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  • 1. JZ-Y8F200W-02 Y8F200W AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation June 30, 2012
  • 2. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL ROR 1/(2 Blank) June 30, 2012 RECORD OF REVISIONS REV. NO. REV. DATE INSERTION REV. NO. REV. DATE INSERTION DATE BY DATE BY
  • 3. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL ROR 2 June 30, 2012 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
  • 4. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL ROTR 1/(2 Blank) June 30, 2012 RECORD OF TEMPORARY REVISIONS TEMPORARY REV. INSERTION DELETION REV. NO. PAGE NO. DATE ISSUED DATE BY DATE REV. NO. BY
  • 5. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL ROTR 2 June 30, 2012 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
  • 6. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOSB 1/(2 Blank) June 30, 2012 TABLE OF SERVICE BULLETINS BULLETIN NO. AMEND. MARKS DATE DESCRIPTION
  • 7. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOSB 2 June 30, 2012 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
  • 8. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 1 Jun. 30, 2012 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IS 748, CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE Title Page T-1 Jun. 30, 2012 Record of Revisions ROR-1 Jun. 30, 2012 ROR-2(Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 Record of ROR-1 Jun. 30, 2012 Temporary Revisions ROR-2(Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 Table of Service TOSB-1 Jun. 30, 2012 Bulletins TOSB-2(Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 List of Effective LEP 1 Jun. 30, 2012 Pages LEP 2(Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 Contents 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 Section 1 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14(Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 Section 2 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 17 Jun. 30, 2012 18 Jun. 30, 2012 Section 3 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 17 Jun. 30, 2012 18 Jun. 30, 2012 19 Jun. 30, 2012 20 Jun. 30, 2012 21 Jun. 30, 2012 22 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 9. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 2 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 23 Jun. 30, 2012 24 Jun. 30, 2012 25 Jun. 30, 2012 26 Jun. 30, 2012 27 Jun. 30, 2012 28 Jun. 30, 2012 29 Jun. 30, 2012 30 Jun. 30, 2012 31 Jun. 30, 2012 32 Jun. 30, 2012 Section 4 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 17 Jun. 30, 2012 18 Jun. 30, 2012 19 Jun. 30, 2012 20 Jun. 30, 2012 21 Jun. 30, 2012 22 Jun. 30, 2012 23 Jun. 30, 2012 24 Jun. 30, 2012 25 Jun. 30, 2012 26 Jun. 30, 2012 27 Jun. 30, 2012 28 Jun. 30, 2012 29 Jun. 30, 2012 30 Jun. 30, 2012 31 Jun. 30, 2012 32 Jun. 30, 2012 33 Jun. 30, 2012 34 Jun. 30, 2012 35 Jun. 30, 2012 36 Jun. 30, 2012 37 Jun. 30, 2012 38 Jun. 30, 2012 39 Jun. 30, 2012 40 Jun. 30, 2012 41 Jun. 30, 2012 42 Jun. 30, 2012 43 Jun. 30, 2012 44 Jun. 30, 2012 45 Jun. 30, 2012 46 Jun. 30, 2012 47 Jun. 30, 2012 48 Jun. 30, 2012 49 Jun. 30, 2012 50 Jun. 30, 2012 51 Jun. 30, 2012 52 Jun. 30, 2012 53 Jun. 30, 2012 54 Jun. 30, 2012 55 Jun. 30, 2012 56 Jun. 30, 2012 57 Jun. 30, 2012 58 Jun. 30, 2012 59 Jun. 30, 2012 60 Jun. 30, 2012 61 Jun. 30, 2012 62 Jun. 30, 2012 63 Jun. 30, 2012 64 Jun. 30, 2012 65 Jun. 30, 2012 66 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 10. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 3 Jun. 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 67 Jun. 30, 2012 68 Jun. 30, 2012 69 Jun. 30, 2012 70 Jun. 30, 2012 71 Jun. 30, 2012 72 Jun. 30, 2012 73 Jun. 30, 2012 74 Jun. 30, 2012 75 Jun. 30, 2012 76 Jun. 30, 2012 77 Jun. 30, 2012 78 Jun. 30, 2012 79 Jun. 30, 2012 80 Jun. 30, 2012 81 Jun. 30, 2012 82 Jun. 30, 2012 83 Jun. 30, 2012 84 Jun. 30, 2012 85 Jun. 30, 2012 86 Jun. 30, 2012 87 Jun. 30, 2012 88 Jun. 30, 2012 89 Jun. 30, 2012 90 Jun. 30, 2012 91 Jun. 30, 2012 92 Jun. 30, 2012 93 Jun. 30, 2012 94 Jun. 30, 2012 95 Jun. 30, 2012 96 Jun. 30, 2012 97 Jun. 30, 2012 98 Jun. 30, 2012 99 Jun. 30, 2012 100 Jun. 30, 2012 101 Jun. 30, 2012 102 Jun. 30, 2012 103 Jun. 30, 2012 104 Jun. 30, 2012 105 Jun. 30, 2012 106 Jun. 30, 2012 107 Jun. 30, 2012 108 Jun. 30, 2012 109 Jun. 30, 2012 110 Jun. 30, 2012 111 Jun. 30, 2012 112 Jun. 30, 2012 113 Jun. 30, 2012 114 Jun. 30, 2012 115 Jun. 30, 2012 116 Jun. 30, 2012 117 Jun. 30, 2012 118 Jun. 30, 2012 119 Jun. 30, 2012 120 Jun. 30, 2012 121 Jun. 30, 2012 122 Jun. 30, 2012 123 Jun. 30, 2012 124 Jun. 30, 2012 125 Jun. 30, 2012 126 Jun. 30, 2012 127 Jun. 30, 2012 128 Jun. 30, 2012 129 Jun. 30, 2012 130 Jun. 30, 2012 131 Jun. 30, 2012 132 Jun. 30, 2012 133 Jun. 30, 2012 134 Jun. 30, 2012 135 Jun. 30, 2012 136 Jun. 30, 2012 137 Jun. 30, 2012 138 Jun. 30, 2012 139 Jun. 30, 2012 140 Jun. 30, 2012 141 Jun. 30, 2012 142 Jun. 30, 2012 143 Jun. 30, 2012 144 Jun. 30, 2012 145 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 11. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 4 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 146 Jun. 30, 2012 147 Jun. 30, 2012 148 Jun. 30, 2012 149 Jun. 30, 2012 150 Jun. 30, 2012 151 Jun. 30, 2012 152 Jun. 30, 2012 153 Jun. 30, 2012 154 Jun. 30, 2012 155 Jun. 30, 2012 156 Jun. 30, 2012 157 Jun. 30, 2012 158 Jun. 30, 2012 159 Jun. 30, 2012 160 Jun. 30, 2012 161 Jun. 30, 2012 162 Jun. 30, 2012 Section 5 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 17 Jun. 30, 2012 18 Jun. 30, 2012 19 Jun. 30, 2012 20 Jun. 30, 2012 21 Jun. 30, 2012 22 Jun. 30, 2012 23 Jun. 30, 2012 24 Jun. 30, 2012 25 Jun. 30, 2012 26 Jun. 30, 2012 27 Jun. 30, 2012 28 Jun. 30, 2012 29 Jun. 30, 2012 30 Jun. 30, 2012 31 Jun. 30, 2012 32 Jun. 30, 2012 33 Jun. 30, 2012 34 Jun. 30, 2012 35 Jun. 30, 2012 36 Jun. 30, 2012 37 Jun. 30, 2012 38 Jun. 30, 2012 39 Jun. 30, 2012 40 Jun. 30, 2012 Section 6 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 17 Jun. 30, 2012 18 Jun. 30, 2012 19 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 12. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 5 Jun. 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 20 Jun. 30, 2012 21 Jun. 30, 2012 22 Jun. 30, 2012 23 Jun. 30, 2012 24 Jun. 30, 2012 25 Jun. 30, 2012 26 Jun. 30, 2012 27 Jun. 30, 2012 28 Jun. 30, 2012 29 Jun. 30, 2012 30 Jun. 30, 2012 31 Jun. 30, 2012 32 Jun. 30, 2012 33 Jun. 30, 2012 34 Jun. 30, 2012 35 Jun. 30, 2012 36 Jun. 30, 2012 37 Jun. 30, 2012 38 Jun. 30, 2012 39 Jun. 30, 2012 40 Jun. 30, 2012 41 Jun. 30, 2012 42 Jun. 30, 2012 43 Jun. 30, 2012 44 Jun. 30, 2012 45 Jun. 30, 2012 46 Jun. 30, 2012 47 Jun. 30, 2012 48 Jun. 30, 2012 49 Jun. 30, 2012 50 Jun. 30, 2012 51 Jun. 30, 2012 52 Jun. 30, 2012 53 Jun. 30, 2012 54 Jun. 30, 2012 55 Jun. 30, 2012 56 Jun. 30, 2012 57 Jun. 30, 2012 58 Jun. 30, 2012 59 Jun. 30, 2012 60 Jun. 30, 2012 61 Jun. 30, 2012 62 Jun. 30, 2012 63 Jun. 30, 2012 64 Jun. 30, 2012 65 Jun. 30, 2012 66 Jun. 30, 2012 67 Jun. 30, 2012 68 Jun. 30, 2012 69 Jun. 30, 2012 70 Jun. 30, 2012 71 Jun. 30, 2012 72 Jun. 30, 2012 73 Jun. 30, 2012 74 Jun. 30, 2012 75 Jun. 30, 2012 76 Jun. 30, 2012 77 Jun. 30, 2012 78 Jun. 30, 2012 79 Jun. 30, 2012 80 Jun. 30, 2012 81 Jun. 30, 2012 82 Jun. 30, 2012 83 Jun. 30, 2012 84 Jun. 30, 2012 85 Jun. 30, 2012 86 Jun. 30, 2012 87 Jun. 30, 2012 88 Jun. 30, 2012 89 Jun. 30, 2012 90 Jun. 30, 2012 91 Jun. 30, 2012 92 Jun. 30, 2012 93 Jun. 30, 2012 94 Jun. 30, 2012 95 Jun. 30, 2012 96 Jun. 30, 2012 97 Jun. 30, 2012 98 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 13. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 6 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 99 Jun. 30, 2012 100 Jun. 30, 2012 101 Jun. 30, 2012 102 Jun. 30, 2012 103 Jun. 30, 2012 104 Jun. 30, 2012 105 Jun. 30, 2012 106 Jun. 30, 2012 107 Jun. 30, 2012 108 Jun. 30, 2012 109 Jun. 30, 2012 110 Jun. 30, 2012 111 Jun. 30, 2012 112 Jun. 30, 2012 113 Jun. 30, 2012 114 Jun. 30, 2012 115 Jun. 30, 2012 116 Jun. 30, 2012 117 Jun. 30, 2012 118 Jun. 30, 2012 119 Jun. 30, 2012 120 Jun. 30, 2012 121 Jun. 30, 2012 122 Jun. 30, 2012 123 Jun. 30, 2012 124 Jun. 30, 2012 125 Jun. 30, 2012 126 Jun. 30, 2012 127 Jun. 30, 2012 128 Jun. 30, 2012 129 Jun. 30, 2012 130 Jun. 30, 2012 131 Jun. 30, 2012 132 Jun. 30, 2012 133 Jun. 30, 2012 134 Jun. 30, 2012 135 Jun. 30, 2012 136 Jun. 30, 2012 137 Jun. 30, 2012 138 Jun. 30, 2012 139 Jun. 30, 2012 140 Jun. 30, 2012 141 Jun. 30, 2012 142 Jun. 30, 2012 143 Jun. 30, 2012 144 Jun. 30, 2012 145 Jun. 30, 2012 146 Jun. 30, 2012 147 Jun. 30, 2012 148 Jun. 30, 2012 149 Jun. 30, 2012 150 Jun. 30, 2012 151 Jun. 30, 2012 152 Jun. 30, 2012 153 Jun. 30, 2012 154 Jun. 30, 2012 155 Jun. 30, 2012 156 Jun. 30, 2012 157 Jun. 30, 2012 158 Jun. 30, 2012 159 Jun. 30, 2012 160 Jun. 30, 2012 161 Jun. 30, 2012 162 Jun. 30, 2012 163 Jun. 30, 2012 164 Jun. 30, 2012 165 Jun. 30, 2012 166 Jun. 30, 2012 167 Jun. 30, 2012 168 Jun. 30, 2012 169 Jun. 30, 2012 170 Jun. 30, 2012 171 Jun. 30, 2012 172 Jun. 30, 2012 173 Jun. 30, 2012 174 Jun. 30, 2012 175 Jun. 30, 2012 176 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 14. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 7 Jun. 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 177 Jun. 30, 2012 178 Jun. 30, 2012 179 Jun. 30, 2012 180 Jun. 30, 2012 181 Jun. 30, 2012 182 Jun. 30, 2012 183 Jun. 30, 2012 184 Jun. 30, 2012 185 Jun. 30, 2012 186 Jun. 30, 2012 187 Jun. 30, 2012 188 Jun. 30, 2012 189 Jun. 30, 2012 190 Jun. 30, 2012 191 Jun. 30, 2012 192 Jun. 30, 2012 193 Jun. 30, 2012 194 Jun. 30, 2012 195 Jun. 30, 2012 196 Jun. 30, 2012 197 Jun. 30, 2012 198 Jun. 30, 2012 199 Jun. 30, 2012 200 Jun. 30, 2012 201 Jun. 30, 2012 202 Jun. 30, 2012 203 Jun. 30, 2012 204 Jun. 30, 2012 205 Jun. 30, 2012 206 Jun. 30, 2012 207 Jun. 30, 2012 208 Jun. 30, 2012 209 Jun. 30, 2012 210 Jun. 30, 2012 211 Jun. 30, 2012 212 Jun. 30, 2012 213 Jun. 30, 2012 214 Jun. 30, 2012 215 Jun. 30, 2012 216 Jun. 30, 2012 217 Jun. 30, 2012 218 Jun. 30, 2012 219 Jun. 30, 2012 220 Jun. 30, 2012 221 Jun. 30, 2012 222 Jun. 30, 2012 223 Jun. 30, 2012 224 Jun. 30, 2012 225 Jun. 30, 2012 226 Jun. 30, 2012 227 Jun. 30, 2012 228 Jun. 30, 2012 229 Jun. 30, 2012 230 Jun. 30, 2012 231 Jun. 30, 2012 232 Jun. 30, 2012 233 Jun. 30, 2012 234 Jun. 30, 2012 235 Jun. 30, 2012 236 Jun. 30, 2012 237 Jun. 30, 2012 238 Jun. 30, 2012 239 Jun. 30, 2012 240 Jun. 30, 2012 241 Jun. 30, 2012 242 Jun. 30, 2012 243 Jun. 30, 2012 244 Jun. 30, 2012 245 Jun. 30, 2012 246 Jun. 30, 2012 247 Jun. 30, 2012 248 Jun. 30, 2012 249 Jun. 30, 2012 250 Jun. 30, 2012 251 Jun. 30, 2012 252 Jun. 30, 2012 253 Jun. 30, 2012 254 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 15. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 8 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 255 Jun. 30, 2012 256 Jun. 30, 2012 257 Jun. 30, 2012 258 Jun. 30, 2012 259 Jun. 30, 2012 260 Jun. 30, 2012 261 Jun. 30, 2012 262 Jun. 30, 2012 263 Jun. 30, 2012 264 Jun. 30, 2012 265 Jun. 30, 2012 266 Jun. 30, 2012 267 Jun. 30, 2012 268 Jun. 30, 2012 269 Jun. 30, 2012 270 Jun. 30, 2012 271 Jun. 30, 2012 272 Jun. 30, 2012 273 Jun. 30, 2012 274 Jun. 30, 2012 275 Jun. 30, 2012 276 Jun. 30, 2012 277 Jun. 30, 2012 278 Jun. 30, 2012 279 Jun. 30, 2012 280 Jun. 30, 2012 281 Jun. 30, 2012 282 Jun. 30, 2012 283 Jun. 30, 2012 284 Jun. 30, 2012 285 Jun. 30, 2012 286 Jun. 30, 2012 287 Jun. 30, 2012 288 Jun. 30, 2012 289 Jun. 30, 2012 290 Jun. 30, 2012 291 Jun. 30, 2012 292 Jun. 30, 2012 293 Jun. 30, 2012 294 Jun. 30, 2012 295 Jun. 30, 2012 296 Jun. 30, 2012 297 Jun. 30, 2012 298 Jun. 30, 2012 299 Jun. 30, 2012 300 Jun. 30, 2012 301 Jun. 30, 2012 302 Jun. 30, 2012 303 Jun. 30, 2012 304 Jun. 30, 2012 305 Jun. 30, 2012 306 Jun. 30, 2012 307 Jun. 30, 2012 308 Jun. 30, 2012 309 Jun. 30, 2012 300 Jun. 30, 2012 311 Jun. 30, 2012 312 Jun. 30, 2012 313 Jun. 30, 2012 314 Jun. 30, 2012 315 Jun. 30, 2012 316 Jun. 30, 2012 317 Jun. 30, 2012 318 Jun. 30, 2012 319 Jun. 30, 2012 320 Jun. 30, 2012 321 Jun. 30, 2012 322 Jun. 30, 2012 323 Jun. 30, 2012 324 Jun. 30, 2012 325 Jun. 30, 2012 326 Jun. 30, 2012 327 Jun. 30, 2012 328 Jun. 30, 2012 329 Jun. 30, 2012 330 Jun. 30, 2012 331 Jun. 30, 2012 332 Jun. 30, 2012 333 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 16. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 9 Jun. 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE 334 Jun. 30, 2012 335 Jun. 30, 2012 336 Jun. 30, 2012 337 Jun. 30, 2012 338 Jun. 30, 2012 339 Jun. 30, 2012 340 Jun. 30, 2012 341 Jun. 30, 2012 342 Jun. 30, 2012 343 Jun. 30, 2012 344 Jun. 30, 2012 345 Jun. 30, 2012 346 Jun. 30, 2012 347 Jun. 30, 2012 348 Jun. 30, 2012 349 Jun. 30, 2012 350 Jun. 30, 2012 351 Jun. 30, 2012 352 Jun. 30, 2012 353 Jun. 30, 2012 354 Jun. 30, 2012 355 Jun. 30, 2012 356 Jun. 30, 2012 357 Jun. 30, 2012 358 Jun. 30, 2012 359 Jun. 30, 2012 360 Jun. 30, 2012 361 Jun. 30, 2012 362 Jun. 30, 2012 363 Jun. 30, 2012 364 Jun. 30, 2012 365 Jun. 30, 2012 366 Jun. 30, 2012 367 Jun. 30, 2012 368 Jun. 30, 2012 369 Jun. 30, 2012 370 Jun. 30, 2012 371 Jun. 30, 2012 372 Jun. 30, 2012 373 Jun. 30, 2012 374 Jun. 30, 2012 375 Jun. 30, 2012 376 Jun. 30, 2012 377 Jun. 30, 2012 378 Jun. 30, 2012 379 Jun. 30, 2012 380 Jun. 30, 2012 381 Jun. 30, 2012 382 Jun. 30, 2012 383 Jun. 30, 2012 384 Jun. 30, 2012 385 Jun. 30, 2012 386 Jun. 30, 2012 387 Jun. 30, 2012 388 Jun. 30, 2012 389 Jun. 30, 2012 390 Jun. 30, 2012 391 Jun. 30, 2012 392 Jun. 30, 2012 Appendix A A1 Jun. 30, 2012 A2 Jun. 30, 2012 A3 Jun. 30, 2012 A4 Jun. 30, 2012 A5 Jun. 30, 2012 A6 Jun. 30, 2012 A7 Jun. 30, 2012 A8 Jun. 30, 2012 A9 Jun. 30, 2012 A10 Jun. 30, 2012 A11 Jun. 30, 2012 A12 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 A13 Jun. 30, 2012 A14 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 A15 Jun. 30, 2012 A16 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 A17 Jun. 30, 2012 A18 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 17. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL LEP 10 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE DATE SUBJECT PAGE DATE A19 Jun. 30, 2012 A20 Jun. 30, 2012 A21 Jun. 30, 2012 A22 Jun. 30, 2012 A23 Jun. 30, 2012 A24 Jun. 30, 2012 A25 Jun. 30, 2012 A26 Jun. 30, 2012 A27 Jun. 30, 2012 A28 Jun. 30, 2012 A29 Jun. 30, 2012 A30 Jun. 30, 2012 A31 Jun. 30, 2012 A32 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 A33 Jun. 30, 2012 A34 Jun. 30, 2012 A35 Jun. 30, 2012 A36 Jun. 30, 2012 A37 Jun. 30, 2012 A38 Jun. 30, 2012 Appendix B B1 Jun. 30, 2012 B2 Jun. 30, 2012 B3 Jun. 30, 2012 B4 Jun. 30, 2012 B5 Jun. 30, 2012 B6 Jun. 30, 2012 Appendix C C1 Jun. 30, 2012 C2 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 C3 Jun. 30, 2012 C4 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 Appendix D D1 Jun. 30, 2012 D2 (Blank) Jun. 30, 2012 GLOSSARY 1 Jun. 30, 2012 2 Jun. 30, 2012 3 Jun. 30, 2012 4 Jun. 30, 2012 5 Jun. 30, 2012 6 Jun. 30, 2012 7 Jun. 30, 2012 8 Jun. 30, 2012 9 Jun. 30, 2012 10 Jun. 30, 2012 11 Jun. 30, 2012 12 Jun. 30, 2012 13 Jun. 30, 2012 14 Jun. 30, 2012 15 Jun. 30, 2012 16 Jun. 30, 2012 F Foldout page, printed on single face D Deleted page R Revised page A Added page
  • 18. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOC 1 June 30, 2012 Table of Contents SUBJECT PAGE GENERAL.......................................................................................................................................1  Introduction.............................................................................................................................1  Aircraft technical data .............................................................................................................5  Aircraft three-view arrangement ...........................................................................................13 OPERATIONAL LIMITATION ..........................................................................................................1  General of flight limitation .......................................................................................................1  Flight limitation........................................................................................................................1  Speed limitations ....................................................................................................................2  Weight and C.G. limitations.....................................................................................................7  G-load limitation....................................................................................................................15  Limitations of power plant.....................................................................................................16  Operational limitation for air conditioning system .................................................................18 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ......................................................................................................1  Engine failures........................................................................................................................1  High angle of attack flight .....................................................................................................16  Flying with door open and descending in emergency...........................................................21  Landing with the malfunctioned landing gear system ...........................................................22  Handling of tyre blown-up and brakes failure........................................................................25  Handling of heading system and the barometer failed in flight .............................................26  Landing with flaps up............................................................................................................27  Outside forced landing..........................................................................................................29
  • 19. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOC 2 June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE NORMAL PROCEDURES..............................................................................................................1  Preparations for flight ............................................................................................................1  Flight ....................................................................................................................................25 PERFORMANCE ...........................................................................................................................1  General ..................................................................................................................................1  Aircraft flight performance calculation and conversion curve .................................................1  Main performance of four engines..........................................................................................7  Main performance of three engines......................................................................................15  Takeoff and landing performance in non-standard condition ................................................17  Climb and descent at different weight and altitude...............................................................30  AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT................................................................................................1 Power plant ............................................................................................................................1 Fuel System .........................................................................................................................21 Oil system ............................................................................................................................34 Hydraulic system..................................................................................................................38 Fire-extinguish and neutral gas system................................................................................56 Air-conditioning system ........................................................................................................61 Anti-icing heating system .....................................................................................................71 General ................................................................................................................................71 Oxygen system ....................................................................................................................79 Flight control system..............................................................................................................84 Communication System .....................................................................................................247 Radar system.....................................................................................................................282 Instrument system..............................................................................................................320 Starting power and onboard power equipment...................................................................369
  • 20. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOC 3/(4 Blank) June 30, 2012 SUBJECT PAGE Signal, Illuminating apparatus.............................................................................................380 Sighting, airdlift, airdrop and parachuting equipment..........................................................385 Electric signal gun deviceXQ-1A ........................................................................................392 APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................... A1 APPENDIX B COMMON KNOWLEDGE INTRODUCTION ...................................................... B1 APPENDIX C FEATURES OF VARIOUS CLOUDS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING FLIGHT CONDITIONS........................................................................................C1 APPENDIX D AIRCRAFT ICE ACCRETION INTENSITY GRADE............................................D1
  • 21. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL TOC 4 June 30, 2012 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
  • 22. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-1 June 30, 2012 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Y8F200W is the multifunctional medium transport aircraft of mid range. It mainly serves the army as air transportation of cargo, arming equipment, armed soldiers, the wounded, parachuting soldiers and release of small and large-sized cargo and equipment. For the customization purpose, some adaptation, replacement and adjustment are conducted to the aircraft like replacement of partial avionics equipment and high-failure rate equipment, instrument panel distribution adjustment, cargo transportation system interchangeability and loading effective improvement, floor modification modification in cargo compartment, airframe surface repaint, addition of engine fuel auto shutoff function and ground auto-cleaning function, addition of interface between cockpit and air-conditioner ground vehicle, and adaptation of aircraft structure, ECS, oxygen system, living facilities, power distribution system and illumination system, etc. The crew members include pilot (Captain), copilot, navigator, communicator and mechanic. The aircraft is of metal semimonocoque construction with cantilever high-wing, single vertical tail and turnup at the fuselage aft. The fuselage section from frames 0~59 are of airtight cabin, of which, frames 0~8 are the cockpit and frames 9~43 are airtight cargo compartment. For loading convenience, the floor of cargo cabin has slope at its rear section. The fuselage aft turnup angle is 18o 43’, and two cargo cabin doors which are openable in the air are located at the large opening of frames 43~59, and frames 65~68 at the fuselage aft is the non-airtight equipment cabin. The tapered wing is of non-geometrical twist along wing span direction and is separated as center wing, outboard-inboard and outboard wing by two separation surfaces. Four WJ-6 engines are suspended at spar I of outboard-inboard wing, and the double-seam extension flaps are suspended behind spar II. The two differencial ailerons cooperating with interference board are suspended behind the spar II of outboard wing.
