plan!
The effective lesson plan:
a proposal for action
Martins Fontes, São Paulo - Brazil
January 24, 2014.
Which of the metaphors expresses best, in
your opinion, the essence of a lesson?
Watch part of the movie ‘Bad Teacher’ and
∗ The teacher’s planning of the class
∗ The activity she proposed
∗ Her attitude in general
“ If you don’t know where you’re going, any
road will get you there”
(rephrased from Alice in Wonderland – chapter 6)
What is the use of planning lessons?
“The success with which a teacher conducts a lesson is often
thought to depend on the effectiveness with which the lesson
– Richards, 1998.
Questions on lesson preparation
∗ How long before a specific lesson do you prepare it?
∗ Do you write down notes to guide you? Or do you rely on a lesson
∗ If so, are these notes brief (a single page or less) or long (more than
∗ What do they consist of?
∗ Do you note down your objectives?
∗ Do you actually look at your notes during the class? If so, rarely?
∗ What do you do with your lessons notes after the class?
Considerations when planning a lesson
How many separate activities will there be?
Where will I stand or sit?
What do learners need?
What skills will learners be working on?
How will I control timing?
What are some of the things that could cause difficulties or go
∗ How am I going to deal with mistakes?
∗ Is there going to be variety of activities in the lesson?
∗ How do the lesson aims fit with longer-term goals?
∗ What do they know already?
Writing a lesson plan:a template
The outcomes I am trying to achieve.
By the end of the lesson students will be better able to listen and understand
consultations with difficult patients as well as to use spoken strategies in
order to deal with challenging patients by means of encouraging a
withdrawn patient to speak and calming an aggressive or angry patient.
To get students to interact better with each other. The class is subdivided into
two groups because (…)
2. Class profile
A class description which tells us who the students are, and what can
be expected of them.
The group is composed of 6 students. They are all sophomores at
medical school and their age ranges from 20-22 years old. They have
studied English at different schools and for different periods of time.
They are taking this course (Medical English for Advanced Students) in
order to learn medical vocabulary as well as how to deal with patients
in English in case they need to see a foreigner which sometimes
It is saying what we assume students can do.
Students have worked with the third conditional (would have
done), then they will have little trouble with the grammar of
should have done. They will be able to think of things (...)
4. Skill and language focus
The language and skills students are going to be focusing on.
Skills: Listening and Speaking
Language: Vocabulary concerning body language, emotions, and
states of mind
5. Timetable Fit
It is where the lesson fits in a sequence of lessons.
In the lesson from the coursebook called “Special Examinations”,
students have learned how to conduct a consultation when the
patient is a child and when the patient is elderly. In this class,
they will learn another kind of special examination: when the
patient, from any age, is challenging.
6. Anticipated problems and possible solutions
A good plan tries to predict potential pitfalls and suggest ways of
dealing with them.
As my students are in the second year of college, they still do not have
much contact with patients. Therefore, it might be difficult for them to
imagine that a patient might not speak. They expect to find patients
who are straightforward, which is not always the reality. In order to
establish the context, I will use cards in which the role of the difficult
patient is very well described so that the student will not need too much
imagination to act it out. (…)
7. Success Indicators
Both teacher and students can evaluate if the lesson
aims/objectives have been achieved.
I will have evidence the objective of this lesson has been
achieved if, by the end of the lesson, students show, in the
last activity, they are ready to use the suitable questions
and comments in order to encourage a challenging patient
to cooperate with the examination.
Teacher shows a Power
Point presentation with
“What kind of patients
might a doctor have
difficulty dealing with?”
Students discuss in pairs
for two minutes.(…)
How successful a lesson was?
Put the criteria in order of priority.
The learners were active all the time
The learners were attentive all the time
The learners enjoyed the lesson, were motivated
The class seemed to be learning the material well
The lesson went according to plan
The language was used communicatively throughout
The learners were engaging with the foreign language
General Guidelines – Discuss
1. How far do you agree with these guidelines?
2. Are they appropriate for your own teaching context as they stand,
or would you with to omit, add to or change any of them?
Put the harder tasks earlier
Have quieter activities before lively ones
Think about transitions
Pull the class together at the beginning and at the end
End on a positive note.
Hints for lesson management
∗ Prepare more than you need
∗ Note in advance which components of the lesson you will
sacrifice if you find yourself with too little time
∗ Keep a watch or clock easily visible
∗ Do not leave the giving of homework to the last minute
∗ If you are doing group work, give instructions and make sure
these are understood before dividing into groups
Do I have to write a detailed plan
for every class I teach?
The lesson plan as a proposal for action
∗ Never think of it as a set of instructions to be slavishly followed
∗ Consider the paradox of lesson planning
- Magic Moments
- Sensible Diversion
- Unforeseen problems
∗ Harmer, Jeremy. How To Teach English. Essex: Pearson Education
∗ Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching.
Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2007.
∗ Richards, Jack.; Farrel, Thomas. Practice Teaching – A Reflective
Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
∗ Scrivener, Jim. Learning Teaching. Oxford: Macmillan Education,
∗ Ur, Penny. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1991.