  • 23. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-2 June 30, 2012 The tricycle landing gears are of retractable/extensible type, and the four-wheel bogie main landing gear at both sides of the fuselage is retractable inward to the belly. The doble-wheel nose landing gear which is retractable backward is at frame 9. The aircraft has 10 wheels, all of which are equipped with low-pressure tyres, enabling the aircraft to takeoff and land on strip, grassland, gravel and sand runway. The nose wheel is equipped with nose wheel steering turning mechanism linked with the rudder control mechanism, and the main wheel is equipped with hydraulic brake device. The hydraulic system is composed of two independent sub-systems at left and right side and standby hand pump and electrical pump system. The two sub-systems at both sides which are independent to each other are equipped with hydraulic reservoir, hydraulic pump and hydraulic accessories and two sub-systems can work independently for power plant operation or cooperatively as standby control mechanism. The two sub-systems are controlled by the communication valve. Pressurization of hydraulic tank is realized through the pressurized air from engine compressor, so that normal oil supply is guaranteed regardless of the flight status and altitude. Total volume of hydraulic system is 28.595gal (130L), with its operating pressure being 1705~2203psi (11.76~15.19 MPa) (120~155 kgf/cm2 ). The hand pump and electrical pump system aims to control operation of each part on ground and serves as standby system in the air in emergency. Flight control system of the aircraft consists of primary control system and auxiliary control system. The primary control system is of rigid pull rod control, and is equipped with the hydraulic control surface of KJ-6C autopilot, the control surface receives the control signal from autopilot. The aircraft can be controlled individually or cooperatively by pilot (Captain) and copilot through the primary control system. The airborne oxygen system and two sets of high-altitude facility can gurantee normal living and working conditions for the crew members. The high-altitude facility fulfills airtight cockpit pressurization, heating and cooling requirement of the aircraft, while the air is supplied from stage X compressor of the engine. The low-altitude ventilation system on the aircraft serves to ventilate the cabin during low-altitude flight. Pressure difference inside and outside the cabin is not more than 6.67psi (0.046 MPa) (0.469 kgf/cm2 ). The air-conditioner interface system inside the cockpit can connect with the air-conditioner vehicle on ground in short time to supply the conditioned air to the aircraft. The oxygen is supplied in form of gas and the max. storage is 21.996gal (100 L).
  • 24. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-3 June 30, 2012 The aircraft is equipped with anti-icing device. Deicing of engine inlet duct at its leading edge, engine compressor inlet guide vanes assembly is realized through the hot air, while that of propeller blade, propeller cap and windshield glass is of electrical-driven. The WJ-6 turbine propeller engine, with its power of 3126kW (4250 equivalent horsepower) per set is installed on the wing through engine case and engine nacelle support frame. The engine is started by direct current and designed with auto/manual fuel shut-off, overheat protection and ground cleaning functions, and is controlled by the steel cable. The engine propeller is known as J17-G13 four-blade metal propeller and is equipped with auto feathering pitch control device. There are 26 rubber fuel tanks inside the left and right wings, and the outboard wing is equipped with the integrated fuel tank. The fuselage tank is inside the anti-stress fuel tank cabin under floor of fuselage frames 33~41. Fuel consumption of the fuel system is contolled automatically or manually as per certain sequence, and the fuel can be added by means of auto-pressure refuelling or manually from the filler. The fireproof equipment and effective fire extinguisher can detect and put out the fire timely. The neutral gas to fuel tank from the neutral-gas system forms the anti-explosive media above the fuel surface, enhancing safety of the fuel system. Moreover, during emergency landing process, the neutral gas inside the fuel tank can increase the fuel pressure on its surface, thus improving the reliability of the fuel supply system. Aircraft is equipped with 28VDC, single- phase 400Hz 115VAC and three-phase 400Hz 36VAC. Direct current power supply includes QF12-1 starter generator (8 sets) supplying 28VDC with rated output power of 12kW for each, QF-24 starter generator (1 set) supplying 28VDC with rated output power of 18kW and 20GNC28B battery (4 sets) supplying 24VDC. Alternatiing current (AC) power supply includes JF-12 AC generator (4 sets) and three-phase alternating current includes 2 sets of SL-1000E three-phase inverter. In addition, the aircraft is also equipped with a DIAJ-0603 static inverter, its input voltage is 28VDC and output voltage is 110VAC/60Hz with rated output power of 3 kVA.
  • 25. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-4 June 30, 2012 The airborne navigation system mainly includes HG-593Y8 laser strapdown inertial/satellite combination navigation system, 2101 I/O GPS navigation system, HZX-1M altitude heading reference system(AHRS), XAS-3M air data system and WL-11 ADF, JD-3A TACAN, KRA405B radio altimeter, VOR-432 VOR/ILS, KDM 706A DME distance measuring equipment and MK VIII enhanced ground proximity warning system. The navigation system integrated by these devices is cross-linked with KJ-6C autopilot to control the flight automatically. The communication system consists of TKR-200A2 HF radio, the TKR123E-III VHF radio, and JT-Y8F200W intercom with AIRMAN 750 headset. In addition, the aircraft is equipped with JYL-6AT meteorological radar, TCAS-94 airtraffic alarming and anti-collision system, and JZ/YD-126E IFF transponder. The airborne instrument mainly includes BK-43 airspeed indicator, BG-1A barometric altimeter, BC-10 elevation speedometer, BUC-26D capacitance-type fuel gauge, FJ-30D6 flight data recorder and XFJ-12B cockpit audio frequency recorder, etc. The aircraft can be equipped with airdrop side guide rail, cargo transportation guide rail, stop lock, rollway, mooring ring, seat and stretcher etc. to fulfill multi-purpose requirement. Air transportation equipment on the aircraft mainly include electric winch, beam crane, cargo transportation side guide rail, stop lock, cargo transportation rollway, mooring ring, capative cable, tie-down net and stop force component pad, etc. Airborne extraction equipment mainly consists of airdrop side guide rail, airdrop rollway, extraction parachute releasing device, extraction sighting equipment, electrical parachute rope recovery mechanism, airdrop and airborne signal device and airdrop electrical control device, etc. The aircraft can also be equipped with 86 seats for armed soldier or airborne parachute soldiers; it can also be equipped with 72 sets of rescue stretchers for rescuing the seriously injured personnel during the air transportation process.
  • 26. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-5 June 30, 2012 AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL DATA Principal geometrical data General data (a) Overall length 111.62ft (34.022m) (b) Overall height LG free 36.61 ft (11.160m) LG compressed 35.20 ft (10.730m) (c) Min. suspension height of belly to ground upon landing gear compression 2.04 ft (0.622m) (d) Suspension height of cargo cabin floor at frame 43 4.47 ft (1.361m) (e) AOA of parking aircraft 5o 15’ (f) Max. width of fuselage (with laning gear bay) 14.88 ft (4.536m) (g) Max. height of fuselage 14.44 ft (4.40m) (h) Column diameter of fuselage (frames 17-33) 13.45 ft (4.10m) (i) Interior dimensions of fuselage cargo cabin Volume 4859.30ft3 (137.60m3 ) Length 48.23 ft (14.7m) Width (along floor surface) Frames 9~13 9.84 ft ~11.48 ft (3.000m~3.500m) Frames 13~25 and frame 30~43 11.48 ft (3.500m) Frames 25~30 9.84 ft (3.000m) (j) Height of cargo cabin Frames 9~14 7.38 ft ~8.2 ft (2.25m~2.50m) Frames 14~25 8.2 ft (2.50m) Frames 25~30 7.87 ft (2.40m) Frames 30~31 7.87 ft ~8.53 ft (2.4m~2.6m) Frames 31~43 8.53 ft (2.60m)
  • 27. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-6 June 30, 2012 (k) Boarding gate dimension Height × width 4.77 ft × 2.62 ft (1.455m × 0.8m) Wings (a) Wing span (along chord plane) 124.67 ft (38m) (b) Area (including area covered by fuselage) 1311.689 ft2 (121.86m2 ) (c) Mean aerodynamic chord 11.322 ft (3.451m) (d) Aspect ratio 11.85 (e) Wing sweep angle at 25% chord 6o 50’34’’ (f) Wing dihedral angle Center wing 0o Outboard-inboard wing (relative to center wing) 1o Outboard wing (relative to inboard wing) -3o (g) Wing incidence 4o (h) Length of single aileron 18.98 ft (5.784m) (i) Aileron area 84.389 ft2 (7.840m2 ) (j) Maximum deflection angle of aileron Upwards (25±1)o Downwards (15+2 -1 )o (k) Aileron trim tab area 9.042 ft2 (0.84m2 ) (l) Max. deflection angle Upwards (6±1)o Downwards (6±1)o (m) Max. turning angle when the aileron turns to Max. limit position 135o (n) Flap area 289.657 ft2 (26.910m2 ) (o) Length of single flap 35.958 ft (10.960m)
  • 28. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-7 June 30, 2012 (p) Flap deflection angle Takeoff 15o ~(25±1)o Landing (35±1)o (q) Flap Double-slot zap type (r) Length of spoiler (at half wing) 3.609 ft (1.100m) (s) Height of spoiler at full extension (aileron upwards to 25o ) is 5.51 in±0.20in (140±5mm) (spoiler tends to protrude when aileron deflects to 3o ) Tail (a) Area of horizontal tail 291.164 ft2 (27.050m2 ) (b) Stabilizer area of horizontal tail 214.729 ft2 (19.949m2 ) (c) Span of horizontal tail 40.013 ft (12.196m) (d) Mean aerodynamic chord of horizontal tail 7.851 ft (2.393m) (e) Dihedral angle of horizontal tail 0o (f) Incidence angle of horizontal tail (relative to wing chord) -4o (g) Elevator area 76.434 ft2 (7.101m2 ) (h) Max. deflection angle of rudder Upwards 28o ±1o Downwards 15o ±1o (i) Elevator trim tab area 8.374 ft2 (0.778m2 ) (j) Max. deflection angle of rudder trim tab (upon steel cable control) at up and down position 12o ±1o (k) Area of vertical fin (from upper fuselage, excluding dorsal fin) 21.503m2 (l) Stabilizer area of vertical fin 161.093ft2 (14.966m2 ) (m) Vertical tail span 19.13 (5.83m) (n) Mean aerodynamic chord of vertical tail 13.28 (4.048m) (o) Rudder area 70.364ft2 (6.537m2 ) (p) Max. deflection angle of rudder Leftward and rightward 25o ±1o (q) Rudder trim tab area 4.123ft2 (0.383m2 ) (r) Rudder spring force servo tab area 4.726 ft2 (0.439m2 )
  • 29. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-8 June 30, 2012 (s) Max. deflection angle of rudder trim tab Leftward and rightward 18.5o ±1o (t) Max. deflection angle of rudder spring force servo tab Leftward and rightward 13.5o ±1o Landing gear (a) Wheel track along the main wheel contour 17.756 ft (5.412m) Along the main wheel buffer strut 16.142 ft (4.920m) Wheel base 31.42 ft (9.576m) (b) Min. turning radius on ground 45.11 ft (13.75m) (c) Max. turning angle of nose wheel Manual control angle Leftward and rightward 35o Rudder control angle Leftward and rightward 8o ±2o (d) Favorable taxiing speed of the aircraft when turning with nose wheel handle 2.70kn~3.24kn (5~6km/h) (e) Main wheel dimension 41.339 in×11.811 in (1050mm×300mm) (f) Nose wheel dimension 35.433 in×11.811 in (900mm×300mm) (g) Air pressure of tyre Within the range of normal takeoff: Main wheel (85.57+7.25 0 )psi ((0.59+0.05 0 ) MPa) Nose wheel (71.07+2.90 -1.45 )psi ((0.49+0.02 -0.01 )MPa) At max. takeoff weight (61t) Main wheel (100.08+7.25 0 )psi ((0.69+0.05 0 )MPa) Nose wheel 73.97psi (0.51MPa) (h) Braking clearance 0.059in~0.138in (1.5mm~3.5mm) (i) Exposive buffer strut (upon parking and compression) Within the range of normal takeoff: Nose buffer strut 3.937in~9.449in (100~240mm) Main buffer strut 1.693in~4.528in (43~115mm) At max. takeoff weight (61t) Nose buffer strut 1.693in~4.528in (70~200mm)
  • 30. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-9 June 30, 2012 (j) Parking compression of aircraft tyre Parking compression of aircraft tyre for main landing gear wheel 2.953in~3.543in (75~90mm) Parking compression of aircraft tyre for nose landing gear wheel 1.378in~1.987in (35~50mm) Power plant and trubo power starter generator WJ-6 Engine data (a) Dimension Length 122 in±0.079 in (3099mm±2mm) (with bullet 140 in±0.197 in (3558mm±5mm)) Width 35.118in±0.039 in (892mm±1mm) Height 46 in±0.0118 in (1174mm±1mm) (b) Net weight (with accessories) 1200kg+2% (c) Engine rotating speed Operating speed (12300+90 )r/min(95.5%~96.2%) Idle on ground (10400+200 -50 )r/min(80.5%~82.5%) Cold running speed (30s) 17%~22% (d) Engine acceleration From idling on ground to takeoff Not exceed 20s From idling in the air to takeoff Not exceed 10s (e) Engine deceleration 8s~10s (f) Relative incidence angle between engine and wing -4o (g) Shut off speed of air compressor air-bleed valve 5th stage (11340+130 ) r/min (88%~89%) 8th stage (9340+200 ) r/min (72.5%~74%) (h) Pressure ratio of air compressor (Maximum continuous power condition H= 26247ft (8000m), V= 574.15ft/s (175m/s) 9.2 (i) Airflow ((Maximum continuous power condition H=0, V=0) 20.5kg/s
  • 31. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-10 June 30, 2012 (j) Engine data in different operating conditions is shown in Table 1-1. Table 1-1 Engine data in different operating conditions (H=0, V=0, PH=101.3kPa, tH=15o C) Service condition Throttle angle Equivalent power rate (kW) Axis power rate (kW) Fuel consumption (kg/h) Takeoff 98o ~105o 3126 2868 1030 Max. continuous power condition 84±2o 2567 2331 927 0.85 Max. continuous power condition 72±2o 2184 1971 842 0.7 Max. continuous power condition 60±2o 1846 1589 757 0.6 Max. continuous power condition 52±2o 1525 1341 701 0.4 Max. continuous power condition 35±2o 961 805 578 0.2 Max. continuous power condition 20±2o Idling on ground 0o Propeller data (a) Model J17-G13 (b) Number of blade 4 (c) Diameter of blade 14.76ft (4.5m) (d) Rotating direction (Along the flight direction) Anti-clockwise (e) Blade incidence(R=5.25ft (1.6m) at the section) Min. blade angle (starting angle) 0o Mid-range limiting angle 12o Feathering angle 83o 30’ Ground hydraulic feathering angle 40o ~46o (f) Blade angle variation 0o ~83o 30’ (g) Propeller operating speed 1075r/min
  • 32. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-11 June 30, 2012 (h) Full feathering position time Engine operative Not exceed 10s Engine shutdown Not exceed 20s (i) Unfeather time In the air Not exceed 10s On ground Not exceed 25s (j) Rotating inertia 2.382kg•m•s2 (k) Net weight (without hub fairing component and current collector) 408kg+2% (l) Area of propeller airflow passing the wing 53% (m) Clearance between propeller and the fuselage 2.17ft (0.66m) (n) Suspension height of blade tip to ground Inboard engine 6.34ft (1.932m) Outboard engine 6.51ft (1.985m) (o) Propeller pulling arm on horizontal surface Inboard engine 15.59ft (4.715m) Outboard engine 31.28ft (9.533m) Caution Upon feathering ground test, oil temperature is required to be above 25o C.
  • 33. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-12 June 30, 2012 Turbo starter generator (a) Power rate (at the terminal of QF-24 power generator) 56kW~60kW (b) Output axis power rate 70kW~73.5kW (c) Net weight 170kg (Not exceed 190+5 kg for trubo starter generator with turbo protection device). (d) Operational altitude 0ft~13780ft (0m~4200m) (e) Contour dimension Length (to the end of short exhaust pipe) 62.20in±0.31in (1580mm±8mm) Height Not exceed 26.38in (670mm) Width 22.64in (575mm) (f) Total operating hour of turbo starter generator should not exceed 172h (total engine start hour is 72h, total hour of power supply to airborne network is 100h, and total start frequency per engine is 2000 times).
  • 34. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-13/(14 Blank) June 30, 2012 AIRCRAFT THREE-VIEW ARRANGEMENT For details, see Figure 1-1. 14.83 4520 12.6 (3840) 111.62 (34022) 31.42 (9576) 26.61~35.3 (11160~10760) 124.67 (38000) 16.14 (4920) 40 (12196) Figure 1-1 Three-view arrangement of the aircraft
  • 35. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION I GENERAL 1-14 June 30, 2012 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
  • 36. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-1 June 30, 2012 OPERATIONAL LIMITATION GENERAL OF FLIGHT LIMITATION Minimum crewmembers: Minimum crewmembers: five persons, i.e., pilot (captain), co-pilot, navigator, communicator and flight engineer. Service range: (a) Day and night flight (b) Instrument landing (c) Icing condition of mid-level or below FLIGHT LIMITATION (a) Maximum banks are not more than 30o , and under complicated weather conditions not more than 15o during banking and turning. (b) Maximum angle of attack of wing is 12o 30’ during take-off and landing. (c) The allowable 90o crosswind speed during normal take-off and landing is not more than 39.37ft/s (12m/s), and the experienced pilot is allowed to take off and land 90o crosswind within the speed of 49.21 ft/s (15m/s). (d) Go-around altitude of the aircraft is usually not less than 164ft (50m). Under special circumstances go-around at any altitude is allowed, as long as the four engines are all in operation and their throttle levers are all over 16o . (e) The door is not allowed to open upon aircraft takoff; in case that the door can not be closed due to its control system failure, normal landing is permitted with AOA of the wing ≯9o (fuselage AOA≯5o ) (f) Pressure difference inside and outside of pressurized cabin is not more than 6.67psi (0.046MPa).
  • 37. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-2 June 30, 2012 SPEED LIMITATIONS (a) Speed limitation (Vmax) for level-flight with different air-borne weight and altitude is in Table 2-1. Table 2-1a Speed limitation for level flight Air-borne weight (t) Altitude (ft) IAS (kn) <55 <18045 Vmax≯281 >18045 M≯0.6 ≥55 <23950 Vmax≯248 >23950 M≯0.6 Table 2-1b Level speed limitation Air-borne weight (t) Altitude (m) Equivalent speed (km/h) <55 <5500 Vmax≯520 >5500 M≯0.6 ≥55 <7300 Vjx≯460 >7300 M≯0.6 (b) Speed limitation (Vjx) for gliding with different airborne weight and altitude and short-period flight is in Table 2-2. Table 2-2a Gliding speed limitation Airborne weight (t) Altitude (ft) IAS (km/h) <55 <17388 Vjx≯329 >17388 M≯0.7 ≥55 <21325 Vjx≯302 >21325 M≯0.7 Table 2-2b Gliding speed limitation Airborne weight (t) Altitude (m) IAS (km/h) <55 <5300 Vjx≯610 >5300 M≯0.7 ≥55 <6500 Vjx≯560 >6500 M≯0.7
  • 38. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-3 June 30, 2012 (c) Speed limitation polar curve as per Table 2-1 and Table 2-2 is shown in Figure 2-1. H(ft) V b (kn) Longperiodflight Shortperiodflightandgliding V max V jx M=0.6 M=0.7H=23950ft H=18045ft H=21325ft H=17388ft 227 238 248 252 270 281 292 302 313 324 335 346 356 367 26247 22966 19685 16404 13123 9843 6562 3281 0 Figure 2-1a Speed limitation polar curve 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 H(m) Vb(km/h) Longperiodfight Shortperiodflightandgliding Vmax Vjx M=0.6 M=0.7H=7300 H=5500 H=6500 H=5300 Figure 2-1b Speed limitation polar curve
  • 39. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-4 June 30, 2012 (d) Speed and Mach number limit for emergency landing is the same with that in Table. Load limit and descending rate for emergency landing recovery should not exceed 1.5g and 131ft/s (40m/s) respectively. (e) IAS should be no more than 189 kn (350km/h) when the cargo cabin is at open position. (f) IAS of airdrop and airborne is 173kn~189kn (320km/h~350km/h) and 157kn~189kn (290km/h~320km/h) respectively. (g) Upon landing gear retraction/extension, readout of flight speed Vmeter should not exceed 189 kn (350km/h). (h) Flap extension IAS: (i) When flap is down by 25o , IAS should not exceed 184kn (340km/h), and when it is down by 35o , the readout should be no more than 162kn (300km/h). (j) When the aircraft is taxiing on ground at the speed of 2.7kn~32.4kn (5km/h~60km/h), or 81kn (150km/h) under special condition, operation of nose wheel steering handle is allowed. However, gentle operation is required for the latter situation. (k) In vertical blast region, lower flight speed timely in case of G-load caused by the gust. 1) In case of the strongest blast (equivalent wind speed: 65.6ft/s (20m/s)), lower the flight speed as Vzj (See Table 2-3). Table 2-3a Lowering speed under gust Altitude (ft) 0 6562 13123 19685 Vzj (kn) 180 182 186 192 Table 2-3b Lowering speed under gust Altitude (m) 0 2000 4000 6000 Vzj (km/h) 333 337 344 355 2) Under equivalent wind speed of 49.2 ft/s (15m/s), flight speed should not exceed that of max. level flight (Vmax). See Table 2-1. 3) Under equivalent wind speed of 26.2 ft/s (8m/s), flight speed should not exceed that of dive limit (Vjx). See Table 2-2. Note In case of gust, flight speed should be within the tolerance of Max. gust speed as per designation.
  • 40. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-5 June 30, 2012 (l) Max. maneuver speed of level flight with different airborne weight, altitude, flap & landing gear up is in Table 2-4. Table 2-4a Maneuver speed (IAS) Altitude(m) Airborne weight (t) <19685 ≥19685 ≤54 151 162 >54 173 184 Table 2-4b Maneuver speed (IAS) Altitude(m) Airborne weight (t) <6000 ≥6000 ≤54 280 300 >54 320 340 (m) Upon landing light down, flight speed should not eceed 162 kn (300km/h). (n) Min. allowable speed and falling spiral speed is in Table 2-5. Table 2-5b Min. allowable speed and falling spiral speed Altitude (ft) Landing gear status Flap angle Airborne weight (t) Min. allowable speed (kn) Falling spiral speed (kn) Remark 15748~18045 UP 0o 48.7 140 121 1. Throttle angle 20o 2. IAS speed DOWN 25o 48.4 115 103 DOWN 35o 48.2 109 97 Table 2-5b Min. allowable speed and falling spiral speed Altitude (m) Landing gear status Flap angle Airborne weight (t) Min. allowable speed (km/h) Falling spiral speed (km/h) Remark 4800~5500 UP 0o 48.7 260 225 1. Throttle angle 20o 2. IAS speed DOWN 25o 48.4 213 190 DOWN 35o 48.2 202 179 (o) Figure 2-2 shows the flight envelope when all engines are operated with the airborne weight of 49t.
  • 41. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-6 June 30, 2012 H(ft) 3281 24606 16404 8202 108 216 324 432 V(kn) Vmin Vks Vmax(Max.continuouspowercondition) Vmax(Max.) Max.speedpressurelimitfor levelflightq=12740Pa Max.glidingspeed pressureq=17640Pa 0.7Max.continuous powercondition Figure 2-2a Flight envelope of four operated engines H(m) 10000 7500 5000 2500 200 400 600 800 V(km/h) Vmin Vks Vmax(Max.continuouspowercondition) Vmax(Max.) Max.speedpressurelimitfor levelflightq=12740Pa Max.glidingspeed pressureq=17640Pa 0.7Max.continuous powercondition Figure 2-2b Flight envelope of four operated engines
  • 42. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-7 June 30, 2012 WEIGHT AND C.G. LIMITATIONS Basic data Maximum take-off weight 61t Normal takeoff weight 56t Normal landing weight 52t Theriotical empty weight 35.20t (See MRB for empty weight per aircraft) (Specific weight of fuel 0.775kg/L) Max. fuel quantity of wing tank 15.020t Max. fuel quantity of fuselage tank (Specific weight of fuel 0.775kg/L) 2.200t Dead fuel 395kg Fixed weight 778kg Theoretical C.G of empty aircraft 25.01%CA (See MRB for C.G per empty aircraft) Normal range of C.G 22%CA~28%CA Optimum range of C.G 25%CA~28%CA Weight and C.G. limitations Weight limitations Maximum take-off weight 61t Maximum taxiing weight 61.5t Maximum landing weight 58t Allowable C.G With aircraft weight equal to or less than 56000kg 16%CA~32%CA With aircraft weight greater than 56000kg 18%CA~32%CA
  • 43. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-8 June 30, 2012 Fuel quantity limitation for typical airdrop and air transportatoin Upon airdrop of cargo for 12 sets of 1m loading platforms, total fuel quantity of the aircraft should be not less than 4000kg (with dead fuel of 395kg). Upon airdrop of cargo for 6m loading platform (weight: 7400kg) and 4m loading platform (weight: 5800kg), total fuel quantity of the aircraft should be not less than 4000kg (with dead fuel of 395kg). Total fuel quantity should be not less than 2600kg (with dead fuel of 395kg) when the aircraft is fulfilled with the wounded. Fuel consumption influence towards C.G Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption in different conditions is shown from Figure 2-3 to Figure 2-11. 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 10 15 20 25 30 35 RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) Note Aircraft takeoff weight is 53459kg, and fuel quantity is 17220kg. Figure 2-3 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption in empty ferry flight
  • 44. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-9 June 30, 2012 RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 10 15 20 25 30 35 Note a) Aircraft takeoff weight is 61000kg, fuel quantity is 14210kg, and bulk cargo weight is 10000kg. Figure 2-4 Typical variation of C.G. for typical transportation of containerized cargo RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 10 15 20 25 30 35 Note Aircraft takeoff weight is 61000kg, fuel quantity is 15211kg, and 3 pieces of pallet (96’’×125), total weight is 9000kg. Figure 2-5 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for typical transportation of containerized cargo
  • 45. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-10 June 30, 2012 RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 10 15 20 25 30 35 Note Aircraft takeoff weight is 61000kg, fuel weight is 14178kg, and total weight of 86 armed soldiers is 10320kg. Figure 2-6 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for armed soldier transportation RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 10 15 20 25 30 35 Note Aircraft takeoff weight is 60961kg, fuel weight is 17220kg, and total weight of 60 paratroopers is 9000kg. Figure 2-7 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for airborne paratrooper transportation
  • 46. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-11 June 30, 2012 RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA) C.G backward limit C.G forward limit Weight of the aircraft (kg) 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 10 15 20 25 30 35 Note a) Aircraft takeoff weight is 60903kg, fuel quantity is 17220kg, 3 medical care personnel, 72 seriously wounded persons and 17 walking injuries and total weight is 6675kg. b) Residual fuel in the tank should be not less than 2600kg during flight. Figure 2-8 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for the wounded transportation
  • 47. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-12 June 30, 2012 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 15 20 25 30 C B C A B A’ ’ ’ RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) Weight of the aircraft (kg) C.G forward limit C.G backward limit Note a) Curve AA indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with the weight of empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 12 sets of 1m loading platform(loading status) + full fuel of fuselage tank and wing tank (variation is 20.7 %CA~28.2 %CA). b) Curve BB indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with the weight of empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 12 sets of 1m loading platform(unloading status) + full fuel of fuselage tank and wing tank (variation is 21.0 %CA~29.3%CA). c) Curve CC indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with the weight of empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 12 sets of 1m loading platform(loading platform I-VI in unloading status and VII-XII in loading status) + full fuel of fuselage tank and wing tank. Upon airdrop, residual fuel in the tank should not be less than 4000kg. Figure 2-9 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for 12 sets of 1m loading platform in airdrop status
  • 48. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-13 June 30, 2012 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 15 20 25 30 c C B A B A RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) Weight of the aircraft (kg) C.G forward limit C.G backward limit ’ ’ ’ Note a) Curve AA’ indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 4500kg loading platform + 4500kg loading platform + 14742kg of fuel) in takeoff status (variation is 29.3 %CA~ 31.0%CA). b) Curve BB’ indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 4500kg loading platform (No.1) +4500kg loading platform (No.2) + 14742kg of fuel in takeoff status (variation is 21.0 %CA~24.7 %CA) when both loading platforms (No.1 and No.2) are in unloading condition. c) Curve CC’ indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 4500kg loading platform(No.1) + 4500kg loading platform(No.2) + 14742kg of fuel) in takeoff status (variation is 29.3 %CA~ 31.0%CA) when loading platform(No.1) is unloaded and loading platform (No.2) is in loading condition (variation is 16.9 %CA~21.1%CA). Figure 2-10 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for 2 sets of 4m loading platform in airdrop status
  • 49. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-14 June 30, 2012 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 15 20 25 30 c C B A B A Weight of the aircraft (kg) C.G forward limit C.G backward limit RelativeC.Goftheaircraft(%CA ) ’ ’ ’ Note a) Curve AA indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 7400kg loading platform +5800kg loading platform + 10542kg of fuel) in takeoff status (variation is 29.5 %CA~ 30.2 %CA). b) Curve BB indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 7400kg loading platform(No.1) + 5800kg loading platform(No.2) + 10542kg of fuel) in takeoff status (variation is 21.0 %CA~23.2 %CA) when both loading platforms(No.1 and No.2) are in unloading condition. c) Curve CC indicates variation of C.G as per fuel consumption with total weight of 61000kg (i.e. empty aircraft + fixed weight + basic configurated application item + configurated application item of airdrop loading platform + 7400kg loading platform(No.1) +5800kg loading platform(No.2) + 10542kg of fuel) in takeoff status when loading platform(No.1)is unloaded and loading platform(No.2)is in loading condition. Upon airdrop, residual fuel in the tank should not be less than 4000kg. Figure 2-11 Variation of C.G as per fuel consumption for 2 sets of 4m loading platform in airdrop status
  • 50. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-15 June 30, 2012 G-LOAD LIMITATION (a) Upon takeoff, G-load at C.G should not exceed 2g. (b) Upon landing, G-load at C.G should not exceed 2.5g. (c) See Table 2-6 for static-strength-based G-load limitation in flight. Table 2-6 Flight G-load Aircraft weight (t) Min. fuel quantity of wing (t) Max. limit load (g) Min. limit load (g) V≤VjX V≤Vmax Vmax<V<VjX 38 2 2.96 -1 0 53 7 2.5 -1 0 61 10 2.17 0 0 61 5 2.0 0 0 (d) Load limitation Cargo load should not exceed the following limits marked on the plate: Concentrated cargo 16t Bulk cargo 20t
  • 51. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-16 June 30, 2012 LIMITATIONS OF POWER PLANT (a) Engine continuous operation duration Take-off power condition 15min Ground idling power condition 30min (b) Percent of engine operating time in its total life: Takeoff power condition 2.5% Maximum continuous power condition 32% See Table 2-7 for the maximum allowable turbine outlet gas temperature. Table 2-7 Maximum allowable turbine outlet gas temperature Engine service condition Engine operating status Allowable turbine exhaust temperature (o C) On ground Takeoff to≤15o C, 510 to>15o C, 560 Inflight Below 26247ft (8000m) Takeoff 510 Max. continuous power 475 Cruising power 450 Above 26247ft (8000m) Takeoff 540 Max. continuous power 495 Cruising power 470 Note The turbine outlet gas temperature in the Table is specified per standard atmosphere condition. When the difference between ambient temperature and the standard air temperature is ±1o C, the gas temperature varies ±1o C accordingly.
  • 52. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-17 June 30, 2012 (c) Engine operational limitations 1) The maximum allowable turbine outlet gas temperature is 750oC upon engine start. 2) The maximum allowable speed for engine acceleration is 13260rpm. The maximum engine vibration overload factor K: Not exceed 2.5g for ex-factory period Not exceed 3.5g during operation. 3) See Table 2-8 for allowable bleed rate of compressor under all conditions. Table 2-8a Allowable bleed rate of compressor Frequent bleed rate (various power setting) Numbers of operating engines Four engines Three engines Two engines Altitude 32808ft 26247ft 16404ft Engine bleed rate ≯0.345kg/s ≯0.46kg/s ≯0.55kg/s Periodic bleed rate Maximum continuous power H=0, V=0, tH=15o C≯0.15kg/s H=26246ft, V=574 ft/s, tH=-30o C≯0.1kg/s Ejection cooling bleed rate On ground 0.4kg/s for small throttle setting 0.6kg/s for 0.2 Max. continuous power setting Total bleed rate Maximum continuous power H=0 V=0 tH=15o C Bleed rate does not exceed 0.495kg/s. H=26247ft Bleed rate does not exceed 0.46kg/s V=574 ft/s tH=-30o C Note a) Engine deicing system turning on is allowed only when the aircraft is likely to ice during take-off. b) Engine deicing system can be used under all working conditions on the ground. c) Periodic bleed rate means the bleed rate besides frequent bleed rate, such as wing deicing, etc.
  • 53. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION II OPERATIONAL LIMITATION 2-18 June 30, 2012 Table 2-8b Allowable bleed rate of compressor Frequent bleed rate (various power setting) Numbers of operating engines Four engines Three engines Two engines Altitude 10000m 8000m 5000m Engine bleed rate ≯0.345kg/s ≯0.46kg/s ≯0.55kg/s Periodic bleed rate Maximum continuous power H=0, V=0, tH=15o C≯0.15kg/s H=8000m, V=175m/s, tH=-30o C≯0.1kg/s Ejection cooling bleed rate On ground 0.4kg/s for small throttle setting 0.6kg/s for 0.2 Max. continuous power setting Total bleed rate Maximum continuous power H=0 V=0 tH=15o C Bleed rate does not exceed 0.495kg/s. H=8000m Bleed rate does not exceed 0.46kg/s V=175m/s tH=-30o C Note a) Engine deicing system turning on is allowed only when the aircraft is likely to ice during take-off. b) Engine deicing system can be used under all working conditions on the ground. c) Periodic bleed rate means the bleed rate besides frequent bleed rate, such as wing deicing, etc. OPERATIONAL LIMITATION FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM (a) Air conditioning power on is not allowed when the aircraft is on ground or during take-off period. (b) Only one set of air conditioning system is allowed for leading edge deicing of the wing.
  • 54. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-1 June 30, 2012 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Various special events may occur during flight for different causes, such as mechanical failure, sudden weather change, operation mistakes and so on. Once any of such special cases occurs, it is necessary for the crewmember to judge accurately and rapidly so as to take action resolutely and effectively. ENGINE FAILURES If the engine or propeller fails in flight when automatic-feathering device is out of operation, there would be a quite large negative thrust that would make the aircraft controlling difficult. Therefore, if propeller of the shutdown engine does not feather automatically, the manual feathering shall be adopted in time. If the manual feathering fails, then the hydraulic emergency feathering should be used. The measures above can ensure feathering in common condition. In flight, only when all feathering systems fail simultaneously and the propeller rotates automatically, and flight speed is less than 227 kn~238 kn (420~440km/h), propeller stop can be released after windmilling speed is stablized. Symptoms of engine failure in flight (a) Aircraft banks and yaws to the side of faulty engine. (b) The red signal light for engine failure is on. (c) The pressure on torque indicator decreases. (d) The upstream fuel pressure of fuel nozzle and fuel instantaneous consumption drops sharply or pressure oscillating amplitude exceeds 42.64 psi (0.294MPa) (3kgf/cm2 ). (e) Turbine exhaust temperature increases or decreases. (f) Engine rotating speed increases or decreases and exceeds specified limitation, or rotating speed oscillates beyond ±2%. (g) Oil pressure decreases to 56.85 psi (0.392MPa) (4kgf/cm2 ) below. (h) The stop released signal light is on. (i) The reading of engine vibration indicator exceeds specified limitation. Warning light is on. (j) Oil in tank leaks out seriously. Once discovering the symptoms above, the aircrew should make decision correctly and adopt proper measures timely.
  • 55. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-2 June 30, 2012 Engine failures during takeoff Once any engine shuts down during take-off running, the aircrew should work out solution as per current speed of the aircraft. If the speed is below decision speed, abort takeoff; or else takeoff should be continued. Operation procedures for aborting take-off (a) Keep the direction with the rudder, ailerons, nose wheels and brakes to prevent the aircraft from yawing abruptly and pull the four throttles back to 0o at the same time (pull the throttles at normal engine side back a bit quicker than that at the faulty engine side for correcting the aircraft yaw by throttle difference). (b) Push forward the control column for nose wheel extension to maintain the direction. (c) Release the stop for propellers of two symmetrical operating engines. (d) Lower flaps fully and slow down the aircraft by the brakes in time. If the runway is not long enough and the aircraft tends to fly out of the runway, decrease the speed with emergency brake. (e) When the running direction is no longer deviated and the aircraft speed is below 32.4 kn (60km/h), pull out the nose wheel steering handle, release propeller stop of the engine which is symmetrical to the shutdown engine. (f) If the running direction cannot be maintained after aborting take-off, the captain should pull out the nose wheel steering handle at the speed of less than or equal to 150km/h, to maintain the direction. Operation procedures for continuing take-off (a) The takeoff can be continued when aircraft running speed exceeds decision speed and that the malfunctioned engine feathering is already completed. At this moment, apply the rudder and push the helm towards the normal engine to maintain the direction, and the unstick speed should be 5.4kn~8.1kn (10km/h~15km/h) higher than normal in case of any deviation. (b) If engine failure occurs after aircraft unsticking, apply the rudder and push the helm towards the normal engine side rapidly and timely to maintain aircraft attitude.
  • 56. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-3 June 30, 2012 (c) Judge propeller feathering status of the faulty engine as per the load of control mechanism and judgment of the flight engineer or pilot. If automatic feathering system fails, press the manual-feathering button rapidly for feathering. (d) Gear up with a speed of 135kn~140kn (250~260km/h) and an altitude not less than 16.4ft (5m), and climb with increasing speed, the climb gradient should not be less than 0.5%. (e) Retract the flaps step by step and reduce the load on the control column and rudder with trim tab when the altitude is not less than 328ft (100m) and aircraft speed is 162kn~167 (300~310km/h). (f) Pull the throttle of operating engine back to maximum continuous power condition (84o ). (g) Pull the throttle of shutdown engine back to 0o , set the shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN and put anti-fire switch at OFF position. (h) Climb to traffic pattern altitude, establish normal pattern and then make visual landing. Engine failures in flight (a) Operation procedures with the automatic feathering system being out of operation in flight 1) Maintain the aircraft attitude by applying the rudder and pushing the helm towards normal engine side to prevent the aircraft from banking and yawing. 2) Advance the throttles of operating engines to above 84o and maintain the specified flight attitude. 3) Judge the malfunctioned engine. 4) Following the captain’s command, the mechanic conducts feathering to the faulty engine (by pushing down manual feathering button or through emergency hydraulic feathering device). 5) Balance the aircraft with trim tabs to reduce the load on control column and rudder. 6) Retard the throttle of faulty engine back to 0o and retard the throttle of symmetrical engine to 40o ~60o . 7) Set the engine shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and put anti-fire switch at OFF position. 8) Manually extinguish fire of the faulty engine as per the actual situation.
  • 57. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-4 June 30, 2012 (b) After any one of the four engines is inoperative in flight, the torque on the aircraft can easily be maintained by feathering the faulty engine in time and applying rudder and helm, the load on the rudder and stick can be eliminated completely by using trim tabs,so flight with three engines is not complicated. After one engine is feathered, the aircraft still possesses better stability and controllability and has enough excess thrust to climb, and climb to flight altitude of 26575ft (8100m) with take off weight of 51t. (c) Cautions 1) After engine fails, when automatically feathering with negative thrust, the throttle must be above 40o . 2) If the automatic feathering system fails and the indicated air speed is more than 189 kn (350km/h), the aircraft may buffet. In this case, the speed should be slowed down to below 189 kn (350km/h) first, and then conduct manual feathering. Operation features of landing with three engines operative (a) Set the trim tab to neutral position during final gliding. (b) When aircraft flies over the inner locator, set the throttle of the normal engine symmetrical to the faulty engine to the small throttle position as per the load and atmospheric temperature, and keep the gliding speed and correct the flight path of approach with the throttles of the symmetrical normal engines. (c) During floating, set the throttles of the two normal engines which are in symmetrical operation gently to 0o . Meanwhile, be sure to keep the direction, and prevent the aircraft from floating with side sliding. (d) After the aircraft touches down and keeps a stable running direction, release the stop of the propellers of the two symmetrical normal engines, and then pull the throttle of the normal engine symmetrical to the faulty engine back to 0o . At the latter stage of running when the aircraft speed is 32.4kn (60km/h), pull out the nose wheel steering handle to release the stop of the normal engine propeller symmetrical to the faulty one. (e) At the early stage of run, keep the direction with rudder and prevent the aircraft from yawing and banking with brakes and aileron if necessary. At the latter stage of run, keep the direction with the nose wheel steering handle. (f) The altitude for go around with three operative engines should not be below 164ft (50m), its operation procedure for missed approach is the same as that with four operative engines.
  • 58. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-5 June 30, 2012 Air start of the engine (a) Only when the engines are completely normal (engine shutdown due to control error or other reasons and performance of special air start training), and that the pilot and the flight engineer have been specially trained for air starting, the air start may be allowed (start of the malfunctioned engine is not allowed in any case). (b) Engine air start envelop: The altitude between 6562ft~26247ft (2000~8000m); the indicated air speed within 162 kn~178 kn (300~330km/h). (c) Press of the START button on the panel is strictly forbidden when starting the engine in flight. The pilot and the flight engineer must coordinate for engine start. (d) Pre-start-up check 1) Set the throttle at 0o 2) Turn on the anti-fire switch (green signal light ON). 3) Check: the AIR-GROUND start changeover switch should be at AIR position. 4) Be sure the propeller stop switch should be at STOP position. 5) Put the engine shutdown switch at ON position. (e) Air start procedure 1) Remove the lead seal on protection cover of the air start switch 1-2s before propeller reversing, and put the switch at air start position (the sound of booster coil can be heard from the intercom). 2) Press the manual feathering button for propeller reversing until the engine speed reaches 15%~20%. In case that the engine speed grows slowly, press the button continuously until the speed indicates 22%~25%. At this moment, release the button and check that the fuel pressure in front of the nozzle should be 99.5psi~142psi (0.686MPa~0.98MPa) (7kgf/cm2 ~10kgf/cm2 ) and the fuel in combustion chamber for ignition (turbine exhaust temperature rise).
  • 59. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-6 June 30, 2012 3) When turbine exhaust temperature reaches 300o C, turn off the air start switch and the engine will reach operating speed automatically. During propeller reversing process, in case that the fuel in combustion chamber does not ignite and the fuel temperature has no readout at the engine speed of 15%~20%, it is necessary to press the feathering button immediately and and turn off the engine shutdown and air start switches. 4) After the engine is at the normal rotating speed (95.5~96.2%), advance the throttle gently to 20o . Check the operating condition of engine as per the indicator readout, and then advance the throttles to flight requirement position. 5) During the air start, a yawing moment will occur toward the starting engine side for the propeller reversing moment, and the aircraft would yaw discontinuously toward the contrary side with engine speed increase. In this case, apply the helm and the rudder to overcome the yawing. (f) Cautions for air start 1) During engine start, if the air start change-over switch is not turned off timely, the start may be failed and propeller will autorotate, generating heavy negative thrust. 2) If the air start change-over switch is misconnected to the operating engine after air start is completed, then: a) The operating engine will fether automatically (operating status must be above 0.7 Max. continuous power). b) Autofeathering is not allowed when engine throttle angle is below 40o since the engine will be in wind-milling status or its operating status will not be stable. 3) One engine is not allowed to start for more than three times for a single training, or else the ignitor might be damaged. 4) Restart interval is 2-3min 5) Ignitor ground check is required after engine air start. 6) Feathering pump can not work normally when oil temperature is below 20o C thus air start is not allowed. 7) When flying in icing condition, air start is not allowed until the engine inlet is deiced.
  • 60. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-7 June 30, 2012 (g) Two engines fail at the same side 1) When two engines fail in a condition above 0.7 maximum continuous power (throttles at 62o ), the propeller will automatically feather within 2~3s. If engines fail when throttles are below 40o ±2o , the propeller will not feather automatically, thus manual feathering button must be used. 2) In the flight with two engines failed on the same side (the failed engines have been feathered), the aircraft posses enough thrust to ensure the aircraft to keep a level flight and climb (the aircraft can ascend to an altitude of 15584ft (4750m) with takeoff weight of 47t) and has controllability and stability for turning left or right and approaching and landing on an airport nearby. 3) Operation procedures for two engines on the same side failed in flight a) Keep the aircraft attitude by banking the stick and applying the rudder to prevent the aircraft from banking and yawing. b) Set the throttle of normal engine to takeoff power condition, and keep the indicated aircraft speed not below 167kn~173kn (310~320km/h). After the aircraft attitude is stabilized, set the throttle to maximum continuous power condition. c) Balance the aircraft with trim tab to eliminate part of the load on the control stick and rudder. d) If the engine cannot feather automatically, manual feathering button should be used immediately. e) The landing gear, flaps and door should be retracted and closed immediately if they are in the extended and open positions. f) Pull the throttle of the faulty engine back to 0o. g) Set the shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and turn off the anti-fire switch. h) Extinguish fire by force at the faulty engine and the lower section of the fairing with the second group of fire bottles according to the actual situation. i) When flying with two engines on the same side for a long time, pay attention to the balance of the fuel quantity between left and right tanks.
  • 61. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-8 June 30, 2012 4) When flying horizontally at the altitude of 26247ft~32808ft (8000~10000m) with two engines shutdown, the indicated air speed must be kept at 173kn~178kn (320~330km/h) and descends gradually to the altitude of 11483ft~13123ft (3500~4000m), and keeps a level flight at the same altitude with IAS of 173kn (320km/h) to the nearby airport for landing. 5) If a quick descent is required, pull the throttle back to 16o ~20o position, and keep an indicated airspeed of 243kn (450km/h) for descending. (h) Visual landing with two engines failed on the same side 1) When performing a traffic pattern flight with two engines failed on the same side, keep the indicated speed of 173kn~178kn (320~330km/h) with their propellers feathered and landing gears retracted. Reduce the load on the control stick and rudder with trim tab. When two engines on the same side fail, it is suggested to turn toward the normal engines and get into approach, or turn toward the failed engine and get into approach with a turning bank angle not more than 5o . The procedures for airline establishment are the same as the normal one except for landing gear down after the final turn. When getting into approach with crosswind of 16.4 ft/s~26.3 ft/s (5~8m/s), the failed engines side must be against the crosswind direction. 2) If the third and the fourth engines on the right side fail, extend landing gear urgently with left hydraulic system. 3) Perform the final turn with a turning bank angle not more than 15o and the indicated air speed of 162 kn~167 kn (300~310km/h). Keep gliding at a fine descent rate after turning, fly over the outer locator at the altitude 262 ft~328 ft (80~100m) higher than normal. Before flaring out, be sure to set the trim tab near the neutral position, so that the load on the control stick and rudder will increase. 4) When the indicated air speed is 157kn~162kn (290~300km/h) over the outer locator, lower the flap to 25o. After flying over the outer locator, if a successful approach can be assured by visual method, lower the flap to 35o, and then turn on the hydraulic communication valve. 5) Keep a speed of 135 kn~151 kn (250~280km/h) before flaring out as per different weight of aircraft, wind direction and speed. After flaring-out, pull the throttle back to 20o gently. Pull the inboard throttle back to 0o after the aircraft touches down. Lower the nose wheel and release the stop of inboard propellers when the direction gets stable. Pull the outboard throttle back to 0o, and keep the running direction with the rudder and the brakes.
  • 62. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-9 June 30, 2012 6) When the running speed is lowered to 32 kn (60km/h), pull out the nose wheel steering handle, and then release the stop of outboard propellers. In this case, the distance of landing run will increase to 4265 ft~4921 ft (1300~1500m) as per different aircraft weight. 7) Cautions a) If the third and fourth engines on the right side fail, the nose wheel control and emergency brake is driven by left hydraulic system. If the first and the second engines on the left side fail, the normal brake is propelled by right hydraulic system. Therefore, when two engines on the same side fail, the hydraulic communication valve must be turned on. b) When flying with two engines on the same side, especially during landing, it’s better to reduce the throttles of the outboard engines and increase that of the inboard engines so as to reduce the load on the stick and rudder to maintain the desired flight condition. (i) Go around with two engines failed on the same side 1) When two engines on the same side fail and the propellers have feathered, go around could be performed under special condition with the air temperature of 30o C below, but the altitude must not be below 328 ft (100m), and flap should not be more than 25o . 2) If a go around is determined, the throttles of the operating engines should be advanced to the take-off power condition (100o+4 o -2 o ) rapidly, retract the landing gear and keep the indicated speed not below 151kn (280km/h). 3) When performing the go around with two engines failed on the same side, the most complicated action is that, when the throttles of the normal engines are advanced to takeoff power condition, large yawing moment and banking moment are produced on the aircraft against the failed engines. In order to overcome these two moments, the rudder should be deflected to the maximum angle, the ailerons to the position of 2/3 of the whole travel. In this case, the load on the rudder will increase to about 784N (80kgf) and that on the stick to about 294N (30kgf). When the rudder is set to the maximum angle, the aircraft will buffet. After retracting the landing gears, the aircraft speed increases rapidly, the deflecting angle of the rudder decreases, and the buffeting will disappear accordingly.
  • 63. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-10 June 30, 2012 4) In order to reduce the rudder deflection and the load on it, bank the aircraft 7o ~8o toward the operating engine before the throttles advancement. When the indicated air speed is 162 kn (300km/h), retract the flaps in steps, and retard the throttles back to maximum continuous power condition. (j) Flight procedures with one outboard engine propeller in windmill condition 1) When the engine fails in flight and the entire propeller feathering systems fail, the propeller will be in a windmill condition. In this case, there will be a large yawing moment that makes the aircraft yaw and bank to the windmilling engine sharply, and decreases the aircraft speed by 10.8kn~13.5 kn (20~25km/h). 2) To keep the aircraft attitude and prevent the aircraft from yawing and banking, operate as follows: a) Press the helm, apply the rudder and keep the aircraft flying along straight line. b) Increase the operating engine throttle and keep the indicated air speed not below 162 kn (300km/h). c) Set the throttles of symmetrical operating engines to maximum continuous power condition or takeoff power condition, and pull the throttle of the operating engine symmetrical to the faulty one back to 40o ~60o at the same time. d) Reduce the load on the stick and rudder with trim tab. e) Retard throttle of the faulty engine back to 0o . f) Set the engine shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and turn off the anti-fire switch. 3) When the propeller of an outboard engine is in windmill condition, the load on the rudder will be about 882N (90kgf) and 343N (35kgf) on the stick. With the windmill speed stabilized to match the flight speed, the load on the rudder and stick will reduce by 50%. At this time, the load on the stick could be balanced wholly with trim tab, but the load on the rudder could not be completely balanced yet.
  • 64. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-11 June 30, 2012 4) When the propeller of an outboard engine is in windmill condition, the aircraft can fly with three engines operating at the indicated speed of 178 kn (330km/h) and the altitude above 16404 ft (5000m). When the true airspeed is below 227kn (420km/h), the rotating speed of the propeller reaches to or approaches the balanced speed (95~96%), while the negative thrust of the propeller in windmill condition is not large. In fact, the drag of the propeller will not be affected by airspeed increase. If the aircraft flies at the altitude of 28528 ft (9000m), it must be descended gradually to an altitude of 19685ft~22966ft (6000~7000m) at the indicated speed of 184 kn~189 kn (340~350km/h). 5) When the aircraft enters the airport area and prepares to land, it must descend at the indicated speed of 162kn~173kn (300~320km/h). When it reaches to the altitude of about 16404 ft (5000m), the propeller should be free from the equilibrium speed, the indicated speed falls and the negative thrust of windmilling propeller be maximized. In this case, release the stop of the engine propeller from windmill condition to reduce the negative thrust, and provide favorable conditions for keeping the flight condition and controlling the landing. 6) At the moment of releasing the propeller stop (3~5s), the negative thrust increases in a short period, which brings an additional yawing and banking moment which causes the aircraft to yaw and bank. With the propeller windmill speed falling, the negative thrust is smaller than that with the propeller at a stop position, at this time, the aircraft speed increases slightly. To reduce the aircraft’s yawing and banking, bank the aircraft 7o ~8o to the contrary direction of the windmilling propeller before releasing the stop of the propeller. When an outboard engine propeller is in windmill condition (the stop released), retract the landing gears and the flaps, and keep the level flight condition at the indicated speed of 173 kn~178 kn (320~330km/h) under the altitude of 13123 ft (4000m). 7) Be aware that after the stop of the faulty engine propeller is released, the rotating speed begins to fall. Set the stop releasing switch to STOP position in 1~1.5s.
  • 65. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-12 June 30, 2012 (k) Landing procedures with an outboard engine propeller in windmill condition (stop released) 1) The aircraft weights 49~51t, the air route altitude is 1640ft (500m), the indicated speed is kept at 173 kn (320km/h) with the landing gears up and at 157 kn~162 kn (290~300km/h) with the landing gears down. At this time, the throttles of the inboard operating engines are 72o ~84o , and the throttle of the outboard operating engine is about 40o ~60o . 2) Keep the indicated speed of 162kn~167 kn (300~310km/h) and a turning slope not more than 15o during the final turn. After that, extend the landing gears, keep gliding at a lower rate, and fly over the outer locator at an altitude 262 ft~328 ft (80~100m) higher than that in a normal condition. During gliding and before flaring out, be sure to set the ailerons and trim tab of rudder to or near their neutral position. 3) When flying over the outer locator, keep the indicated speed of 157kn~162kn (290~300km/h), lower the flaps to 25o , and adjust the indicated gliding speed to 140kn~151kn (260~280km/h). After flying over the outer locator, if a successful approach can be assured, lower the flaps to 35o . If there is a crosswind, correct it according to the crosswind correcting method. 4) Keep an indicated speed of 135kn~151kn (250~280km/h) before flaring out as per the weight of the aircraft, wind direction and speed. At this time, the throttle of the operating engine symmetrical to the faulty one is not less than 16o . After the aircraft touches down, pull the throttle of the operating engine symmetrical to the faulty one back to 0o gently. During this period, take special care to prevent the aircraft from yawing. 5) After the aircraft touches down, pull the throttles of the symmetrical operating engines back to 0o and release the stop. Keep the running direction with the rudder and brakes, and modify the aircraft yawing with the nose wheel steering handle if necessary. At the rear half of taxiing, when the aircraft speed is about 32.4kn (60km/h), pull out the nose wheel steering handle, and release the stop of the normal engine symmetrical to the faulty one. 6) Cautions: a) Because the windmill of one engine propeller brings a large negative thrust, the aircraft balancing requires a larger control surface deflection. So the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft deteriorates.
  • 66. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-13 June 30, 2012 b) If an inboard engine fails and its propeller enters into windmill condition, the yawing and banking moment is much smaller than that from the windmill of an outboard engine. Therefore, it is easier to control an inboard engine windmilling in each stage of flight. (l) Landing procedures with an outboard engine propeller in windmill condition (blade angle 12o ) 1) If the propeller stop could not be released due to stop release system failure and windmill takes place with blade angle of 12o , the aircraft should fly to the nearest airport for landing. The altitude should be kept below 13123ft (4000m) and the indicated speed at 157 kn~162 kn (290~300km/h), the throttles of the two inboard engines should be retarded to 72o ~80o and the throttle of the outboard operating engine retarded to 40o ~60o . 2) When an outboard engine fails, the indicated speed is 189kn (350km/h) and the rudder deflection angle is more than 16o , the aircraft will buffet. To overcome the buffeting, bank the aircraft by 7o ~8o toward the two normal engines to reduce the rudder deflection angle and the load on the rudder. For example, bank 3o , and the load on the rudder can be reduced by 147N~196N (15kgf~20kgf), bank 7o ~8o , by 294N~392N (30 kgf~40kgf). Retarding the throttle of the normal engine symmetrical to the faulty one at the same time, the rudder deflection can also be reduced,but not less than 30o ~40o . 3) Keep level flight to perform the final turn. Descend after the final turn. 4) The operation procedure for the final leg is generally the same as the landing control procedure with the propeller stop released, except for a larger control surface deflection and load on the rudder and aileron. 5) When landing with the windmilling propeller, the aircrew should cooperate closely and try their best to avoid a go around regardless of the propeller status. Therefore, the specified altitude and air speed must be kept before the final turn. 6) Cautions a) The power of the normal engine symmetrical to the windmilling one could not be too large. If the throttle is over 40o , the rudder deflection would be more than 16o , which would bring division of the airflow on the control surface, and the aircraft would buffet violently.
  • 67. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-14 June 30, 2012 b) To prevent the high-pressure fuel pump from being damaged, the windmilling of the engine is not allowed to exceed 10 minutes during flight training. (m) Go around with an outboard engine propeller in a windmill condition 1) Perform the go around if extremely necessary and the following conditions are all ready. a) Visual flight at an altitude not below 492ft (150m). b) The flap angle is not larger than 25o . c) The landing weight of the aircraft is not more than 53t. d) The air temperature is not higher than 25o C. 2) Operating procedures for go around: a) Advance the throttles of all normal engines to the takeoff power condition, and retract the landing gears and keep the flaps at 15o . b) Apply the rudder and bend the stick timely to prevent the aircraft from banking and yawing, bank the aircraft 4o ~5o toward the two normal engines. c) Climb at the indicated airspeed of 157 kn~162 kn (290~300km/h) with a climbing rate of 6.56ft/s~9.84ft/s (2~3m/s). d) Retract the flaps step by step. e) The co-pilot helps the pilot to keep and balance the attitude. f) Climb to the air route altitude and enter landing again. (n) Operation procedures when the aircraft glides to the altitude below 492 ft (150m) with an outboard engine failed 1) Landing before flaring-out: a) In the gliding before landing, if an outboard engine fails, the landing gears are extended, the flaps at 35o and the propeller at the stop position (blade angle is 12o ), the aircraft could continue landing along the gliding line. In this case, it is easier to stabilize and steer the aircraft. The deflection of the rudder and the aileron won’t exceed 2/3 of the whole travelling range. b) Apply the rudder and bend the stick in time to prevent the aircraft from banking and yawing and keep the aircraft attitude. c) Advance the inboard engine throttles, keep flying along the normal gliding line at the specified speed and retard the throttle of the normal engine symmetrical to the faulty one back to 30o ~40o .
  • 68. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-15 June 30, 2012 d) Feather the failed engine with the manual-feathering button. e) Don’t use or use less the rudder and the aileron trim tabs to balance the aircraft. f) After feathering, the operating procedures are the same as those for landing with three engines in operation. g) If the feathering system fails, the stop of the propeller should not be released. Keep the indicated speed of 140kn~151kn (260~280km/h), and land in the same method with that the propeller is in windmill condition. 2) Landing with an outboard engine failed during flaring-out a) Apply the rudder and bend the stick in time to prevent the aircraft from banking, yawing and deviating from the runway. b) Retard all engines throttles back to 0o and release the propellers stop of the inboard engines after the aircraft touches down. During running, lower the nose wheel down to the ground and keep direction with the rudder. If necessary, correct the direction with the brake or pull out the nose wheel steering handle when the speed is below 81kn (150km/h). c) During the latter running with a speed below 32.4kn (60km/h), pull out the nose wheel steering handle and release the stop of the outboard propellers. 3) Cautions a) When the engine fails, the propeller is in windmill condition at the stop position (blade angle is 12o ), the landing gears are extended, the flaps are at 35o , and the flight altitude is over 492 ft (150m), the go around could be performed carefully. b) If an outboard engine fails and doesn’t feather, and the flaps are lowered at 35o , it is not necessary to retract the flaps. Keep the previous flight condition for gliding and landing. c) If the engine fails before lowering the flaps, after flying over the outer locator, if a successful approach can be assured, lower the flap to the required position. d) Be careful to keep the aircraft direction during landing and running.
  • 69. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-16 June 30, 2012 HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK FLIGHT The aircraft possesses better stability and controllability within the whole operating scope in terms of Mach number and C.G before the stalling angle of attack, regardless of the operating status of the landing gears and flaps. The aircraft can recover from stalling in any flying state by pushing the stick over its neutral position once the stalling phenomenon occurs in flight. It is prohibited to fly at high angle of attack. Since the aircraft mainly flies at high altitude near its service ceiling, the conditions that cause the aircraft stalling depend on the flight state, altitude and airspeed. The stall margin of angle of attack at high altitude is much less than that of flight at middle altitude. High angle of attack may occur in flight due to pilot’s misoperation during a sharp recovery of descending or when flying in a strong turbulent airflow and strong bomb explosive wave. To prevent the aircraft from stalling in flight, which is hazardous to flight safety, the pilots are required to understand the symptoms of the aircraft entering high angle of attack up and the operating technique for recovery, which is of great importance for the flight safety. Judgment on entering high angle of attack stall state The symptoms of aircraft stalling at minimum airspeed (a) When the airspeed of aircraft with its landing gears and flaps retracted decreases to 10.8 kn~13.5 kn (20~25km/h) before stalling, the vortex area on the wing surface enlarges rapidly, at this time the pilots feel the aircraft buffeting obviously, the left wing sinks and then the nose sinks. (b) When the aircraft with its landing gears and flaps lowered (flap setting 25o for taking-off and 35o for landing) nears its stalling state, there is no obvious warning symptom. Only a not obvious buffet appears at the moment when the aircraft stall occurs. It is difficult for the aircraft to get into the stalling state at later stage of the level flight after flaring-out (the throttles of the inboard engines are retarded to 0o position and those of the outboard engines to 16o ~20o position, flaps at 35o position).
  • 70. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-17 June 30, 2012 The symptoms of the aircraft stalling in operating airspeed range Stall of the aircraft not only occur in stalling airspeed state but also in the whole operating airspeed range. Stalling may be caused by pulling back the stick too hard or flying in airflow where strong vertical disturbance and bump exist. It depends on the flight conditions and state of the flight. Stalling symptoms of the aircraft varies with different Mach numbers. The stalling of the wing (the left wing stalls first) and the sinking of nose are both slower when flying with a Mach number less than 0.45~0.5. When Mach number is 0.55~0.66, the stalling of wing and sinking of the nose develop drastically and aircraft buffet is also serious before the aircraft stalling (2o ~3o less than stalling angle). The general symptom is not obvious for the aircraft at large angle of attack. To ensure the safety of the aircraft and prevent the aircraft from entering stalling angle, an indicator of critical angle of attack is furnished on the aircraft which warns the pilot with its light and sound signal that the aircraft comes near the stalling state. Table 3-1 shows the angle of attack at which the warning will be given by the critical angle of attack indicator for different flap settings and Mach numbers. Table 3-1a Angle of attack at which the warning will be given by the critical angle of attack indicator Flap setting Flight status Takeoff and landing M number Altitude (ft) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.65 0 17o 15.4o 11.1o 10.4o 10.5o 3281 15.4o 11.1o 10.4o 10o 3281 above 10.4o 10o Table 3-1b Angle of attack at which the warning will be given by the critical angle of attack indicator Flap setting Flight status Takeoff and landing M number Altitude (m) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.65 0 17o 15.4o 11.1o 10.4o 10.5o 1000 15.4o 11.1o 10.4o 10o 1000 above 10.4o 10o
  • 71. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-18 June 30, 2012 Stalling symptom for different flight status (a) The stalling airspeed of the aircraft with a failed engine (has been feathered) is 5.4 kn ~8.1kn (10~15km/h) higher than that with four engines operative. If without sideslip, the main symptom is that the aircraft banks to the failed engine side and the deflecting angle of rudder needed may reaches 20o and the aileron deflection is about half of its full travel, the force on the pedal is about 490N~588N(50kgf~60kgf). (b) For flying in turbulent airflow, the angle of attack and load factor will change greatly by the effect of up or down airflow. Therefore it is harmful to fly at either high or low airspeed. In vertical gust, the aircraft should fly with the following most favorable airspeed. See Table 3-2. Table 3-2a Favorable airspeed in vertical turbulent airflow (IAS, kn) Alttitude(ft) Airborne weight (t) 9843 below 9843~26247 44 211 221 54 227 240 60 238 246 Table 3-2b Favorable airspeed in vertical turbulent airflow (IAS, km/h) Alttitude (m) Airborne weight (t) 3000 below 3000~8000 44 390 410 54 420 445 60 440 455 Operating procedure for recovering from stalling (a) When the aircraft is entering stall, the pilots should resolutely and rapidly push the control column to reduce the angle of attack and then apply the rudder and bend the stick to eliminate the aircraft banking and sideslip. After leveling off, the stick should be pulled back to near its neutral position, then level off the aircraft gently as the airspeed increases. Before airspeed reaches the given value, if reducing the angle of glide in a hurry by roughly pulling back the control column, the aircraft will stall again. (b) The pilot must push the stick rapidly through its neutral position to the position of 1/4 or 1/3 of its full travel to recover the aircraft from stalling when flying with minor airspeed at various altitudes. Meanwhile, be sure not fly with banking.
  • 72. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-19 June 30, 2012 (c) For recovering the aircraft from descending when the aircraft stalls at minor airspeed, push the stick forward first to reduce the angle of attack. As airspeed increases to 151kn~162kn (280~300km/h) (landing gears and flaps retracted) or 119kn~130kn (220~240km/h) (landing gears down, flaps 35o ), gently pull back the stick to recover from descending, but be sure not to let the aircraft stall again. (d) The pilot should push the stick forward to its neutral position to restore the normal angle of attack of the aircraft when the critical angle of attack indicator warns with sound and light. (e) When recovering the aircraft from stalling, the pilots should check the aircraft state with aircraft horizon and rate-of-turn indicator and judge the attitude of the aircraft by referring to the sky-ground line of horizon. Cautions for high angle of attack flight (a) It is prohibited to roughly move the stick to alter the aircraft pitching attitude in flight. Especially it is prohibited to pull the stick back roughly as it may result in a large load factor. (b) When the aircraft is stalling and buffeting, it is dangerous to correct aircraft banking by roughly pressing stick and applying rudder before pushing stick forward, for it will promote the stalling on wings. (c) When flying in disturbing airflow, normally the allowable vertical speed of wind is not higher than 32.8ft/s (10m/s), and the maximum shall not exceed 72.2ft/s (22m/s). (d) When the aircraft stalls in any flight condition, it can be recovered and leveled off with an altitude loss of 328ft~492ft (100~150m), if the pilots deal with it correctly. (e) To prevent the aircraft from entering stalling state at high angle of attack, the indicated airspeed should not be less than 151kn (280km/h) for altitude below 19685ft (6000m) and 162kn (300km/h) above 19685ft (6000m).
  • 73. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-20 June 30, 2012 Entering spin After the aircraft enters the stalling state, it can be recovered stably by pushing the stick through its neutral position. It is very unlikely for the aircraft to get into spin state. Therefore, the pilots must distinguish the aircraft stalling from steady spin state to avoid a harmful consequence caused by misjudgment. (a) Operating procedure for recovering from spin 1) Set ailerons to its neutral position first, at the same time push the stick forward. Apply rudder against the spin direction after aircraft rotated for a half circle. In this way the spin delay can be recovered within half a circle. 2) Neutralize the ailerons from the spin direction, then apply the rudder about 13o against the spin. After rotating half a circle, push the stick to neutral position, the spin will be recovered for no more than another half a circle. 3) Apply the rudder against spin first. After rotating half a circle, push the stick over or to neutral position, leave the aileron at the spin position or return it to neutral, the spin will be recovered within another circle. 4) Only apply rudder against spin can also recover the spin within a circle. 5) Apply rudder against spin, at the same time, push the stick over neutral position, the spin will be recovered within a circle. (b) The aircraft will fail to recover from spin under the following conditions: 1) Ailerons at neutral, stick at forward position, elevators downward and rudder deflects to the spin direction. 2) Ailerons deflect from spin direction to its opposite direction.
  • 74. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-21 June 30, 2012 FLYING WITH DOOR OPEN AND DESCENDING IN EMERGENCY Flying with bottom emergency door of cockpit open or cargo door open (a) Flying with the bottom emergency door of cockpit open does not change the attitude of the aircraft significantly, but there will be a strong noise inside the cockpit. (b) When flying with cargo door open at an indicated airspeed of 151kn~200kn (280~350km/h), the flying state will not be greatly affected, but when the airspeed is more than 200kn (370km/h), the aircraft will buffet slightly. The buffet becomes stronger with airspeed increase. Emergency descending When airtight cabin leaks and oxygen system fails in flight, descend the aircraft to an altitude of 13123ft (4000m) immediately. When engine catches fire, descend to the minimum altitude. When the aircraft fuel left is not enough for a successful landing and the aircraft approaches the airfield, emergency descending can be employed. The operation procedures are as follows: (a) Check propeller for stop position (red signal light is off). (b) Retard outboard throttles to 20o first, then inboard throttles to 0o , after that outboard throttles to 0o to gently operate the aircraft to emergency descending state. (c) During emergency descending, Mach number is not allowed to be higher than 0.7 at altitude above 19685ft (6000m); and the indicated airspeed is not allowed to be higher than 329kn (610km/h) with a rate-of-descent of 82ft/s~131ft/s(25m/s~40m/s) at altitude below 19685ft (6000m). (During training flight: not greater than 35m/s). (d) When the elevator trim tabs are operated during descending, a certain amount of backward force should be applied on the control stick. Control the trim tabs gently. (e) Recover emergency descending altitude to 13123ft (4000m) and the minimum altitude should not be less than 6562ft (2000m). Advance outboard throttles to 20o first, then inboard throttles to 20o . The movement to recover emergency descending should be gentle and the overload should not be more than 1.2.
  • 75. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-22 June 30, 2012 LANDING WITH THE MALFUNCTIONED LANDING GEAR SYSTEM If the landing gear extending system fails, the aircrew must adopt all emergency methods to extend the landing gears, i.e. extending the landing gears repeatly with the main system, emergency system, and hand pump system. If the above systems all fail, adopt the mechanical device to extend the gears. Having confirmed that the landing gears cannot be extended or its extending lock cannot work, the aircrew should report the situation of aircraft landing gears extension in emergency, the measures taken and the landing methods to the ground commander. The landing cannot be performed without permission from the ground commander. Before landing, the communicator turns on the emergency power source and cuts off all the DC and AC generators at the altitude of 164ft~230ft (50~70m) by following the instructions. Then the communicator leaves for the cargo cabin. Landing with the landing gear signal failure or the malfunctioned lowering lock The signal system failure: If the gear lowering signal light is normal, but not on when the gears are lowered or it is not off when the gears are up again, pressurize the landing gear actuators with the left system for landing. The lowering locks failure: Visually inspect that the lowering lock does not work and the signal lights are off (but the bulbs are normal). At this moment, do not lower or retract the landing gears again, and land according to the following procedures: (a) Check the two landing gear handles of the left hydraulic system for the neutral position. Turn off the power switch for emergency opening/closing of the landing gear door. (b) Open the safety cover of the switch for emergency lowering the landing gear on the right console. (c) Pull out the safety pin. (d) Push the control handle forwards to lower the landing gear until the aircraft comes to a complete standstill after landing.
  • 76. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-23 June 30, 2012 (e) If the landing gear doors are not closed and the signal light is off, pull the control handle backwards to close the doors. Set the control handle at the neutral position 5~10s after the doors have been closed. The communicator turns off the safety switch, and then push the control handle forwards to lower the landing gear. (f) Push the control handle forwards to the position for lowering the landing gear to pressurize the landing gear actuators. Even though the landing gears are not locked well, the landing gears cannot be retracted after landing. Landing when the landing gears cannot or be fully extended Land with the fuselage when the landing gears cannot be fully lowered, but it must be performed on the earth runway especially for forced landing or outside field. (a) Once determining to land with the fuselage, the captain issues the instructions to the aircrew to be to be going to cargo cabin, and prepare for the forced landing. Pilot and copilot fasten the safety belt. (b) Open the doors of frame 9. (c) After the final turn, open the cargo cabin door and entry door. (d) The navigator, the communicator and the flight engineer should get ready for forced landing in the cargo cabin after completing their work as per stipulation. (e) At the touching down moment, the captain should retard the four engines throttles back to 0o , set the shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and turn off the anti-fire switch. (f) Switch off the aircraft power source before leaving the aircraft after landing. Landing with the main landing gear when the nose landing gear cannot be lowered (a) The landing must be performed on earth runway especially for forced landing. (b) If possible, before landing, transfer the center of gravity of the aircraft backward to 32%CA. (c) Navigator should leave navigation cabin for the cargo cabin. (d) When landing with the main wheels, the depression angle between the aircraft nose and ground is not permitted. Touch down according to normal procedures. After touching down, try to keep the two-point run for a long time. Do not use the brakes after touching down and it is better to make the front section of aircraft touch down gently.
  • 77. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-24 June 30, 2012 (e) The operating of engine is the same as that in normal landing. During steady running with the two main wheels, release the stop of the inboard propellers first, and then the outboard ones. After that, set the engine shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and turn off the anti-fire switch. Landing when the nose landing gear cannot be retracted and the main landing gears cannot be lowered (a) When the main landing gears cannot be lowered and the nose landing gear cannot be retracted, landing must be done on earth runway especially for forced landing. (b) It is absolutely forbidden to touch down with a small angle of attack or with the nose wheel first. (c) Open the door of frame 9, cargo cabin door and entry door. (d) The navigator, the communicator and the mechanic should go to cargo cabin to get ready for forced landing after completing their works. (e) The control of engine propeller is the same as that of landing with fuselage. Warning The nose landing gear might be broken with such landing Landing with the nose wheel and left main wheel down and the right main wheel not up (a) The procedures and the data of the final gliding are normally performed but on the earth runway. (b) Bank aircraft to the left by 5o ~8o before flaring out, apply the left rudder. (c) Continue bending the stick leftward after touching down (increasing the banking of pressing the helm with the falling of the aircraft speed). (d) When the aircraft speed falls to make the aircraft bank rightward, the wing touches down naturally, and then the aircraft stops if it swerves over 100o after touching down. (e) The other control procedures and the cautions are the same as the foregoing conditions. However, the right outboard wing, propeller of the right outboard engine and the right landing gear well might be all damaged.
  • 78. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-25 June 30, 2012 HANDLING OF TYRE BLOWN-UP AND BRAKES FAILURE Handling of tyre blown-up Phenomena (a) The aircraft swerves to the blown up tyre and banks slightly. (b) The blown-up sound maybe heard. (c) The aircraft would buffet due to the unbalance of the loading of the tyres. Handling (a) Abort the takeoff at the fore stage of running and its handling procedures are as follows: 1) Pull the throttles back to 0o , release the stop of the inboard engines propellers firstly, the outboard ones secondly, and then lower the flaps completely to reduce the aircraft speed. 2) Keep the direction, press the helm properly to the intact wheel side to reduce the load on the blown-up tyre and the banking of the aircraft. 3) Don’t reduce the speed with the brake too early. During braking, reduce the braking degree of the wheel with blown-up tyre properly. (b) Continue taking off if the aircraft speed approaches the takeoff speed at the rear stage of running, its handling procedures are as follows: 1) Keep the direction, press the helm properly to the intact wheel side to lift the aircraft off steadily timely. 2) Report to the aircraft dispatcher, and if it is a local flight, the route landing can be performed. If it is a mission flight, retract the landing gears and continue flying according to the original plan. 3) During landing, touch down softly, and avoid banking to the wheel with blown-up tyre side. 4) Keep the direction with the rudder timely after touching down,bend the stick properly to the intact wheel side to reduce the load on the blown-up tyre, and reduce the speed carefully with the brake after the speed decrease. Handling of the aircraft when the brake fails Phenomena (a) The brake system is inoperative during the running speed reduction of the aircraft. (b) The hydraulic accumulator of the left hydraulic system has no pressure.
  • 79. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-26 June 30, 2012 Handling (a) Stop taxiing during the normal takeoff when the brakes fail. (b) When the brake system fails during landing run, reduce the aircraft speed with the emergency brake. At this moment, “automatic brake released” is inoperative, so do not pull the emergency brake violently and be sure to balance leftward and rightward. (c) When the left hydraulic system has no pressure, turn on the hydraulic communication valve to provide the normal brake pressure by the right system. (d) If the normal brake and the emergency brake both fail, correct the aircraft direction and avoid the barrier with the hand control operation or the throttle. Shut down the two outboard engines, and then the inboard ones at a proper time, to stop the aircraft taxiing quickly. HANDLING OF HEADING SYSTEM AND THE BAROMETER FAILED IN FLIGHT The heading system failure in flight (a) The navigator judges the failures of the heading system in all working conditions with the aid of the instruments and reports the failures to the aircrew. The pilot decides whether to go on flying or land at the nearest airport according to the present flying condition. (b) The autopilot must be cut off. (c) The navigator takes full use of the airborne equipment to navigate. (d) The communicator contacts with the landing airport and applies to turn on the ground radar and director station. (e) The pilot maintains all specified parameters according to the heading reported by the navigator and indicated by the compass LC-5D. The static and the pitot pressure system failure Failure judgement of the static and the pitot pressure system (a) If the pitot system fails, the indication of the airspeed indicator and the Machmeter are not correct, and the indication of the altimeter and the vertical velocity indicator (VVI) is the current flight condition. (b) If the static system fails, when the aircraft is descending or climbing, the indication of the above instruments of pitot-static systems is not accurate.
  • 80. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-27 June 30, 2012 The causes and phenomena of the static and the pitot pressure system failure (a) When the pitot port and the static tube freeze and the airspeed indicator points to zero. If failure appears during aircraft descending, the indication of airspeed indicator will exceed TAS; If failure is appearing during aircraft climbing, indication of airspeed indicator will be less than TAS, the altimeter and theVVI do not indicate the altitude change, the indication is not changed (indication of the altimeter is the altitude when failing). (b) The static tube is not sealed: During level flight, altitude and speed keep constant. At this time, it is not easy to find out the failure of the static system. If the sealing of static tube is damaged in flight, the pressure in pressurized cabin could affect the pressure of static tube, and make the indication of airspeed indicator and the altimeter reduce. Handling of the static and the pitot pressure system failure (a) Judge which system is in failure. If the indication of the barometer on the copilot instrument panel is surely right, the left dynamic, static pressure valves should be turned over to the pneumatic system of the copilot instrument panel. (b) If the barometer system of the copilot instrument panel also breaks down, the static pressure system of the barometer on the pilot instrument panel may be switched over to the emergency static pressure inlet located in the nose landing gear well. LANDING WITH FLAPS UP Features Compared with flap-down landing, flap-up landing has more pitch control. The aircraft can easily get into the landing angle of attack. For example, when the landing weight is 52t and the gliding speed is 167kn (310km/h), the touch-down speed of the aircraft is 151kn (280 km/h), the landing angle of attack is 12o and pitch angle is 8o . But the allowable maximum angle of attack is 12o 30′ and pitch angle is 8o 30′ for aircraft belly contacting with the ground (oleo struts fully compressed). Therefore, safety margin for contacting with the ground is only 30′ and the run distance will be sharply increased. Therefore it is not allowed to make a flap-up landing unless in special case. Generally, the flap-up landing speed is 10.8kn~16.2kn (20~30km/h) greater than that with flap-down (35o ), and the float or run distance will be increased by about 50%.
  • 81. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-28 June 30, 2012 Landing procedures (a) When landing with flaps-up and the gliding speed is kept at 151kn~173kn (280km/h~320km/h), the angle of attack is about 7o ~8o larger than that with the flaps-down (35o ). After passing the outer locator, keep gliding at the specified speed in Table 3-3 according to the landing weight of the aircraft. Table 3-3a Gliding speed Airborne weight (t) Gliding speed Vb(kn) 45 below 151 50 159 52 163 58 320 Table 3-3b Gliding speed Airborne weight (t) Gliding speed Vb(km/h) 45 below 280 50 295 52 301 58 320 (b) The altitude for exiting from the final turn should be 131 ft~98 ft (30~40m) lower than normal, and the gliding point should be moved backward by 328 ft~492 ft (100~150m). To keep the specified gliding speed, the throttles should be generally smaller than that in normal condition. After passing the outer locator, adjust the outboard throttles timely according to the air temperature. Keep the gliding speed with the inboard throttles. The altitude of flare-out should generally be 23ft~16ft (7~5m) lower than normal, begin flaring out at the indicated speed of 151kn~146 kn (280~270km/h). The method of pulling the throttle is the same as that when landing with flaps-down. Retard the inboard throttles back to 0o to reduce the flaring-out distance. Compared to that with flaps-down, during flaring out, the deceleration of airspeed is lower, the distance is longer, the falling is slower, the control is lighter, and entering landing angle of attack is easier. (c) After touching down, the angle of attack of the aircraft tends to increase, and the nose wheel should not be lowered. To prevent the aircraft belly from touching ground, push the control stick gently and lower the nose wheel, then retard the outboard throttles back to 0o . Release the stop of propellers separately in taxiing. Only when the speed is not higher than 113 kn (210km/h), the brake may be used.
  • 82. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-29 June 30, 2012 Cautions (a) During landing with flap-up, the indicated gliding speed must not be lower than 151 kn (280km/h). (b) Try to prevent the aircraft rushing out of the runway since the distance of float and run is long. (c) The control after flaring out must not be rough to prevent the tail fuselage from touching the ground for the very large angle of attack. OUTSIDE FORCED LANDING In case that an emergency event occurs and it is beyond the control of the crew, transmit emergency signal and perform the outside forced landing with landing gears retracted. During the forced landing try every means to ensure the safety of onboard personnel and survive the aircraft additionally. On the land Aircrew work assignment (a) Captain: take full command of the crewmembers and operate aircraft for forced landing. (b) Co-pilot: assist the captain to control the aircraft. (c) Navigator: decide forced landing location, then report longitude and latitude and flight condition to the communicator with intercom. (d) Communicator: report to the ground about aircraft forced landing location rapidly and accurately, and reports the instructions of aircraft dispatcher to crewmembers in time. (e) Mechanic: responsible to open the aircraft emergency doors and windows. If there is fuel in auxiliary tank, use it up or transferred it to group fuel tank.
  • 83. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-30 June 30, 2012 Preparations before forced landing (a) Crewmember should open the entry door and the door of frame 9 and keep them locked. Open the emergency windows on both sides of the cargo compartment and fix two escape ropes on air exhauster mount at both sides of cargo cabin. If possible, throw some on-board cargo out from the aircraft to reduce the aircraft’s landing speed and firmly tie up those cannot be thrown out with steel cable according to the requirements. (b) Having decided to perform the forced landing, the members that do not directly involve in the forced landing operation should go to the cargo cabin, look after personnel onboard and get some emergency materials for use after the forced landing. The personnel should fasten their safety belts. (c) Observe and choose a favorable place for forced landing. (d) Communicator should report to the ground about forced landing location, time, causes and send signals for help if necessary. (e) Make sure the fire extinguishing cock is at the required position and turn on the neutral gas switch to charge air for the tank in case of fire after force landing. (f) Having completed their works, the navigator and communicator should go to the cargo cabin and prepare for force landing at a dependable site, sitting on the floor with their back against the fuselage, their heads lowered and both hands at the back of their head and the legs bended slightly. Force landing implementation (a) Shut off the pressure control /shutoff valve and pressurization cock at the altitude of 328ft (100m). (b) After the aircraft is aligned to forced landing location, lower flap to 15o , the communicator should switch the onboard circuit to emergency power supply and the navigator should leave navigation cabin to cargo cabin at the altitude above 30m. (c) With landing gear retracted, maintain the same gliding and leveling speed as normal, and float distance increases remarkably. (d) Visually choose gliding entry point according to the edge of forced landing area, lower flap to 35o and maintain the specified normal gliding speed. (e) At the moment of the aircraft touching down, the captain should retard the throttle to 0o , set the engine shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position and turn off the anti-fire switch. (f) After the aircraft touches down, turn off the aircraft power supply to cut off all electric circuits of the aircraft.
  • 84. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-31 June 30, 2012 Work after forced landing (a) When the aircraft stops, the crewmember should quickly arrange the personnel to get far away from the aircraft through the cargo cabin door, entry door or emergency exits with the help of escape rope. (b) The communicator send out SOS signal, report information of the forced landing site, personnel, aircraft damage and necessities with stndby radio set. Forced landing on water (a) When the aircraft flies over the sea 27 n mile (50km) away from the seashore, airborne lifejacket and raft should be equipped in all cases. When the aircraft flies over the sea 54 n mile (100km) away from the seashore, the following survival equipment must be equipped: 1) Lifejacket and raft; 2) Portable off-site radio set 3) Enough medicine and food 4) Seawater desalting agent 5) Luminescence agent 6) Compass 7) Torch 8) Antishark powder 9) Escape rope 10) Antifouling cloth Each crewmeber should be familiar with location of all survival equipment, and their positions are clearly marked. They must also understand their operation method. Each member should be trained so as to operate the equipment skillfully when necessary. (b) Generally, the aircraft can float for long time after forced landing on water. The differences between forced landing on water and on ground are as follows: 1) Before the forced landing, all aircrew members should untie the safety belt and collar button, and check personal & collective survival equipment for reliability. 2) Open emergency window and close other doors and windows to extend floating time. After a successful force landing, open the emergency exits above the water line at both sides of the fuselage for evacuation.
  • 85. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION III EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 3-32 June 30, 2012 3) The captin should conduct the forced landing near the seashore and island and send out SOS signal with radio channel and international mishap communication frequency for first-aid deployment. 4) Generally, the forced landing on water should follow the up wind direction. In case there is wave and the current wind speed is within 26.3ft/s~32.8ft/s (8m/s~10m/s) (the sea is covered by the wave), forced landing can be conducted following the wave direction. In case of heavy storm without tidal wave, forced landing should follow the up wind direction on the rising-up wave. 5) No flap and landing gear down is allowed for forced landing. 6) Feather the propeller at the altitude not lower than 328ft (100m) before the forced landing. 7) IAS should be reduced at 151kn~148kn (280km/h~275km/h) before level off, and start level off at the altitude of 26.3ft~32.8ft (8m~10m). 8) Touching the water surface at minimum speed, but be careful not to fall in stall. 9) Keep the aircraft at normal landing status at the moment of touching the water surface. 10) When the aircraft is floated on water, all crewmembers should evacuate from the emergency exits with personal and collective life-saving equipment. Personal lifejacket should be supplied with air at the dorsal fin, and then the collective raft. Generally, personnel should not leave the aircraft unless its sinkage. 11) In case of forced landing at night, turn on the landing light at the altitude of 328ft~492ft (100m~150m) and concentrate on level off for touching the water surface. The aircraft is not allowed to touch the water surface with sliding angle or in stalling status. 
  • 86. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-1 June 30, 2012 NORMAL PROCEDURES PREPARATIONS FOR FLIGHT Preparations for flight are necessary step to ensure the successful completion of a flight mission. Therefore it is necessary to conduct the preparation for each flight. Preflight preparations Meteorological analysis The aircraft features large sphere of activities, high flight altitude, long flight range and duration, so it is very important to know, analyze and master the meteorological conditions for accomplishing the flight missions safely and successfully. When analyzing the meteorological conditions, special attention must be paid to the following: (a) The positions of atmospheric front and flight route, the height of cloud base and top in frontal zone. (b) The position and strength of the jet flow area, and the height of the axis of the jet flow area, the horizontal and vertical distributions of wind direction and speed in various altitude layers. (c) The horizontal and vertical temperature distributions above troposphere, especially in the jet flow area. (d) The baric topography (cyclonic and trough) and its position at high altitude. (e) The position of the cumulus congested, cumulonimbus clouds and the flight route. (f) The icing area and its height that may be met in flight route. (g) The active thunderstorm area, the airflow disturbance condition and the cloud characteristic. (h) The weather condition in the landing area and alternative landing area.
  • 87. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-2 June 30, 2012 Determination of the most favorable flight condition Determination of the most favorable flight condition depends upon the flying distance, weight and high-altitude wind. (a) Determination of the most favorable flying altitude Usually, the altitude of 22966ft~26247ft (7000~8000m) should be chosen for flight in order to obtain higher cruising speed and improve the aircraft controllability and stability. For altitude selection when the flying distance is within 810n mile (1500km), see the Table 4-1. Table 4-1a Favorable flying altitude Flight range (n mile) 324 432 540 810 The most favorable altitude (ft) 19686 22966 26247 29528 Table 4-1b Favorable flying altitude Flight range (km) 600 800 1000 1500 The most favorable altitude (m) 6000 7000 8000 9000 The most favorable flying altitude is 26247 ft~29528 ft (8000~9000m) when the flying distance is above 810n mile (1500km). (b) Determination of climb segment If the flying distance is more than 810n mile (1500km) and takeoff weight is close to the maximum, the aircraft may climb to an applicable height by adopting the step climb method after takeoff in summer, and then climb to the most favorable height after certain amount of fuel is consumed. In general, straight climb method is adopted. (c) If the wind direction and speed at various height layers are known, the most favorable flying altitude shall be determined according to the ground speed at each height (the ground speed = the true airspeed ± correction) calculated based on the Table 4-2. The wind speed correction increases with the height. If headwind increment exceeds 13.5kn (25km/h) with each increased height of 3281ft (1000m), the flight shall be conducted at the low altitude layer.
  • 88. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-3 June 30, 2012 Required fuel calculation The required fuel for performing mission equals the total of the following fuel. The required amount of fuel = flight fuel consumption + reserved fuel + required fuel for ground engine warming, running up, and taxiing + dead fuel (a) For the fuel consumption when the aircraft takes off and climbs to the planned flight height with the takeoff weight of 61t, and performs enroute level flight and then descends to the height of 1640ft (500m), refer to the associated data in Chapter 5. Table 4-2a W-V numerical Table (Aircraft true speed is 270 kn~378 kn) Wind speed (km/h) Wind angle(km/h) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Down wind: Ground speed=TAS+Correction 0o 360o 10.8 21.6 32.4 43.2 54.0 64.8 75.6 86.4 97.2 108.0 10o 350o 10.8 21.1 31.9 42.7 52.9 63.7 74.0 84.8 95.0 105.8 20o 340o 10.3 20.0 30.2 40.5 50.2 59.9 70.2 79.9 89.6 99.4 30o 330o 9.2 18.4 28.1 36.7 45.9 54.5 63.2 71.8 80.5 89.1 40o 320o 8.1 16.2 24.3 31.9 39.4 47.0 54.0 61.6 68.6 74.5 50o 310o 7.0 13.5 20.0 25.9 31.9 37.3 43.7 48.6 54.0 58.9 60o 300o 5.4 10.3 15.1 19.4 23.8 27.5 31.3 34.6 37.8 40.5 70o 290o 3.8 7.0 9.7 12.4 14.6 16.7 18.4 19.4 20.5 21.1 80o 280o 1.6 3.2 3.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 3.8 2.2 1.1 Upwind:Ground speed=TAS-Correction 90o 270o 0.0 0.5 1.6 2.7 4.3 6.5 8.6 11.3 14.6 17.8 100o 260o 2.2 4.3 7.0 10.3 14.0 17.3 21.6 25.9 31.3 36.2 110o 250o 3.8 8.1 12.4 17.3 22.7 28.1 33.5 39.4 45.9 52.9 120o 240o 5.4 11.3 17.3 23.8 30.2 37.3 44.3 51.8 59.4 62.1 130o 230o 7.0 14.6 21.6 29.7 37.3 44.3 54.0 62.6 71.3 79.9 140o 220o 8.1 16.7 25.4 34.0 43.2 52.4 61.6 70.7 80.5 90.2 150o 210o 9.2 18.9 30.8 38.3 48.1 57.8 67.5 77.8 88.0 97.7 160o 200o 10.3 20.5 30.8 41.0 51.3 61.6 71.8 82.1 92.9 103.7 170o 190o 10.8 21.1 31.9 42.7 53.5 63.7 74.5 85.3 96.1 106.9 180o 180o 10.8 21.6 32.4 43.2 54.0 64.8 75.6 86.4 97.2 108.0
  • 89. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-4 June 30, 2012 Table 4-2b W-V numerical Table (Aircraft true speed is 500~700km/h) Wind speed (km/h) Wind angle(km/h) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Down wind: Ground speed=TAS+Correction 0o 360o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 10o 350o 20 39 59 79 98 118 137 157 176 196 20o 340o 19 37 56 75 93 111 130 148 166 184 30o 330o 17 34 52 68 85 101 117 133 149 165 40o 320o 15 30 45 59 73 87 100 114 127 138 50o 310o 13 25 37 48 59 69 81 90 100 109 60o 300o 10 19 28 36 44 51 58 64 70 75 70o 290o 7 13 18 23 27 31 34 36 38 39 80o 280o 3 6 7 9 9 9 9 7 4 2 Upwind:Ground speed=TAS-Correction 90o 270o 0 1 3 5 8 12 16 21 27 33 100o 260o 4 8 13 19 26 32 40 48 58 67 110o 250o 7 15 23 32 42 52 62 73 85 98 120o 240o 10 21 32 44 56 69 82 96 110 115 130o 230o 13 27 40 55 69 82 100 116 132 148 140o 220o 15 31 47 63 80 97 114 131 149 167 150o 210o 17 35 57 71 89 107 125 144 163 181 160o 200o 19 38 57 76 95 114 133 152 172 192 170o 190o 20 39 59 79 99 118 138 158 178 198 180o 180o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 (b) The ground fuel consumption for pre-takeoff and post-landing are calculated according to the consumption rate of 28kg per minute. The fuel consumption for 16min is 450kg on the ground. (c) The fuel consumption for establishing landing pattern and landing is 280kg for 8min, or 420kg for 12min. (d) Usually, the enroute reserve fuel is 1.6t, and the average fuel consumption per hour is 2.3t. The reserve fuel should be increased accordingly if performing special mission or alternate airfields are few in the flight area. (e) The dead fuel of whole aircraft is 395kg. Oil consumption of WJ-6 engine is 0.264gal (1.2L) per hour.
  • 90. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-5 June 30, 2012 Preflight check Before running the engine, the pilot should know aircraft conditions from flight engineer, such as fuel quantity, center of gravity, oxygen quantity, and the important maintenance and trouble-shooting that have been done, and carefully check the aircraft together with the flight engineer following the checking route (Figure 4-1). Figure 4-1 Checking route before running the engine Aircraft exterior check (a) Left side of the nose and the nose 1) Whether there are dents, cracks, or deformation on the skin. 2) All kinds of antennae, airspeed tube, critical angle of attack indicator, icing annunciator should be in good condition and clean. Take down the blanking covers. Check sphere surface of icing annunciator for cleaness and clean it with polishing fined sand paper, then clean the surface with one cloth with rectified alcohol and polish with chamois leather. 3) The cockpit glass should be clean and in good condition. 4) The radome should be fixed firmly. 5) The landing light on the bottom emergency door of cockpit should be in good condition.
  • 91. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-6 June 30, 2012 (b) The nose landing gear 1) The steering mechanism for the nose wheel turning should be in good condition with no leakage. 2) The nose buffering mechanism should be clean and has no leakage. The exposed length of the buffering strut should be 3.94in~9.45in (100~240mm). 3) The tyre should have no damage, its cord fabric should not be crossgrained, its pressure should be normal and its compression range should be 1.38in~1.97in (35~50mm). The hook of retracting mechanism should be flexible and clean. 4) Open the nose landing gear well door, check the hydraulic pipe and its accessories for leakage. 5) The retraction, extension position lock and the limit switch should be clean and in good condition, and the lubrication oil and retraction lock should be at OPEN position. 6) There should not be foreign object in the nose landing gear well, and the steel cable for lowering the nose wheel mechanically should be fixed. 7) Close the door, check whether the lower section of the fuselage has leakage, and all antennae, operating windows should be in good condition. (c) Front-right side of the fuselage 1) Inertia navigation/GNSS antennae and pitot should be in good condition, and pitot conver should be taken down. 2) The blanking cover of ventilating port should be taken down. 3) The fuselage skins and each window should be in good condition. 4) Emergency exit should be closed. Each vent-plug should be taken down. 5) Neutral gas and fire bottle autorelease indication diaphragm should be in good condition. 6) Refueling switch control panel, the operating windows of ground connectors should be closed well, and the landing light should be in good condition. (d) Right wing and engines 1) The leading edge of the wings should not have damage and leakage (in winter check and remove ice and frost). 2) Each cowling of engine should be closed well, and have no damage.
  • 92. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-7 June 30, 2012 3) Lower cowling of engine should not have leakage of fuel, oil and hydraulic oil. Each residual oil tube should not have leakage. 4) No damage on the anti-icing equipment of blade, and its angle should be zero degree. 5) The propeller cowling should not have dents, and the lock buckle should be locked well. 6) The blanking covers of engine intake and each vent-plug should be taken down. 7) The wing tip, navigation light discharging brush and radio antenna should be in good condition. 8) The lower section of the wing should not have leakage, the operating cover should be closed well. 9) The aileron and flap should be in good condition, and there should not be damage on their exterior. The trim tab should be at neutral position. 10) The blanking cover of engine tailpipe nozzle should be taken down, and there should not be foreign object in tailpipe nozzle. (e) Right landing gear 1) The fixation of hydraulic pipe and cylinder on main wheel shock strut should be in good condition, clean and have no leakage. The exposed length of the shock strut should be 1.69in~4.53in (43~115mm). 2) The tyre should have no damage, its cord fabric should not be crossgrained, its pressure should be normal and its compression range should be 2.95in~3.54in (75~90mm). 3) The fixation of the nuts for fixing the wheels, the sensors for automatic releasing braking, each accessory and pipe should be in good condition and have no leakage. 4) The hook of retracting mechanism should be flexible and clean. 5) Check the retraction, extension position lock and the limit switch should be clean and in good condition, check whether there is lubrication oil and that the springs should be in good condition and the retraction lock is at OPEN position. 6) Accessories and pipes in the landing gear well should not have leakage, every control stick should not have deformation, and there should not be foreign objects in the landing gear well.
  • 93. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-8 June 30, 2012 (f) Rear right side of the fuselage 1) Battery compartment should be covered and the vent-plug should be taken down. 2) The power plug cover not used and the charging oxygen cover plate of rear auxiliary fuel tank should be covered well. 3) Check that the right side fuselage skin and window should be in good condition. 4) All atennae should be intact. 5) The signal flare should be installed as required (normal sequence of color from backward should be white, red, green and yellow) (g) Tail section of the fuselage 1) The horizontal stabilizer and the vertical stabilizer should be in good condition, the leading-edge heating component should have no damage or discolor (check and remove the ice and frost in winter). 2) All antennae should be in good condition. 3) The control surface and discharge brush should be in good condition, down elevator should be at the limit position and the trim tab should be at neutral position. 4) The tail light should be in good condition and the fairing cover should be fixed reliably. 5) The tail-supporting bar should be taken down, the lower section of fuselage should have no leakage and the flash light and the radar antenna should be in good condition. (h) Besides the inspection of the left side of the fuselage, left landing gear, left wing and left engine is as same as that of the right side, the following items should be executed: 1) There should be no foreign object in WDZ-1 vent-pipe, and the turbine blades should be perfect. 2) The WDZ-1 cowling should be closed well, the vent-plugs should be taken down, and it should not have leakage outside. 3) The grounding jumper at entry door should be retracted, oxygen-filler cover should be covered all right, and the cool air inlet-plug of cargo cabin should be taken down.
  • 94. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-9 June 30, 2012 Aircraft interior inspection (a) Cargo cabin 1) The mechanical handle of cool/heat throttle for cargo cabin heating should be at the required position, and the fire extinguishing should be fixed well. 2) The crane should be locked, each switch of airdrop and oxygen consumption instrument panel and oxygen valve should be at OFF position, and check if the oxygen pressure is as required. 3) The cargo and the equipments along with the aircraft should be placed and tied well according to the regulations, and their center of gravity should be adjusted. 4) The hydraulic accessories of cargo door should not have leakage. Check if there are foreign objects that affect the opening/closing of the door. 5) All emergency exits should be closed and locked well, and the back-up equipment should be all ready. 6) Check that the lavatory should be clean and available. 7) Check the electro-heating water tank, electric oven and living equipment cupboard for reliable fixation. (b) Cockpit 1) The venting handle should be at CLOSE position when flying at high altitude. 2) The fire bottles, emergency necessities, movable oxygen bottles, water tank and oven should be fixed and closed well. 3) Check through the feathering oil-residual cup if the feathering switch has fuel leakage. 4) The dynamic /static pressure changeover switch should be at LEFT position, and the standby static pressure switch should be at OFF position. 5) Check the seats. The seats, pedals and safe belts should be adjusted to proper positions.
  • 95. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-10 June 30, 2012 6) Pilot console a) The oxygen regulator should be in good condition, and the oxygen mask should be connected. b) The emergency control handle for cockpit door should be at neutral position and be locked. c) The fluorescent light, navigation light and other illuminating switches should be all at OFF positions. d) The wires and earphone of radio communication control box should be all complete and in good condition. e) The engine air-starting switch should be at OFF position and be locked well. f) The side movable glass window should be flexible and sealed. g) The control surface lock handle should be at LOCK position h) Elevator tab hand wheel should be at NEUTRAL position. 7) Pilot instrument panel a) The switches on the pilot instrument panel should be at OFF position. b) The barometric altimeter should be corrected. c) The parking brake should be lifted. d) The emergency brake handle and the nose wheel steering handle should be pushed to OFF positions. 8) Central instrument panel a) The general fire-extinguish switch should be at neutral position. b) The clock should be checked and punched in. c) The automatic brake-releasing switch should be connected. d) The fire extinguishing button should be covered and locked, and all switches should be at OFF positions. e) The switches on autopilot console should be all at OFF positions. f) The switches of landing light should be at neutral positions. g) The control handles of landing gears and the flaps should be at neutral positions. h) The switches on engine starting control panel should be at their specified positions.
  • 96. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-11 June 30, 2012 i) The control switches of fuel system, oil system should be at specified positions. 9) Switchboard of pilot overhead console a) The emergency hydraulic stop handle, each feathering power switch and button should be at OFF positions. b) The propeller stop-releasing switches should be at releasing positions. c) Other switches should be at normal positions. 10) Copilot instrument panel a) The switches on copilot instrument panel should be at the specified positions. b) The altimeter should be calibrated. c) Heating switch for cargo cabin should be at neutral position. d) The heating switches of clock, tail, propeller and fairing, windshield glass, dynamic/static pressure tube and cockpit should be at OFF positions. e) The emergency pressure-releasing switch should be at OFF position. f) The icing-signal switches of the wings and intake should be at OFF positions. 11) Copilot console a) The heating switches of guiding device should be at OFF positions. b) The shut-down switch should be at ENGINE SHUTDOWN position, covered and lead-sealed. c) Air traffic alarm switch and anti-collision switch should be at ON position. d) The retraction/extension switches of landing gears, the retraction/extension switches of the flaps, elevator tab hand wheel, emergency extension handle of landing gears and emergency control handle of cabin door should be at the neutral positions and locked well. e) The emergency switch for cabin door sealing should be at SEALING RELEASED position. f) The AIR SUPPLY FROM ENGINE switch, pressurization switch of forward cabin, the switch for wings heating should be all at OFF positions. 12) Pilot overhead console a) The heating switches of tail, propeller and fairing, windshield glass, dynamic/static pressure tube and cockpit should be at OFF positions. b) Each lighting switch should be at OFF position.
  • 97. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-12 June 30, 2012 Engine start, warmup and runup Preparations before engine start (a) The flight engineer pressurizes the accumulator of the left hydraulic system. (b) The captain instructs “Everyone is at his position, and prepares to start the engine”. (c) The captain instructs “Power on”, the ground electrician or the copilot gestures to the power cart to generate electric power. After powering on, be sure the voltage should be 24.5~28.5V, and turn on the intercom at the same time. (d) Check all switches and handles from left to right and top to bottom for specified positions. 1) Open the control surface lock. 2) Set the throttles at 0o . 3) Lift the parking brake. 4) The propeller-stopping switch should be at RELEASE position, and the red signal light is on. 5) Put the fire-extinguishing switch at CHECK position, and each yellow squib signal light should be on. 6) Turn on the anti-fire switch, and the four green lights come on. 7) Set the shutdown switch to ON position. 8) Turn off the ejection radiator switch, and the oil radiator switch should be at AUTOMATIC position. 9) The quantity of oil, hydraulic oil should be normal. 10) Open the WDZ-1 and engine-starting box. Set the AIR-GROUND start changeover switch at GROUND position, set the CRANKING-START changeover switch at START position, set the engine starting select switch at the position for starting engine, the green READY light is on. Open the fuel pumps of No.1~No.4 groups fuel tanks, and the pressure should be 12.81psi~17.11psi (88.3kPa~118kPa). (e) Turn on the VHF radio and ask for starting.
  • 98. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-13 June 30, 2012 The instructions for engine start (a) The permission of starting from the ground given and “Mechanic is ready” reported by the mechanic, the captain instructs “The voltage is normal, the systems have pressure, the parking brake are all right, leave from the propeller, and start engine 1” (the sequence started with the ground power is engines 1, 2, 3, 4, and that started with WDZ-1 is engines 1, 4, 3, 2). (b) After depressing the start button, the engine rotating speed reaches 42~46% in 60 seconds, the voltmeter indicates from the maximum to 0V, the communicator reports “The starter is cut off” and the captain responses “Roger”. (c) After starting the four engines, the mechanic reports “Engines starting are completion”. (d) The captain instructs “The communicator turns on the onboard power”. After the communicator replies “The onboard power is turned on”, the captain instructs “Cut off the ground power” (The ground can be informed to turn off the power by ground electrician or copilot through a gesture). (e) The captain instructs “Turn on the power used for onboard equipment”, and then turn on the laser inertia combined navigation system horizon, the attitude heading system HZX-1M, GPS, meteorological radar, identification friend or foe (IFF), the radio compass (ADF), the intercom, the radio altimeter, the critical angle of attack indicator, TCAS, the UHF radio set, and VOR/instrument landing system in turn. Check that the automatic brake-releasing mechanism operating switch for ON position. (f) The captain instructs “Pull out the ground power plug, remove the wheel chocks, and prepare to taxi” when the ground technician is at position. Engine start procedure (a) Depress the start button for 1.5~2 seconds and punch stopwatch. And then the start system operates in order automatically, the signal light for starting procedure operation should be on and the signal light for preparation should be off. (b) The start voltmeter should indicate, the onboard network voltage should not be below 16V. (c) The engine rotating speed begins to rise in 3.5 seconds. (d) The oil has pressure in about 10 seconds (It can be judged from the moment when the engine failure signal light goes out), and the time should not be longer than 30 seconds. (e) The voltage should increase to 39~48V in about 15 seconds.
  • 99. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-14 June 30, 2012 (f) The fuel regulator stopping switch is cut-off in 20 seconds and begins to supply fuel. The indicated upstream pressure of the nozzle should be 113.85psi~170.71psi (0.785~1.177MPa), and the indicated start voltage should be 50V. (g) Ignite in 25 seconds, the indications of turbine outlet temperature begins, and carry out fuel cutoff automatically according to the coordination of the temperature and the rotating speed. (h) When the engine speed reaches 42~46% or time up to 70 seconds, the starter is shut down, the starting procedure operating signal light should be off and the signal light for ready should be on, and the start voltage drops to zero (If the starter has not shut down yet when the engine speed reaches 46%, the emergency shutdown button should be depressed. If the starter still can not be shut down, set the shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position to stop the start). (i) Control strictly the engine exhaust gas temperature whose maximum should not be higher than 750o C. When cutting off the fuel, neither hang up nor decrease the rotating speed. When the speed reaches 55% and increases slowly, advance the throttle to 30o and back to 0o gently till the engine enters the idle speed. (j) When the rotating speed reaches 55~60%, the temperature should decrease automatically and the rotating speed increases rapidly. At this time, the momentary fuel consumption is 450kg/h. (k) The time of the engine entering idle speed (80.5~82.5%) should not exceed 120 seconds, under the idling condition, the oil pressure should not be below 56.85psi (392kPa). (l) During engine start with WDZ-1, pay special attention to the temperature and the rotating speed of WDZ-1 before 25 seconds, and the starting condition of the engine after 25 seconds. At the same time, observe the working condition of WDZ-1. Stop starting immediately under the following conditions: (a) The starting power source is below 16V. (b) It is not ignited in 25 seconds (the temperature does not increase). (c) There is no oil pressure in 30 seconds. (d) The rotating speed hangs up or the turbine exhaust gas temperature exceeds 750o C. (e) The starter is shut down too early (Generally, the shutdown is done when the rotating speed is below 35%, if shutting down after the speed is 36% and the temperature could be controlled, a successful starting can be achieved).
  • 100. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-15 June 30, 2012 (f) The start power is not balanced, the difference of current exceeds 500±100A, the communicator instructs “Shut down”, and the signal light of start failure should be on. (g) When starting the engine with WDZ-1, the temperature of WDZ-1 is higher than 750o C (the peak value is higher than 820o C) or the speed is below 83%, stop starting the engine WJ-6 first (and then shut down the WDZ-1). (h) The engine is surging or on fire. (i) It does not enter idling in 120 seconds. (j) Receive the instruction “Stop” from the ground. Caution When stop starting, check the upstream pressure of nozzle and the turbine outlet temperature for decrease. If the temperature increases or does not stop spurting fuel entirely, pull the emergency hydraulic feathering handle instantly. It is forbidden to begin the second start before finding the cause of the start failure. Engine cold run (a) The shutdown switch is at SHUTDOWN position. (b) Turn on the master start power switch. (c) START-COLD RUN select switch is at COLD RUN position. (d) Turn on the start select switch of the cold running engine. (e) The throttle is at 0o position. (f) After issuing the instruction COLD RUN, push the START button, the button cut off automatically in 30 seconds (cold running speed is 17~22%). If it is necessary to cut off the engine earlier, push the emergency cutoff button. Cautions for start (a) It is forbidden to start or crank the engine which is difficult to crank up. (b) It is forbidden to turn on the AIR start switch when starting the engines on ground. (c) It is forbidden to turn off the start select switch or turn to the other engine position before the engine enters the idling status. (d) Before the engine entering the idling, it is forbidden to connect the starter generator to the aircraft network for power supply, to prevent the safety driving shaft coupling of generator from breaking off.
  • 101. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-16 June 30, 2012 (e) When stop starting, before the propeller stops rotating entirely, it is forbidden to set the shutdown switch at operation position so as to prevent the fuel from igniting again. Turn off the shutdown power switch and turn off the aircraft master power. (f) During engine start, the allowed oil quantity from oil tank into the engine is not more than 3.739gal (17L). (g) If the power supply is cut off accidentally during the start, turn on the emergency power supply (or use the master power onboard immediately), and set the shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position. Emergency hydraulic feathering should be carried out if the temperature continues rising. (h) Each engine can start continuously for 5 times, the interval should not be shorter than 3 minutes, and each operating time of the starter should not be longer than 60 seconds. If each operating time of the starter is longer than 68±2 seconds, the engine can only start for 4 times. And then open the engine cowling to cool the starter/generator. The engine cannot start again until the case temperature is cooled down below 50o C (generally the time is 30 minutes). (i) If the signal light of start system failure is on at the moment of starter power cutting, change the GROUND-AIR select switch over for one time. After the red signal light is off, turn the switch back to GROUND position, and start the next engine. (j) When pressing the start button, if the start system fails within 9 seconds, the red signal light is on, and the engine shuts down automatically. (k) After starting one engine, if pressing the start button, the READY signal light is on, the procedure mechanism does not changeover, then knock the start box at frames 23~25 to cut off the magnetized start changeover relay. (l) If the wind speed from tail section of the fuselage exceeds 6~8m/s, the start will be difficult. In this case, turn the nose of the aircraft to start at the upwind direction.
  • 102. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-17 June 30, 2012 Engine warmup, runup and shutdown (a) Engine warmup 1) Warm up the engine under the idling condition till the oil intake temperature being not below 20o C. 2) The propellers are at STOP RELEASING position, advance the two outboard engines throttles to 50o , when the speed rises to rotating speed and stabilizes for 5~8 seconds, retard the throttles back to 0o . Change pitch like this for two times to heat the oil in the propeller pitch-control oil tank. When the air temperature is above 5o C, the pitch is only allowed to be changed once. 3) The oil in the propeller pitch-control oil tank of the inboard engine should also be heated. If the engines operate at idling speed for 1min and the oil intake pressure is below 56.85psi (392kPa) (4kgf/cm2 ), the engines should be shut down. (b) Engine runup (See Figure 4-2 for engine running-up curve). 1) Partial feathering check Advance the throttles to 50o ±2o Set the propeller stop-releasing switch to “STOP” position (the signal light for stop releasing is off). Press the partial feathering button, the rotating speed of the engines should decrease by 1.5%~2.5% (200r/min~300r/min). At the same time, the operating light of feathering pump is on. After releasing the button, the rotating speed should recover.
  • 103. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-18 June 30, 2012 95.5~96.2% 1.5~2.5%1.5~2.5% 80.5~82.5% 98~105° (84±2°) (60±2°) (50±2°) (0°) Note:SOTPposition Procedure Engine speed Engine speed Throttle angle Takeoff (n%) Operating status Engine coolingOilheating Engine warm-up Momentary speed increase not more than 103% Engine start Partial feathering Torque auto feathering check Check engine acceleration Propeller mid pitch stop check Engine shutdown Max.continuous powercondition Max.continuous powercondition Max.continuous powercondition Negative pull auto feathering check STOPrelease Throttleangle CheckMax. continuous powertakeoff status Figure 4-2 Engine running-up curve
  • 104. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-19 June 30, 2012 Caution If pressing the partial feathering button for more than 1 second, the engine rotating speed will decrease to below 93%. Therefore, the engines would boom, the gas temperature would rise beyond the allowable value, and the engines would be destroyed. If the speed is below 93%, release the button quickly, pull the unfeathering, and recover the rotating speed rapidly or shut down the engine instantly. 2) Check the operation of the torque feathering system. Advance the throttles to 62o ±2o . Set the propeller to STOP RELEASING position. Check the torque automatic feathering, the READY signal light is on, and turn on the check switch of the torque automatic feathering. Retard the throttles back to 0o . When the torque pressure decrease to 142.28psi± 7.11psi (981kPa±49kPa), the operating signal light of automatic feathering sensor and the signal light of feathering pump operation are on and the automatic feathering operation are normal. Turn off the check switch, press the feathering button for a short time, the operating signal light of feathering pump is off (because the feathering automatic timer begin working to cut the power supply of feathering pump after 12 seconds, the unfeathering must be pulled in order to short the operating time of feathering pump). 3) Check the operation of the negative thrust automatic feathering sensor Pull the throttles to 0o Set the propeller to STOP position. Turn on the check switch of the negative thrust automatic feathering sensor, the operating signal light of automatic feathering sensor is on (i.e. failure signal light), this indicates that the operation of negative thrust automatic feathering system is normal. Turn off the check switch. 4) Check the operation of the engines under the maximum continuous power condition and take-off power condition. Set the propeller to STOP position.
  • 105. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-20 June 30, 2012 Advance the throttles gently to 84o ±2o and hold it for 10s~15s seconds, then check the operation parameters of the engines. Advance the throttles gently to take-off power condition (104o ) and hold it for 10~15 seconds, and then check the operation parameters of the engines. Retard the throttles slowly back to 30o ~35o (sometimes greater in winter as long as the speed of engines do not drop). 5) Check the propeller hydraulic stop Advance the throttles to 30o ~35o . Set the propeller to STOP position. Pull the throttles gently, when the speed decreases from 95.5%~96.2% to 93%, release the stop, the engine speed should return to the balanced speed, and the difference between current speed and at stop position should not be more than ± 1.5% 0.5% . When the speed returns to working speed, pull the throttles back to 0o . If the speed does not decrease when holding the throttles under the condition that the air temperature is not above -40o C, throttles should be increased to 60o and the second inspection should be conducted. It is forbidden to decrease the speed to below 93% when the propellers are at stop position to prevent the gas temperature from rising and the engines from surging and be damaged. 6) Engine acceleration check Set the propeller to STOP position. Increase the throttles gently to above 16o , and the speed reaches 95.5%~96.2%. Increase the throttles gently to take-off position 104o within 3~4 seconds (in this case, the rapid increment of speed should not be more than 103%, i.e. 13260r/min, and the engines fuel bypass automatically), judge the acceleration time on the principle that the upstream pressure of the nozzles reaches to and keeps the maximum, and the engines accelerating time should not be longer than 20 seconds. Release the STOP. Work under the takeoff power condition for 10~15 seconds. Release the stop of the propellers, and then hold the throttles to 0o in 1.5~2 seconds, in this case, the engines should turn to idling condition slowly.
  • 106. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-21 June 30, 2012 In order to prevent the aircraft from yawing, the throttle of the other symmetrical engine should be at 30o ~40o when testing the maximum continuous and the takeoff power conditions. (c) Cooling off and shutdown of the engines 1) Retard the throttles to 0o before engines shutdown, make the engines operate for 2~3 minutes to cool off gradually. 2) Check the fuel supply system and the flaps retracting/ extending. When the throttles are at 20o , check the cabin pressurization, the anti-icing, the autopilot, vibration gauge and other special instruments. 3) Judge the safety driving shaft coupling of starter/generator for intact by means of checking if each generator has voltage. 4) Shut off the power supply of the equipment, inform the communicator to get ready for engines shutdown, turn off the generator switches, and make sure that the aircraft power supply should not be below 24V. Shut down the engine with the permission. 5) Set the engine shutdown switch to SHUTDOWN position, cut off the fuel pump, and observe the nozzle pressure and the outlet temperature of the turbine till the propellers stop rotating completely. If it does not stop supplying fuel entirely, and the outlet temperature of the turbine rises, conduct emergency hydraulic feathering. 6) The inertial time that the propellers rotating speed from 8% to 0 should not be less than 60 seconds. 7) After the propellers completely stop, set the engine shutdown switch to “ON” position, cut off the fire-extinguishing switch, vertical gyro switch and the master power. Lock up the control surface lock, acquire the running up information of each trade. Before the propellers stop entirely, the followings are forbidden so as to prevent the fuel from spraying into the engines again: Set the engine shutdown switch to ON position and turn off the shutdown power switch. Cut off the onboard power supply.
  • 107. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-22 June 30, 2012 Note a) Under emergency condition, it is allowed to shut down the engine under any operating condition without precooling off. After shutting down, the propellers must be rotated to check the engine rotors for flexibility. When the rotation of engine rotors is difficult, do not perform the rotation forcely, do cool off the engines until the rotors can rotate smoothly, and make the next start. b) If the training flight with three engines is necessary, check the feathering for normality during engine runup. Start and function of the WDZ-1 turbine starter generator (a) Preparations pre-startup The start power supply of WDZ-1 is 28V DC. It can be started with airborne battery and the generator started or the ground power supply. When starting with the power cart and the onboard battery, pull out the 70V plug to make the power cart generator and the onboard battery available at the same time. 1) Turn on the power supply and the related circuit breaker. 2) Set the fire-extinguishing switch at CHECK position. 3) Open the air intake shutters (the green light is on when opened fully). 4) Turn on the master power switch of start. 5) Turn on the anti-fire switch, the red light is off and the green one is on. Set the START-CRANKING select switch to START position. 6) Open the groups 1~4 fuel pumps. (b) Startup 1) Depress the start button for 1.5~2 seconds and time it with a stopwatch, then release it. At this time, the yellow start light is on, visually inspect the speed and temperature, pay attention to the starting condition. 2) The signal light of oil pressure is on after 15~17 seconds, indicating that the pressure is normal 49.75psi (343kPa). 3) In a short time approaching 17th second, it is normal that the speed halts, but the speed should rise to idling speed after that.
  • 108. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-23 June 30, 2012 When the speed reaches 93%, the green signal light of start being ready should be on, and the starter is cut off automatically at 25th second as per the start procedures. 4) The yellow start light is off at 30±2 seconds. When the speed and temperature are stable, it indicates that the start of WDZ-1 is ready. At this time, connect it to the aircraft power supply and then start the engines and supply the aircraft power after 2 minutes of running. (c) Shut down the engine emergently under the following conditions: 1) The speed does not rise after pressing the start button for 5 seconds. 2) No temperature indication after 10 seconds. 3) No oil pressure within 15~17 seconds, the yellow signal light is not on. 4) The temperature is higher than 900o C or is 900o C more than 3 seconds during start. 5) The speed exceeds 102%. 6) There is boom or noise before entering the idling speed. 7) It does not enter operating speed within 30±2 seconds. 8) The speed decreases to below 83% with a peak load, or the temperature rises rapidly to 820o C for more than 6 seconds (in this case, unload it first and then shut down). 9) There is leakage of fuel and oil which would cause a fire and other accidents. (d) Start WJ-6 engines with WDZ-1 1) When starting the WDZ-1 with the ground power supply, the master power switch is set to ONBOARD position after start. Turn the START POWER to START WDZ-1 position. 2) “Disconnected the ground power supply” is instructed. 3) Start the WJ-6 engines according to the engines start procedures and requirements. 4) When starting the engine, the captain pays attention to the outlet gas temperature of the engine turbine, the mechanic and the copilot observe the temperature and rotating speed of the WDZ-1 (in about 20 seconds is critical, special attention must be paid). 5) If finding the WDZ-1 in an abnormal condition during start, stop starting the engines first, and then shut down the WDZ-1.
  • 109. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-24 June 30, 2012 6) Start the WDZ-1 should follow the following specifications. When starting each engine, the idling time of the WDZ-1 should not be less than 15 seconds. The fifth and the sixth start should be made till the WDZ-1 idles for 2 minutes (after QF-24 cools down). If continuous start is required, it should be made till the WDZ-1 idle for 3 minutes after the sixth start, the total start frequency per engine should not be more than 12. Do not start again until the engine shuts down and WDZ-1 cools down completely. (e) Shutdown 1) After all the engines are started or stopped supplying power to the aircraft, the WDZ-1 idles for 2 minutes. And then press the shutdown button, turn off the anti-fire switch, set the select switch at COLD RUN position. 2) Cut off the fuel transfer pump switch. 3) The inertial time is not less than 20 seconds. 4) If the temperature is higher than 200o C, cold run should be done. If taking off instantly, cold run is not necessary. 5) Close the air intake throttles and turn off the master power supply. (f) Cold run If the start fails, the temperature after shutdown is higher than 200o C or the aircraft has parked for a longer time, cold run should be done before starting. 1) Turn on the power and the power switches, the voltage is 24.5~28.5V. 2) Open the shutters, and the green light is on. 3) Turn on the start power switch. 4) The anti-fire switch is turned off (the red light is on). 5) Set the START-COLD RUN switch to COLD RUN position. 6) Press the start button for 1.5 seconds and punch stopwatch. At this time, the yellow start light is on and the speed increases. 7) The cranking speed is not below 21%, and cranking stops automatically in 10 seconds. If necessary, press the shutdown button to stop the cranking. 8) The yellow start light is off in 30±2 seconds. And close the air intake, and cut off the master start power supply after the light is off.
  • 110. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-25 June 30, 2012 9) After the shutters are fully closed, turn off the onboard power supply and the power switches. (g) The cautions for WDZ-1 operation 1) When starting and cranking the WDZ-1, the second battery on the aircraft must be connected, otherwise the WDZ-1 cannot start and crank. 2) When the WDZ-1 catches fire or the fire-extinguish system fails, the WDZ-1 will shut down instantly automatically. 3) It is allowed to start and crank the WDZ-1 again only after its rotors stop completely. 4) When the air temperature is below -10o C, in order to prevent the temperature exceeding the allowable value, warming-up start (i.e. stop starting after half start) is allowed for 1~3 times. The warming-up start can be controlled within the rotating speed range (23~24%) as per the temperature. 5) When operating under the high temperature in summer, to prevent the outlet temperature of the turbine being too high, the WDZ-1 can be started with its cowling open to decrease the outlet temperature of the turbine by 30o C~50o C. 6) When starting the WDZ-1 with the start cart, the voltage and the capacity of the battery should be observed, the output wire should not be too thin so as to prevent the cutoff of the power supply or scant voltage during start. 7) Before flying to the plateau airfield, regulate the speed of the WDZ-1 to 94~95% generally in advance to avoid the shutdown caused by the overrun. 8) It is absolutely forbidden to false start the engine WJ-6 with the WDZ-1. FLIGHT Taxiing Pre-taxiing inspection (a) Fasten the safety belt. Check the navigation equipment, instrument landing system, the flight instrument switches and the engine temperature and pressure of the engines for normal condition. (b) Move the control surfaces, control stick, helm and paddle and check the control system for normality and flexibility (the pilot and copilot control should be checked independently). After that, put the control stick, the helm and the rudder at NEUTRAL position. (c) All trim tabs are at neutral position.
  • 111. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-26 June 30, 2012 (d) Close the cabin doors, and the signal lights are off. (e) The crewmembers report that they are ready, the captain requires taxiing to the aircraft dispatcher. (f) After receiving the permission from the aircraft dispatcher, pull out the nose wheel steering handle (the yellow signal light is on), taxi out according to the signals. Taxiing (a) Issue “Taxiing” order to the crewmembers. Release the stop of the propellers (the four red signal lights are on). (b) The copilot holds the helm and helps the captain apply the neutral rudder. (c) Having observed that there are no obstacles in taxiing area and taxiing route, release the shutdown brake, advance the inboard throttles to 20o ~40o . After the aircraft moves, retard the throttles back to 0o or above 16o , check operating conditions of the brake for normality, and then keep taxiing in a straight line or make turn with the nose wheel steering handle. (d) Generally, during the straight taxiing, set the throttles at 0o and the speed is kept at 20~30km/h. especially warn the outside to prevent the aircraft from collision with the vehicles or other obstacles. (e) To maintain a proper taxiing direction, the main points are as follows: 1) Find the yawing of direction timely. Pilot should look at the location of 80~100 meters straight ahead. Judge the yaw of direction according to the center line of the taxiway and with reference to the outline of the taxiway. 2) Operate the nose wheel steering handle gently. When the aircraft is off or in across the center line of the taxiway, turn the nose wheel steering handle to the opposite direction timely and steer the nose wheel as required to maintain the direction. In addition, the aircraft inertia should be handled. Do not operate the nose wheel steering handle rashly, especially wildly. (f) On wide taxiing runway without obstacles, check the emergency brake and the operation of the nose wheel steering mechanism for normality. Prior to the check of the emergency braking, reduce the speed first, then pull out the emergency brake handle gently with the left hand. Judge whether the operation of the brakes is normal according to the the taxiing speed reduction and the brake-pressure gauge indication.
  • 112. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-27 June 30, 2012 Push in the nose wheel steering handle (the yellow light is off). Turn on the rudder steering switch (the two green lights come on). Tread the rudder pedals left (or right) to check if the aircraft direction yaws to the left (or right) accordingly. After the check, turn off the rudder steering switch and pull out the nose wheel steering handle. Continue with the taxiing. (g) Before turning, make sure there are no obstacles in the turning direction. Decrease the taxiing speed with brake and judge the turning time. The braking efficiency of this aircraft is fairly good. It should be applied as per the requirement. The braking pressure depends on the pilot (left or right) who applied more force. During the turning, the operation rate of the nose wheel steering handle is proportional to the speed. Turn it faster at higher speed, and slower at lower speed. When the aircraft is turned to the direction where the remainder angle to the pre-determined direction is 30o , turn the nose wheel steering handle to the opposite direction gently to make the aircraft recover from the turn. Precautions for taxiing (a) The minimum allowable speed with the operative nose wheel steering mechanism is 2.7kn (5km/h). It is forbidden to turn the nose wheel steering handle before the aircraft moves. (b) During taxiing, it is forbidden to set the throttles between 0o ~16o . (c) Increase the manual and rudder control force properly for nose wheel turning to smooth the process. When turning in narrow zone and at the beginning of turning, the inboard pulsating brake can be used and the outboard engine throttles can be advanced to help the aircraft turn. The minimum turning radius must not be smaller than 49.2ft (15m). It is forbidden to turn with wheels at one side for braking, and it is forbidden to use the outboard brakes during turning. (d) During taxiing, when the inboard throttles exceed 40o , use the outboard throttles at the same time to keep the required speed. It is forbidden to set the nose wheel at the maximum deflection angle when parking the aircraft. (e) It is forbidden to use the emergency brake or pull the emergency brake fiercely when the normal brake is applied so as to avoid severe damage to the tyre. (f) During the whole taxiing, the aircrew should cooperate with each other closely. When turning right, the copilot and the navigator should pay attention to the obstacles outside frequently and warn the captain timely.
  • 113. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-28 June 30, 2012 Traffic pattern flight Refer to Figure 4-3 for traffic pattern. 24s H=1312ft S=5.4n mile FWY270° flightt=15s DXF270° DXF240° DXF286° H1312ft V178kn~189kn t=30sγ15°Level off turn V173kn Flap15° V162kn~167kn γ15°~20° Turn H200γ15°V350 Turning radius 11811ft 15s DXF238° V162kn~189kn γ15°Turn Ready for landing gear down, put the switch of rudder control on, and check the propeller stop switchat STOP position, then report radio side-position. Pattern width check FMYEngine service condition check, FMY calibration V140kn Descending v9.8ft/s~16.4ft/s h328ft v162kn Flap up, throttle retard 84° V135kn H23ft~32.8ft Landing gear up V103kn~130kn Takeoff Propeller stop, advancethe throttle engine1,4-4- 84°engine 2,3-60°Shift to bigtourque, release the braketo take off V157kn~162kn Flap 35° Vy8.2ft/s Glide T35s H919 Ready for landing and send out request Passing the navigation station H591~616 V140kn~151kn Advance inboard throttle and retard outboard throttle H197ft~230ftn v135kn~151kn Gliding point fixation V9.8ft/s~11.5ft/s H26.2ft~32.8ft Level off V135kn~140kn Touching the ground V103kn~124kn Figure 4-3a Traffic pattern
  • 114. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-29 June 30, 2012 V330~350 γ15°Turn FWY270° H400level flightt=15s DXF238° DXF270° DXF240° DXF286° H400 V330~350 t=30sγ15°Level off turn V320 Flap15° V300~310 γ15°~20° Turn S=10km 24s H200γ15°V350 Turning radius 3600m V260 Descending Vy3~5m/s H100 V300 Flap up, throttle retard 84° V250H7~10 Landing gear up V190~240 Takeoff H8~10 Level off V250~260 Touching the ground V190~230 Advance inboard throttle and retard outboard throttle H60~70 V250~280 Gliding point fixation Vy3~3.5m/s Passing the navigation station H180~200 V260~280 T35s H280 Ready for landing and send out request V290~300 Flap 35° Vy2.5m/s Glide 15s Pattern width check Engine service condition check, FMY calibration Ready for landing gear down, put the switch of rudder control on, and check the propeller stop switch at STOP position, then report radio side- position. Propeller stop, advance the throttle engine1~4-84° engine 2~3 60°Shift to big tourque, release the brake to take off Figure 4-3b Traffic pattern
  • 115. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-30 June 30, 2012 Preparations before takeoff (a) Enter the runway: 1) Issue the order to lower flaps to 25o . 2) Observe and make sure that there is no aircraft landing on the final leg. Request for taxiing into the runway. 3) When entering the runway, align the aircraft with the center line of the runway and push the nose wheel steering handle to its limit. Turn on the nose wheel rudder steering switch (the yellow light goes out, and the two green lights come on). Taxi ahead for 16.4ft~23ft (5~7m) and check the nose wheel rudder-steering mechanism to see if it is on. Then reduce the speed and neutralize the rudder. Align with the nose wheel straight and park in the preset position. (b) Check before takeoff: 1) Check the instruments and the AHS system for correct indication. 2) The flaps are at 25o and the trim tabs are in neutral positions (the signal lights are on). 3) The nose wheel rudder steering switch turns on (the two green lights come on). 4) The copilot requests for takeoff. When it is approved by the aircraft dispatcher, the captain issues the order for “STOP” (the four red lights go out). Take-off (a) Apply braking and first advance the outboard throttles to 40o , the inboard throttles to 40o , then advance the outboard throttles to 84o , the inboard throttles to 60o . Now there are indications on the torque meters. (b) After the mechanic reporting “The propellers are in coarse pitch,” release the brakes smoothly and simultaneously. The aircraft starts to run. During the taxiing, advance the inboard throttles to 84o . Then advance the throttles of the four engines to 104o . (c) This aircraft is a high-wing, narrow-wheel track and wide body aircraft. Its side area is large and the reaction torque of the propellers is great. All these factors will cause some difficulties to maintain the heading for a crosswind take-off. So judging the heading variation from the center line of the runway when running the aircraft. In the three-point running, maintain the heading with the nose wheel rudder steering mechanism. After the speed is increased to 92kn~113kn (170~210km/h) and the nose wheel lifts off, maintain the heading with rudder.
  • 116. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-31 June 30, 2012 (d) Generally, the lift-off speed is within the range of 103kn~130kn (190~240km/h), depending on the aircraft take-off weight, atmospheric temperature and field elevation. When the aircraft lifts off the ground, hold the stick gently and push the trim tabs forward to accelerate at a small climb angle. At this moment, concentrate on the judgment of the terrain clearance altitude to prevent the aircraft from touch-down again. (e) When the speed is up to 135kn (250km/h) and the altitude is not less than 23ft~33ft (7~10m), the captain issues the order for gear-up (the landing gears are not retracted for traffic pattern flight). When the speed is up to 140kn (260km/h), start to climb. At this moment, the climb rate is normally not greater than 16.4ft/s (5m/s) to allow the altitude suit with speed during flap retraction. When the altitude is higher than 82ft (25m), divert the attention to the instrument to maintain a proper climbing. Take-off leg and crosswind turn (a) If there is crosswind, the drift should be corrected. Maintain the climbout heading by the ADF and the azimuth finder, and also with reference to the targets ahead. (b) When the altitude is not less than 328ft (100m) and the speed is 162kn (300km/h), issue the order to retract flaps (When retracting flaps, the aircraft will sink, so hold the stick back timely). When the flaps are up, retard the throttles to 84o by issuing an order or by the copilot. Keep the speed of 189kn (350km/h) and continue to climb. (c) Put into crosswind turn at altitude of 656ft (200m), bank of 15 o and speed of 189kn (350km/h). Crosswind leg and downwind turn (a) After the crosswind turn, keep the azimuth finder at 270o and correct drift. When the aircraft is up to the altitude of 984ft (300m), retard the throttles to 62o . At the altitude of 1247ft (380m) or 66ft (20m) ahead of the specified altitude for the traffic pattern flight in this field, retard the throttles to 38o ~ 42o and level off. Keep the speed of 178kn~189kn (330~350km/h) and trim the aircraft with trim tabs. (b) Fly levelly for 15s on the crosswind leg. At ADF bearing of 250o (245o for short distance), conduct downwind turn with bank of 15o , speed of 178kn~189kn (330~350km/h). After the turn, correct the drift according to the wind direction. Downwind leg and base turn (a) Keep the azimuth finder at 180o and correct the drift. Pay attention to the engine operation status. (b) Check the pattern width by the angle included between the radio bearing line of the outer locator and that of inner locator or with landmarks. The width should be 5.4 n mile (10km). If not, correct it by increasing or decreasing the heading.
  • 117. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-32 June 30, 2012 Refer to Table 4-3 for pattern width check with the relative radio bearing of the inner and the outer locators. Table 4-3a Data of traffic pattern Distance between inner and outer locators (n mile) Width of traffic pattern (n mile) Indicated included angle (o ) Width of wide pattern (n mile) Indicated included angle (o ) 2.16-0.54 5.4 16.5 6.264 14.5 2.70-0.54 5.4 22 6.264 19 3.24-0.54 5.4 26.5 6.264 23 Table 4-3b Data of traffic pattern Distance between inner and outer locators (km) Width of traffic pattern (km) Indicated included angle (o ) Width of wide pattern (km) Indicated included angle (o ) 4-1 10 16.5 11.6 14.5 5-1 10 22 11.6 19 6-1 10 26.5 11.6 23 (c) At relative ADF bearing 270o and at the side of the outer locator, “lower the landing gears and get ready for landing”. At the same time, report to the aircraft dispatcher “at the side of the outer locator beacon”. After the mechanic reported “Gears are lowered and rudder steering is on”, the captain should check that the landing gears are down, the green annunciator of gear door close is on, the ready light of rudder steering is on, the red light of “propeller stop releasing” is off and the brake pressure indicator indicates 0. (d) When the landing gears are down, the speed will be reduced by 5.4kn~10.8kn (15~20km/h) and the center of gravity of the aircraft will move forward by 0.1%CA. Trim the aircraft slightly by the trim tabs. (e) Levelly fly for 30 seconds when flying by the outer locator. At ADF bearing 240o (230o for short distance), make the base turn with bank of 15o at speed of 178kn (330km/h).
  • 118. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-33 June 30, 2012 Base leg and final turn (a) After the base turn, keep the azimuth finder at 90o and correct the drift. At speed of 173kn (320km/h), issue the order for flaps down 15o . Take care to press the stick forward to prevent the aircraft from nose up. At this time, the position of miniature aircraft should be fixed (The miniature aircraft coincides with the ground level when aircraft levelly flies and keeps at 2.5o below ground level after flap down). Maintain the altitude and speed with reference to the indication of the vertical speed indicator. (b) At relative ADF bearing 298o (294o for short distance), maintain the speed of 162kn~167kn (300~310km/h) and bank of 15o ~20o (maximum not more than 25o ), get in the final turn. During the process of turning, judge the opportunity of the turn according to the indication of the ADF bearing and the azimuth finder and correct it timely by increasing or decreasing the bank. If the runway is visible, the main task during the former 45o of the turn is to maintain flight data. During the latter 45o of the turn, the main task is to observe the runway. A proper lead should be selected to withdraw from the turn and align with the runway. Approach glide and visual landing (a) After the final turn and before the aircraft starts to glide, lower the flaps to 35o at speed of 157kn~162kn (290~300km/h). At this time, the lift coefficient will increase a lot due to flap-down. Especially at the instant of lowering the flaps, as the flight speed has not been obviously reduced and in order to keep the lift constant, it is required to press the stick forward timely to reduce the angle of attack so that the altitude of the aircraft will not be increased. In the process of lowering the flaps, press the stick forward gently and fix the position of miniature aircraft with the trim tabs. The miniature aircraft should be kept at 5o below the ground level with flap down to 35o , which makes the aircraft descend at the speed of 8.2ft/s (2.5m/s). (b) When the flaps are lowered to 35o , maintain the gliding speed at 135kn~151kn (250~280km/h) according to the different weight of the aircraft. The gliding speed should not be less than 135kn (250km/h) in any case. See Table 4-4 for the gliding speed of the aircraft with different weights. Table 4-4a Gliding speed of the aircraft Landing weight (t) Gliding speed (kn) Below 45 135 50 143 52 145 58 151
  • 119. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-34 June 30, 2012 Table 4-4b Gliding speed of the aircraft Landing weight (t) Gliding speed (km/h) Below 45 250 50 264 52 269 58 280 (c) During gliding, adjust throttles to maintain the required gliding speed and trim the aircraft with the trim tabs so as to keep a stable glide condition. (d) The altitude is 656ft (200m) (or the altitude specified by the airport) when the aircraft is flying over the outer locator. It is proper to select the approach aiming point 394ft~492ft (120~150m) away from the runway threshold. (e) The altitude is 197ft (60m) (or the altitude specified by the airport) when the aircraft is flying over the inner locator. Maintain the approach aiming point and the initial flare speed. When the aircraft is flying over the inner locator, advance the inboard throttles by 5o ~10o and retard the outboard throttles according to the atmospheric temperature but not less than 16o . Adjust the required speed prior to flare with the inboard throttles. Refer to Table 4-5 for the gliding speed and the initial flare speed after passing the inner locator. Table 4-5a Gliding speed and the initial flare speed Landing weight (t) 38 43 48 53 56 58 Gliding speed (kn) 124 130 135 140 143 146 Flare speed (kn) 116 121 127 132 135 138 Table 4-5b Gliding speed and the initial flare speed Landing weight (t) 38 43 48 53 56 58 Gliding speed (km/h) 230 240 250 260 265 270 Flare speed (km/h) 215 225 235 245 250 255 Refer to Table 4-6 for the throttle positions at different atmospheric temperatures
  • 120. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-35 June 30, 2012 Table 4-6 Throttle angle Ambient temperature (o C) Below -50 -30 to -50 -11 to -30 0 to -10 0 to 15 20 to 25 30 35 40 Throttle position (o ) 28~32 24~28 18~22 16~18 16 18~20 21~22 23 24 (f) During the course of reducing the throttles, take care to apply right rudder to maintain direction. When the inboard throttles are reduced to 20o and the altitude is 26.3ft~32.8ft (8~10m) at the moment, start to flare out. At the altitude of 2.5ft~3.3ft (0.75~1m), get into float. (g) When the aircraft touches down, retard the inboard and the outboard throttles to 0o respectively and lower the nose wheel gently. Issue the order to release the propeller stop, the inboard ones first, then the outbaord ones. At this moment, use rudder steering to maintain heading and reduce the speed by properly applying brakes. When the running speed is less than 32.4kn (60km/h) and the running direction is stabilized, turn off the rudder steering switch and pull out the nose wheel steering handle to maintain the direction. Taxiing into apron and parking (a) When the aircraft is out of the runway, it usually taxis to the apron with the outbaord engines shutdown, if it is difficult to taxi into apron, tow the aircraft to its parking position with a tractor. (b) Taxiing into the apron is the most complex part of the taxi. It usually requires to make continuous turns. So the speed should not be too fast. Pay attention to the observation of the outside and the flight crew should cooperate closely and remind each other.
  • 121. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-36 June 30, 2012 Before entering the apron, check the pressure accumulator for positive pressure 1593psi~2132ps (10.98MPa~14.70MPa) and the brakes for normal operation. Pay attention to the direction given by the ground crew. Correctly judge the opportunity for the last turn to taxi into the parking position. During the turning process, adjust the turning radius according to the entering opportunity of the turn, and try to align the aircraft with the parking center line when it comes out of the turn. When the aircraft gets out of the turn, determine whether the parking direction of the aircraft is straight according to the parking center line. If the aircraft is not aligned with the parking center line, correct it with the hand steering of the nose wheel. First, correct the aircraft to the parking center line, then align it with the right direction. Park the aircraft in the required position under the assistance of the navigator. (c) After the parking, accomplish the following steps: 1) Pull up the parking brakes. 2) Turn off the power supply for the onboard equipment. 3) Issue the order of “Get ready” and “Shut down”. (d) After shut-down, check: 1) Put the rudder lock at down limit position and rudder and aileron lock at neutral position. 2) Put the flap control switch at UP position, flap at zero, and check each trim tab should be at zero position. 3) The operating switches should return to their original positions after the propellers stop rotation. 4) When the aircraft power is turned off, the captain give a verbal command “Flight crew get out of the seats”. Cautions for traffic pattern flight (a) Take-off is prohibited in the following cases: 1) The propellers are in STOP RELEASING positions, one or more red lights are on. 2) Turn on engine pressure regulator/shut off valve or cockpit heating is in process. 3) Turn on the oil ejector radiating valve 4) The fuel booster pump is cut off under any condition.
  • 122. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-37 June 30, 2012 (b) When the atmospheric temperature is over 20o C, the time for advancing throttles should not be less than 4 seconds. If too fast, it could cause automatic shutdown of the engines. (c) During take-off run, it is required to stop takeoff if the heading of the aircraft is 6o to 7o off the runway direction. If the take-off direction is yawed, it is prohibited to be corrected by changing the throttles. (d) If the rudder steering ON light is not off after the aircraft lifts off, the landing gear can be retracted only after the rudder steering switch has been turned off. If this case happens during landing, the rudder steering switch can be turned on only after the aircraft has landed on the ground and the nose wheel has been extended. (e) Banking is appearing when flaps extending or retractiing, the operation of the flaps should be stopped and adjust the flaps to a position in which the aircraft does not bank. Then landing is allowed. (f) This aircraft has a fairly good float performance and its float distance is longer. So be careful not to overshoot and flare out too early. During landing, adjust the gliding speed with the engine throttles timely to prevent overshoot. (g) During gliding prior to landing, it is not allowed to retard the throttles over the locking pins (less than 16o ). (h) During landing, the pilot should flare out the aircraft to an adequate touch-down angle of attack. Pay attention to the aircraft attitude of touch-down to avoid three-point or single-point touch-down. (i) When the throttles are retarded to a position passing the locking pins and the propeller stop is released during landing run, the engine failure light will probably be on for a short time. This is allowed, and not a malfunction. (j) Touch-down with brakes is absolutely prohibited. Go-around Normally, the altitude for the aircraft to go around should not be less than 164ft (50m). If anything that could damage the flight safety happens during landing process, the aircraft can go around at any altitude, but the throttles of the four engines should not be less than 16o before go-around. (a) Go-around procedures 1) Issue the order of “Go around” to the crew members.
  • 123. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-38 June 30, 2012 2) Advance the throttles gently to takeoff condition 104o . At the same time, press the stick forward to increase the speed as the pitching moment of the aircraft is increased (reduce the load of the stick with elevator tab) and maintain a good flight condition. 3) Issue the order of “Gear up”. 4) When the speed is up to 151kn~162kn (280~300km/h) and the altitude is not less than 328ft (100m), issue the order “retract flaps” (raise them step by step). Then retard the throttles of the four engines to the maximum continuous power condition 84o and carry out normal climbing. Get into landing again. (b) Cautions for go-around 1) Go-around is prohibited when the throttles of the four engines are retarded to 0o . 2) When go-around is made at low altitude and slow speed, the landing gears should be raised timely and keep flight level for a period of time to increase the speed. A good flight condition should be strictly maintained. 3) For go-around practice, the landing gear may not be retracted. Take-off and landing under different conditions Take-off and landing of narrow traffic pattern See Figure 4-4 for establishment drawing of narrow traffic pattern. After take-off, climb up to 492ft~656ft (150~200m), then make a 180o continuous climbing turn with the bank of 18o ~20o and speed of 189kn (350km/h). When the altitude is up to 820ft (250m), retard the engine throttles to 38o ~42o gradually. Level off at the altitude of 984ft (300m) and keep the speed of 178kn (330km/h). Make a level turn and correct the 2~3 times of drift when the aircraft turns to the opposite of the landing direction. After passing by the outer locator and when TB is 30s and the relative ADF bearing is 229o , get into the base turn. 15 seconds before the base turn, lower the flaps to 15o and maintain speed of 167kn~173kn (310~320km/h). Make a level turn with bank of 20o . When the residual angle is 90o , get into gliding at the descent rate of 6.6ft/s (2m/s). Visually inspect the opportunity of entering and correct it timely by increasing or decreasing the bank. Recover from the final turn at 1.35n mile (2.5km) ahead of the outer locator and height of 820ft (250m). Align with the runway and lower the flaps to 35o . Align with the gliding aiming point, adjust a proper gliding speed and get into visual landing. All the other procedures are the same as those for the normal traffic pattern.
  • 124. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-39 June 30, 2012 H33ft ~38ft Level off for landing S=2.808n mile FWY180° H300 V178kn γ18 ~ 20° V178~189 γ20 ° V167~173 H591ft~656ft, V140kn~151kn Request for landing H220 flap down at 35° Patternwidth check Note down TB time, landing gear down, turn on rudder control for landing, flap down before the base leg. DXF229°10s Enter the turn Remaining angle90°, keepsliding speedat6.6ft/s. V162kn H358ft Flap up H197ft Advanceinboard enginethrottle and retardoutboard enginethrottle H492ft~656ft enter theturnV189kn climb up16.4~19.7ft/s Figure 4-4a Narrow traffic pattern .
  • 125. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-40 June 30, 2012 检查航线宽度 H220放襟翼35° γ18°~20° V330~350 S=5.2km γ20° V310~320 DXF270° 记下TB时间放起 落架打开舵操纵 准备着陆三转弯 前放襟翼15° H60 Advance inboard engine throttle and retard outboard engine throttle H180~200 V260~280 Request for landing H220 flap down at 35° Pattern width check Note down TB time, landing gear down, turn on rudder control for landing, flap down before the base leg. DXF229°10s Enter the turn Remaining angle90°, keepsliding speedat2m/s. H8~10 Level off for landing V300 H100 Flap up H150~200enter the turnV350climb up Vy5~6m/s FWY180° H300 V330 Figure 4-4b Narrow traffic pattern
  • 126. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-41 June 30, 2012 Touch-and-go Touch-and-go of the aircraft is more difficult than its normal static take-off. It requires close and strict cooperation of the flight crew. Therefore, only when the normal take-off procedures have been mastered, can the day or night touch-and-go be conducted. (a) Operational requirements of touch-and-go: 1) Touch-and-go can be made only under the conditions that the landing condition of the aircraft is stable and the visual judgment is proper, the engines are operating normally and none of the four engine throttles is less than 16o . 2) After touch-down, the captain should issue the order of “Flap up and advance throttle” in time. The mechanic will raise the flaps to 25o when receiving the order. He reports “Flap 25o ” when it is done. The copilot, according to the captain’s command and the aircraft condition, will gently and concurrently advance the throttles of the four engines to 104o (or 84o ). During the process of advancing throttles, it should be avoided that the throttles are advanced too fast at the beginning and obvious stop occurs in the process. 3) During aircraft running on ground, captain should keep the takeoff direction, hold the nose wheel for two-point taxiing attitude. When advancing the throttle, hold the stick forward timely to prevent the aircraft leave the ground in advance. The speed for ground leaving should be 5.4kn (10km/h) beyond the normal range. Upon leaving the ground, watch the ground and increase the speed with small climb angle, so as not to retouch the ground. 4) Normally, 84o throttles are used for touch-and-go. If the visual estimated touch-down point is too far away or the run distance will be too long caused by other factors, and the aircraft condition is not stable before lift-off, the throttles should be advanced decisively to 104o to avoid forgetting to retract the flaps or retracting them by mistake. 5) When a ferry flight practice requires touch-and-go, communicate with the ground tower through VHF radio and report to the aircraft dispatcher. Touch-and-go can be made only when it is approved. For touch-and-go, the time from touch-down to lift-off is about 10~12 seconds, the run distance is about 1804ft~2296ft (550~700m).
  • 127. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-42 June 30, 2012 (b) Touch-and-go should not be conducted in the following conditions: 1) Weather conditions: higher than moderate precipitation and ambient temperature of 35o C, the crosswind is close to the criteria specified for the captain. 2) The field elevation is above 6562ft (2000m). 3) The landing weight is greater than 52 ton. 4) The distance from the touch-down point to the runway threshold is less than 2297ft (700m) and the length of the runway is shorter than 6562ft (2000m). Unidirectional traffic pattern Unidirectional traffic pattern see Figure4-5 (a) Procedures for unidirectional traffic pattern: 1) Calibrate the azimuth finder at 180o at the time of take-off. 2) Take off according to the procedures for tailwind take-off. All the other actions are the same as normal. 3) Fly over the locator at the altitude of about 656ft (200m). Note down the time and turn left (right). Recover from the turn when the azimuth finder indicates 235o (125o ). Level off at the altitude of 1312ft (400m) and keep the speed at 178kn (330km/h). The navigator reports “40 seconds” before getting into the final turn. The captain issues the order of getting ready for landing and turns on the rudder steering switch (READY green light on). 15 seconds prior to the final turn, lower the flaps to 15o . Get into the final turn with bank of 15o and speed of 167kn (310km/h). Check the opportunity for getting into turn according to the variations of the relative ADF bearing and the azimuth finder and correct it in time. Recover from the final turn at altitude of 1312ft (400m), 4.32n mile (8km) to the runway threshold, glide down at the 6.56ft/s (2m/s) rate-of-descent and then get into the visual landing. (b) Cautions: 1) For unidirectional take-off and landing, the time is shorter, and there are more continuous actions. So the flight crew should cooperate closely to get rid of mistakes. 2) Conditions for conduction: the tailwind is not greater than 16.4ft/s (5m/s), the gross weight is not more than 50 ton and ambient temperature is not higher than 30o C. 3) Actions after flaring out should not be wild, and should prevent the nose-up angle from being too great and the tail portion of fuselage from touching with the ground.
  • 128. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-43 June 30, 2012 180° 150° 120° 90° 60° 30° 221° 248° 265° 286° 309° 332° FWYDXF Begin level-off landing Vy3.1m/s H200 Flap down: 35° s 4.32 n mileH 1312ft Turn on rudder control for landing 40s in advance FW Y235° Flap down at 15° 20s before landing 80s Report 30sH886ft Vy6.89ft/s H1312ft t45sH197ft 55° V167kn~173knγ15° R1.62n mile t140s Figure 4-5a Unidirectional traffic pattern
  • 129. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-44 June 30, 2012 180° 150° 120° 90° 60° 30° 221° 248° 265° 286° 309° 332° FTWDXF Begin level-off landing t45sH60 Vy3.1m/s H200 Flap down: 35° S8km H400 Vy2.1m/s V310~320 γ15° R3km t40s Turn on rudder control for landing 40s in advance FW Y235° H400 Flap down at 15° 20s before landing 80s Report 30sH270 Figure 4-5b Unidirectional traffic pattern
  • 130. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-45 June 30, 2012 Crosswind take-off and landing The crosswind for the aircraft take-off and landing is limited to 49.2ft/s (15m/s) at 90o. Because this aircraft has narrow wheel tread, large fuselage side area and high-mounted wings, it will produce sideslip due to crosswind effect. Thus the side-force bank moment and yawing moment will be produced. This will damage the roll balance of the aircraft with the inclined airflow. The propellers will produce side force that makes the aircraft yaw to the downwind direction. The yawing moment depends on the direction and speed of the wind. When taking off with right crosswind, the left rolling moment produced due to the wind effect is overcome partially by the right bank reaction moment produced by the propellers. Therefore, the take-off performance with right crosswind is better than that with left crosswind. The stick and rudder deflection margin are also greater. So the wind speed limit for right crosswind take-off is 49.2ft/s (15m/s) at 90o . When taking off with left crosswind, due to the right rolling moment caused by the left crosswind plus the right reaction rolling moment produced by the propellers, the pressure on the right wheel will be significantly increased. Therefore, the left crosswind take-off performance is worse, the stick and rudder deflection margin are smaller. The limitation performance is worse than that of right crosswind. It is limited to 32.8ft/s (10m/s) at 90o . Left crosswind landing is more controllable than right crosswind landing, but the limitation performance is lower. It is limited to 36.1ft/s (11m/s) at 90o . Because the left crosswind needs to be corrected in the final approach and the propeller slipstream twist is reduced due to the throttle reduction, the right deflecting moment is decreased. This needs more right rudder so that the glide heading can be maintained. So the application of right rudder is greater, and it is easy to get to full rudder.
  • 131. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-46 June 30, 2012 It is more difficult to control for the right crosswind landing than for the left crosswind landing, but the limitation performance is higher. It is limited to 59.1ft/s (18m/s) at 90o . The reason is that the right crosswind glide is corrected by deflecting the control wheel to the right and applying left rudder. When the throttles are reduced, the right deflecting moment caused by the propeller slipstream is decreased. In order to keep heading, it is necessary to reduce the left rudder slightly. Particularly, when the throttles are reduced to 0o , the left rudder should be changed to right rudder in order to keep heading. In the transition, if the pilot does not operate timely, the nose of the aircraft will yaw to the left. The aircraft will be on the left of the centerline of the runway. This case is not good for landing. That is why the right crosswind landing is more difficult to control. (a) Crosswind take-off: 1) Use rudder steering to keep the aircraft heading during the first half of take-off run with crosswind. Apply brakes if necessary and deflect the control wheel to the upwind direction to prevent the aircraft from bank. The efficiency of the control surfaces is increasing with the speed. The aileron deflection should be reduced properly. 2) In order to use the stabilization function of the nose wheel to prevent the aircraft from yawing, the nose wheel lift-off speed for takeoff is 8.1kn~10.8kn (15~20km/h) greater than normal. If the run direction is not stable, do not be anxious to lift off the nose wheel. The height of nose wheel lift-off should be lower than normal. If the crosswind is very heavy, a three-point lift-off can be made. 3) The nose-up angle of the aircraft at lift-off should be smaller than normal. To ensure more control surface efficiency after the aircraft lifts off, the lift-off speed is required to be greater than the specified speed. When the aircraft leaves the ground, the lateral friction force of the wheel no longer exists. Due to the action of the side force, the aircraft moves laterally towards the opposite of the crosswind. The pilot should bank the aircraft for 3~5o towards the crosswind timely, using the third component of the aircraft weight (G3) to overcome the side force. At the same time, some opposite rudder should be applied in order to keep heading. When getting into climb, the sideslip should be eliminated gradually and heading correction will be used.
  • 132. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-47 June 30, 2012 (b) Crosswind landing: 1) In the final approach and before the inner locator, heading correction is utilized. Keeping the glide direction is based on that the aircraft is moving along the extension line of the runway. During landing, in order to keep the longitudinal axis of the aircraft in the direction of the runway, change to sideslip correction when passing the inner locator. Bank the aircraft for 3~5o towards the upwind and apply opposite rudder accordingly. The sideslip angle will be increased with the decrease of the flight speed in the case that the direction and speed of the wind remain constant. This requires the pilot to adjust the stick and rudder deflection continuously so that the heading and flight path and be kept in parallel with the center line of the runway. 2) The gliding speed of crosswind landing is 5.4kn~8.1kn (10~15km/h) greater than normal. The flare-out altitude is a little bit lower than normal. Do not lift the nose wheel too high at touch-down. In the process of float, apply stick and rudder in time to keep the stable sideslip condition of the aircraft and make the aircraft move along the center line of the runway without any intersection angle. At the instant of touch-down, quickly level off at the same time when pulling the stick back (for heavy crosswind, 2~3o bank is allowed) to make the two main wheels touch the ground simultaneously. 3) After touch-down, the sideslip angle is still increasing as the speed is decreasing. Deflect the stick against the crosswind to prevent the wing on the side of the crosswind from being lifted up. Lower the nosewheel as early as possible and keep the run direction with nosewheel rudder steering. When the direction is stable, release the propeller stop separately. (c) Cautions for crosswind take-off and landing: 1) For crosswind take-off, lower speed lift-off and retouch-down should be avoided. 2) For crosswind landing, do not flare out too high and the actions should be gentle. 3) For crosswind landing, touch-down with intersection angle is not allowed. Particularly for right crosswind landing, the nose of the aircraft yaws to the left. This will make the aircraft run out of the runway more easily.
  • 133. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-48 June 30, 2012 4) After crosswind landing, if the direction yaws rapidly that it can not be stopped by applying rudder and aircraft trends to run out of the runway, in this case, the nosewheel steering handle should be pulled out when the speed is not greater than 81kn (150km/h) to keep heading by the hand steering of the nosewheel. But the steering should be gentle and the inertia should be mastered. Take-off and landing with heavy headwind (a) Take-off The relative airspeed will increase quickly because the wind speed is greater. For heavy headwind, the nosewheel can be lifted off a bit lower than normal. The lift-off speed is 2.7kn~5.4kn (5~10km/h) greater than normal. Be sure not to lift off at lower speed and suddenly jump. (b) Landing Due to the headwind effect, the angle of glide will be increased and the aiming point will be shifted backward. This will probably cause undershoot. To correct the visual estimation, the rate-of-descent will be lower than normal or the altitude of recovering from the final turn and passing over the locator will be increased accordingly. The flaps can be lowered to 25o . The inboard throttles should be advanced more than normal. The aiming point is selected 164ft (50m) to the threshold of the runway. Flare out should not be too high and the actions should be gentle. The angle of attack should not be great and float with four throttles power-on. Take-off and landing under load, forward and aft CG limits conditions (a) Take-off and landing under loading condition 1) Taxiing When taxiing out, first advance the throttles to 25o ~30o in order to move the aircraft. When the aircraft starts to move, reduce the outboard throttles to 0o . At this moment, keep the taxiing speed at 5.4kn~8.1kn (10~15km/h).
  • 134. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-49 June 30, 2012 2) Under conditions of standard atmosphere, sea level and on concrete runway, the distance of take-off run is increased by 131ft~180ft (40~55m) for 1 ton increase of the flight weight when the aircraft with load takes off. In order to reduce the stick force, select the trim tab position prior to take-off according to the center of gravity. If C.G. is 24%~26%CA, the trim control wheel should be pulled back for one and a half measures. If C.G. is 18%CA, pull it back for two measures. For 32%CA C.G., push it forward for two measures. For take-off weight 61 tons and C.G. 24%~26%CA, the control of the aircraft is not difficult except that the take-off speed is increased slowly, the lift-off speed is greater, the speed is also increased slowly after lift-off, and the climb rate is lower. On the contrary, the aircraft is quite stable in take-off run, and this is favourable for take-off. Refer to the Table 4-7 for take-off data with different take-off weights at standard atmosphere and sea level. Table 4-7a Takeoff performance data Weight (t) Lift-off speed (kn) Run distance (ft) Take-off distance (ft) 42 97 1542 2500 45 102 1890 2736 49 107 2365 3192 52 111 2762 3645 54 114 3061 3980 56 121 3100 4337 61 129 4167 5256 Note a) If the take-off weight is less than 48 tons, the maximum continuous power condition can be used for take-off in practice flight. But the lift-off speed should be increased by 5.4kn~6.5kn. The run distance will be increased by 558ft~656ft. b) The runway friction coefficient f=0.035, safety altitude H=49.2ft, angle of attack of aircraft lift-off α=8o , nose-up angle=4o .
  • 135. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-50 June 30, 2012 Table 4-7b Takeoff performance data Weight (t) Lift-off speed (km/h) Run distance (m) Take-off distance (m) 42 180 470 762 45 188 576 834 49 198 721 973 52 206 842 1111 54 211 933 1213 56 225 945 1322 61 238 1270 1602 Note a) If the take-off weight is less than 48 tons, the maximum continuous power condition can be used for take-off in practice flight. But the lift-off speed should be increased by 10~12km/h. The run distance will be increased by 170~200m. b) The runway friction coefficient f=0.035, safety altitude H=15m, angle of attack of aircraft lift-off α=8o , nose-up angle=4o . 3) When landing with 58 tons weight, maintain 151kn (280km/h) gliding speed. Adjust the speed to 140kn (260km/h) prior to flare out and float over with four throttles power-on. In this case, the float distance is approximately 1312ft (400m) (when the landing nose-up angle is formed after flare-out, the inboard throttles are also reduced to 0o ). The touch-down speed is 124kn (230km/h). Refer to Table 4-8 for the landing data with different weights. Table 4-8a Landing performance data Weight (t) Gliding Speed (kn) Touch-down speed (kn) Run distance (ft) Run distance (ft) 40 135 103 2116 3504 46 137 111 2569 4183 50 143 118 2986 4429 52 145 120 3169 4659 58 151 124 3504 5466
  • 136. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-51 June 30, 2012 Note a) Data in this Table are calculated under standard conditions. They will vary with ambient temperature. b) The landing entry altitude H=49.2ft, terrain clearance of the aircraft in float segment h=26.3ft, the runway friction coefficient f=0.15, angle of glide θ=3o and normal load factor ny =0.15. c) Apply brakes as soon as the nosewheel is lowered after touch-down. The automatic brake releasing device will function. At this time, the run distance can be shortened by 328ft~492ft. Table 4-8b Landing performance data Weight (t) Gliding Speed (km/h) Touch-down speed (km/h) Run distance (m) Run distance (m) 40 250 191 645 1068 46 253 205 783 1275 50 264 218 910 1350 52 269 223 966 1420 58 280 230 1068 1666 Note a) Data in this Table are calculated under standard conditions. They will vary with ambient temperature. b) The landing entry altitude H=15m, terrain clearance of the aircraft in float segment h=8m, the runway friction coefficient f=0.15, angle of glide θ=3o and normal load factor ny =0.15. c) Apply brakes as soon as the nosewheel is lowered after touch-down. The automatic brake releasing device will function. At this time, the run distance can be shortened by 100 to 150m.
  • 137. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-52 June 30, 2012 (b) Take-off and landing with forward C.G. limit The forward C.G. limit allowed for take-off and landing is 16%CA 1) In take-off with fore C.G. limit, it is difficult for the aircraft to get the nose-up angle (when the trim tabs are neutralized, the elevator is required to be 15o ~20o up and the stick force will reach 441N (45kgf)). As a result, the take-off run distance will be increased and the lift-off speed will be a little bit greater. To control the aircraft easily, the elevator tab wheel should be pulled back for two measures before take-off. After lift-off, take care to hold the stick back to prevent the aircraft from sinking. 2) In landing with forward C.G. limit, the gliding speed will be a little greater than normal. When passing the inner locator, the elevator tab should be turned back more to make the aircraft get into normal float so that it can enter normal flare-out and landing. All the other operational procedures are the same as normal. (c) Take-off and landing with aft C.G. limit In take-off and landing with aft C.G. limit, it is easy for the aircraft to get into a large angle of attack. At this time, it is difficult to maintain the normal angle of attack for take-off and landing because of low elevator efficiency and speed. So, it is important to avoid high angle of attack and low speed in take-off and landing with aft C.G. limit. 1) When taxiing under aft C.G. limit condition, especially on the uneven ground, longitudinal sway of the aircraft will occur. As the efficiency of nose wheel handle-steering is reduced, take care to apply brakes gently and not advance or retard the throttles wildly during taxiing. 2) In take-off with aft C.G. limit, it is easy to increase the nose-up angle of the aircraft. The elevator tab should be pushed forward for one and a half to two measures before take-off. After lift-off, the aircraft nose-up angle will probably increase. So press the stick forward in time to keep the flight condition. 3) In the final approach at aft C.G. limit, push forward the elevator tab for one and a half to two measures and judge whether it is proper by the force used to press the stick forward. The gliding and flare-out speeds and the selection of the aiming point are the same as that of normal. The flare-out height should be lower than normal by 26.2ft~19.7ft (8m~6m). Pull backward the stick especially gently, because in landing with aft C.G. limit, it is easy for the aircraft to get into landing angle, and also easy to flare out too high, to make ballooning and to touch down at high angle of attack.
  • 138. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-53 June 30, 2012 At the instant of touch-down, the force to push the stick forward can be up to 343N~392N (35kgf~40kgf) to stop nose-up. After touch-down, the aircraft angle of attack will probably increase and it will be difficult to lower the nosewheel. When the run direction is stable, push the stick forward gently to lower the nosewheel. 4) In special case, land without flaps down in 36%CA C.G. condition. During gliding, the elevator tab can be pushed forward for two measures to reduce the stick force. (d) Cautions for take-off and landing under load, forward and aft C.G. limit conditions: 1) Normally, the landing weight is limited to 58 tons, 60 tons is allowed for special case, but the landing gear unit should be checked after landing. 2) In landing with forward C.G. limit and take-off and landing with aft C.G. limit, the pilot is required to take care when controlling the aircraft with the throttles and trim tabs. Misoperation will endanger the flight safety. 3) When the atmospheric temperature is below 30o C, the take-off weight can be 61 tons. In summer, when the temperature is over 30o C, the take-off weight should not be more than 58 tons. Sweltering weather and plateau airfield flight Sweltering weather flight (a) Performance varying features of the aircraft in sweltering weather: 1) As the ambient temperature is high, the air density is low and the engine power is significantly decreased. The run distance of take-off and landing will be longer than that in normal condition. 2) The climb performance of the aircraft is degraded. Both the climb rate and practical ceiling are decreased. 3) As the engine power is decreased, it is necessary to advance the throttles more during landing to keep the engine power constant. 4) As the operating temperature of the accessories is higher, their efficiency is decreased. So the ground start is more difficult. (b) Aircraft control features in sweltering weather: 1) Affected by the temperature, the payload should be reduced accordingly. Refer to Table 4-9 for the run distance of take-off and landing in different temperature and weight conditions.
  • 139. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-54 June 30, 2012 2) In order to lower the oil-inlet temperature in taxiing, the ejection radiation can be used or advance the throttles to 20o . To keep the normal taxiing speed and avoid excessive braking, the inboard and the outboard throttles should be used alternatively. 3) Make good use of the runway length in take-off. Do not advance the throttles wildly and too fast. Normally, it needs, at least, 3~4s. Brakes can be released and run can be done only after the indications of the engine instruments are stable. 4) As the ambient temperature is high in take-off, the pilot should strictly maintain the specified lift-off speed in order to prevent lift-off at lower speed and high angle of attack as well as retouch-down. After lift-off, only when the speed is up to 135kn (250km/h) can the landing gears be raised. Table 4-9a Takeoff and landing performance of the aircraft under sweltering weather condition Weight (t) lift-off/touchdown speed (kn) Run distance (ft) Atmospheric temperature (o C) 48 50 52 54 56 58 61 105 109 109 113 111 118 116 118 121 119 124 127 129 Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff 15 2244 2372 2507 2454 2762 2986 2940 3058 3100 3117 3517 3248 4167 25 2474 2503 2769 2585 3058 3117 3268 3189 3461 3248 3911 3379 4610 35 2474 2579 2907 2661 3330 3192 3678 3264 4009 3323 4593 3455 5499 Note The cement road has no lateral turn at air pressure of 14.7psi (101.325kPa) and zero wind speed.
  • 140. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-55 June 30, 2012 Table 4-9b Takeoff and landing performance of the aircraft under sweltering weather condition Weight (t) lift-off/touchdown speed (km/h) Run distance (m) Atmospheric temperature (o C) 48 50 52 54 56 58 61 195 202 201 210 206 218 215 219 225 220 230 235 238 Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff Landing Takeoff 15 684 723 764 748 842 910 896 932 945 950 1072 990 1270 25 754 763 844 788 932 950 996 972 1055 990 1192 1030 1405 35 754 786 886 811 1015 973 1121 995 1222 1013 1400 1053 1676 Note The cement road has no lateral turn at air pressure of 14.7psi (101.325kPa) and zero wind speed. 5) When aircraft climbs with the engine maximum continuous power condition, specified climb indicated air speed should be strictly maintained. It is not allowed to climb with low speed. If the speed is low, it will make the climb performance bad. If disturbing airflow is met, the critical angle of attack is easy to be got by the aircraft, which will unfavourable to safety. 6) When landing in sweltering weather, the throttle angle without thrust is increased. Plateau flight (a) Features of plateau flight: In addition to the features of the flight at high altitude, the plateau flight also has the aircraft performance varying features in sweltering weather. 1) Most of the plateau airfields are built in mountain valleys. The clearway condition in these airfields is poor. So it is difficult to take off and land. Restricted by the terrain, the aircraft, after take-off, can only climb in the direction of the valley. It is not favourable for getting outbound. The landing pattern cannot be established in the normal way.
  • 141. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-56 June 30, 2012 2) There are many mountains in the plateau, and it is difficult to find a place for forced landing. Although the flying altitude is close to the practical ceiling, the absolute altitude above the ground is low. So it is difficult to handle in special cases. 3) Flying over the plateau, the average pattern elevation is higher than 13123ft (4000m) above sea level. These areas are sparsely populated and equipped with less navaids than that in the inner land. The radio-wave propagation is adversely affected by the terrain. The effective range is greatly reduced (the effective range can only be up to 54n mile~81n mile (100~150km)) and the indication error is greater. The communication range of UHF radio is shortened. When the aircraft is flying in cumulonimbus clouds or gliding into a sandstorm, the static interference is greater, which affects the communication. As there are many mountains in the plateau area, it is difficult to distinguish the displays of thunderstorms and mountain peaks as they are similar to each other. 4) Plateau flight has the combined features of high-altitude flight, medium-altitude navigation and flight in mountain areas. The residential areas and high ways are mostly located in the low areas of the valleys. They are normally covered by the high mountains and low clouds. So it is difficult to find them and define their positions accurately. But when the weather is fine, the peaks of the big mountains, the mountain passes and obvious lakes can be found far away. The approximate positions can be determined easily. These can be used as natural “Navaids”. Also, the mountain peaks are satisfactory reflectors of the radar. The EGPWS onboard is convenient for plateau flight. 5) The weather in the plateau is complex and changeable. And there are few weather stations there. So it is difficult to predict the local weather accurately. (b) Take-off features in the plateau: 1) Major factors affecting the take-off and run distance: Air density: The higher the altitude, the lower the air density. In addition, affected by the ground radiating heat of the plateau airfield, the temperature in the airfield will be higher and the air density will be lower. So the take-off and run distance will be increased. Take-off weight: For the same increase of take-off weight, the increase of run distance in a plateau airfield is greater than that in a normal plain airfield. For example, the field elevation is 9843ft (3000m) and the temperature is 20o C, the run distance will be increased by 328ft~394ft (100~120m) for 1 ton increase of weight.
  • 142. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-57 June 30, 2012 Tailwind effect: In most of the plateau airfields, only unidirectional take-off and landing can be conducted. So it is possible to make tailwind take-off and landing. And for the same wind speed, the tailwind effect in the plateau airfield is greater than that in the normal plain airfield. For instance, 5m/s tailwind in normal plain airfield under standard conditions will make the run distance increased by 656ft (200m). But for a 9843ft (3000m) plateau airfield at 20o C, 16.4ft/s (5m/s) tailwind will make the run distance increased by 902ft (275m). So when taking off with tailwind in a plateau airfield, the tailwind effect should be taken into account. Runway gradient: Restricted by the terrain, most of the plateau airfields have greater gradient. On up-gradient take off, the gravity component opposite to the direction of the aircraft motion acts as a drag. So the aircraft acceleration is reduced and the take-off run distance is prolonged. If the longitudinal gradient of a normal plain airfield under standard conditions is 1% (corresponds to 0.57o ), the run distance is increased by 164ft (50m). But if the field elevation is 9843ft (3000m) and the temperature is 20o C, the same 1% longitudinal gradient makes the take-off run distance increased by 459ft (140m). 2) Runway surface: Most of the plateau airfields are made up of cement; some of them of gravel and salt layers. The surface is very rough. So the friction coefficient is increased and the take-off run distance is also increased. See Charpter 5 for lift-off speed, takeoff run distance and takeoff distance with different elevations and takeoff weights. 3) Take-off control features: Make good use of the runway length. Advance the outboard throttles to 104o , the inboard throttles to 84o .When the torque meter and the fuel flow indicator indicate stably, the brakes can be released to take off. The time and distance required for each segments of take-off in a plateau airfield are generally 1.5~2 times of that in a normal plain airfield. Taking off from a plateau airfield, the nosewheel should not be lifted off too early and the angle of attack should not be too high. The rudder deflection should be smaller and the action should be gently. The frontal drag should be minimized. It requires 30 seconds from the start of running to lift-off the nosewheel. At this moment, put the control stick in its neutral position. When keep the heading with rudder, do not operate wildly to avoid affecting the increase of the aircraft speed.
  • 143. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-58 June 30, 2012 It is 20 seconds from lifting off the nosewheel to the lift-off speed. Pull the stick back gently, then the speed is up to 103kn~124kn (190~230 km/h), lift off the nosewheel gradually and continue to increase speed. Hold the stick back to lift off the aircraft smoothly. During this period, if the stick is hold back too early and too much, the run angle of attack will be increased due to large elevator deflection. The total drag of the aircraft will be increased so that the run distance will be prolonged. Also, if the run angle of attack is too high, it is easy to make the aircraft lift off at low speed. As a result, speed increase after lift-off would be difficult. The aircraft may even retouch down which will endanger the flight safety. Taking off with tailwind, the nosewheel should be lift off a bit later, the lift-off angle of attack should be lower and the lift-off speed should be properly increased. Standard altitude of the airport is 11483ft (3500m). Refer to the Table 4-10 for the aircraft run distance of take-off and landing with tailwind and different weights. Table 4-10a Takeoff and landing performance in plateau Tailwind Speed (ft/s) Take-off Landing Weight (t) Lift-off IAS (kn) Distance (ft) Weight (t) Down IAS (kn) Running distance (ft) 0 49 116 6037 49 120 4265 0 50 117 6332 50 121 4396 3.3 49 116 6299 50 121 4528 3.3 50 117 6430 52 124 4823 6.6 49 116 6496 50 121 4659 6.6 50 117 6693 52 124 4954 9.8 49 116 6726 50 121 4790 9.8 50 117 7054 52 124 5085 13.1 49 116 6988 50 121 4921 13.1 50 117 7283 52 124 5217 16.4 49 116 7218 50 121 5052 16.4 50 117 7480 52 124 5348
  • 144. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-59 June 30, 2012 Table 4-10b Takeoff and landing performance in plateau Tailwind Speed (m/s) Take-off Landing Weight (t) Lift-off IAS (km/h) Distance (m) Weight (t) Down IAS (km/h) Running distance (m) 0 49 215 1840 49 223 1300 0 50 217 1930 50 225 1340 1 49 215 1920 50 225 1380 1 50 217 1960 52 230 1470 2 49 215 1980 50 225 1420 2 50 217 2040 52 230 1510 3 49 215 2050 50 225 1460 3 50 217 2150 52 230 1550 4 49 215 2130 50 225 1500 4 50 217 2220 52 230 1590 5 49 215 2200 50 225 1540 5 50 217 2280 52 230 1630 When climbing after take-off, if the aircraft can not take-off in the direction of better clearway condition due to overspeed of the tailwind, it should get to an altitude as soon as possible to fly over or around the mountain peaks. In this case, climb up at a lower speed, with 15o flaps and take-off power (not more than 15min) and at 178kn (330km/h) indicated air speed, and get rid of the mountain peaks by visually changing the heading. After flying over or around the mountains, raise the flaps up and retard the throttles to maximum continuous power condition, then shift to normal climb. (c) Traffic pattern establishment and visual landing features 1) Traffic pattern establishment: Based on the airfield terrain condition, the traffic pattern is generally established by the following two methods: One is to land directly with a long final leg along the mountain gully if the pilot is familiar with the airfield conditions. The other method is to keep the pecified safe altitude to approach, then change a certain heading to fly (or by means of angular correction) for a computation time. Then return to the airfield and align with the runway visually.
  • 145. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-60 June 30, 2012 2) Visual landing: As the true air speed is increased, the distance of each landing segment is prolonged and the actions to control the aircraft have some special features. The weather in the plateau is fine and the visibility is excellent. At 9843ft (3000m) absolute height, the runway can be in sight 16.2n mile (30km) away. In visual judgement of distance, it is easy to mistake the far for the near and to descend too early so that the altitude of each landing segment after glide could be too low. For this aircraft landing in plateau airfield, the approach altitude should not be too high and the glide angle should not be too large. As a result, the pilot should make good use of the obvious landmarks and locators to control strictly the altitude at each point. As the air speed is greater and the float distance is longer, the aiming point should be selected 328ft (100m) further than that in a normal plain airfield. But the plateau airfields are mostly built on the river banks. Thresholds are close to the river ravine. Be careful not to undershoot and land out of the runway. During landing, set the outboard throttle positions according to the temperature, in addition, adjust the throttles according to the air pressure (for every 1.16psi (8.0kPa) decrease of air pressure, advance the throttles by 1.5o ~2.0o ). During landing, the flare-out altitude is a little bit lower than that in normal. Do not flare out too high and balloon. Because the air drag in the plateau airfield is smaller, the run direction stability after touch-down is poorer than that in a normal plain airfield. So the propeller stop can be released only when the run direction is stable. When the propellers stop is released, the deceleration is not obvious since the negative thrust of the propellers is smaller. Therefore, the run distance will be increased. 3) Tailwind landing: Gliding with tailwind, the glide angle is decreased and the ground speed in float is greater. This could cause overshoot. So the altitude when recovering from the final turn should be lower than that in normal, the throttle positions should be smaller than normal and the aiming point should be about 328ft (100m) backwards than normal. Align with the aiming point in time and increase the rate-of-descent to maintain the glide curve. The running distance is increased due to greater true air speed after touchdown.
  • 146. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-61 June 30, 2012 (d) Cautions for take-off and landing 1) Use the oxygen masks prior to take-off and approach landing in a plateau airfield. Close the air supply valve before passing the outer locator. After landing, release the airtightness of the cockpit first, and then the copilot opens the small window on the right side to equalize the pressure. After that, open the door of the escort cabin. 2) Take-off with ice and frost in a plateau airfield is totally inhibited. 3) Operate the altimeters correctly during take-off and landing. One of the two barometric altimeters can be used to set up field elevation pressure, the other one can be used to set up the sea-level pressure. Check and calibrate them frequently with the radio altimeter to prevent mistakes. Zero altitude calibration method: When the field elevation pressure is less than 129.52psi (89.3KPa) (670mmHg), rotate the adjusting knob according to the “Zero Altitude" message provided by the aircraft dispatcher and (the inner triangle arrow indicates in the thousand meter unit and the outer one indicates in meter unit) set up the pressure altitude of the airport with altitude arrows. In this way, the relative altitude is avaliable for take-off and landing. 4) The safe altitude should be strictly maintained during approach when flying in clouds. Do not glide too early. When penetrating the clouds, keep the specified data strictly to prevent the aircraft from hitting the mountains during gliding and penetrating. 5) When starting engines in a plateau airfield, pay attention to the following points: Restart time after shut-down: It is not easy to restart the engines in 45 minutes after shut-down as they are still hot. It is easier to restart in two hours and difficult in more than two hours. When starting the engines in different elevations, it is allowed if the engines can get to idle speed within 3~4 minutes. It is difficult to start with tailwind. Therefore, watch out for the wind direction in parking. If the first start fails, only after the cranking can the engine be restarted. If necessary, adjust No. 16 or No.17 screw by the ground crew. If two of engines have been started successfully, but the other two are difficult to start, start them with the ram pressure during taxiing.
  • 147. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-62 June 30, 2012 Take-off and landing on earth and snow-covered runways This aircraft has the performance data of take-off and landing on an earth runway whose standard strength is greater than 113.71psi~127.92psi (0.784MPa~0.882MPa) (8kgf/cm2 ~ 9kgf/cm2 ) (the depth of the wheel tracks is not more than 2.76 in~3.15 in (7~8cm) when the taxiing speed is 2.7kn~8.1kn (5~15km/h)), on a 7.87in (20cm) unpacked snow (the density of the packed snow layer is greater than 16.214lb/ft3 (0.5g/cm3 )) runway and a 3.94 in~5.91 in (10~15cm) packed snow (the density of the packed snow layer is greater than 19.5 lb/ft3 (0.6g/cm3 )) runway. When taking off in an earth runway at 14.7psi (0.1013MPa) (760mmHg) standard air pressure and 15o C temperature, the take-off run distance is 4265ft (1300m) with 54t weight and C.G of 25%CA. With 61t weight, the aircraft can take off from a 7.87in (20cm) unpacked snow runway. In winter (packed snow layer), the depth of snow layer is bigger than 3.94in~5.91in (10~15cm) the take-off run distance is not greater than that on a concrete runway during summer. But, if the strength of the packed snow layer is low and the snow layer is 3.94in~5.91in (10~15cm) deep, the take-off run distance should be increased. Taxiing (a) Taxiing no matter on an earth runway (the standard strength is greater than 113.71psi (0.784MPa) (8kgf/cm2 )) or a snow-covered runway has no much difference with taxiing on a concrete runway except that the inboard throttles are increased. To move the aircraft from its static state, all the four throttles should be advanced to 30o ~40o . The four throttles are required to be at 18o ~20o in order to maintain 10.8kn (20km/h) taxiing speed. (b) When taxiing on the segment of an earth runway whose strength is lower, or on a runway that is covered by more than 5.91in (15cm) snow layer or by a more than 5.91in (15cm) packed snow layer, the taxiing speed should be kept at no less than 10.8kn~16.2kn (20~30km/h). Parking and small radius (less than 98ft (30m)) turning are not allowed. (c) When taxiing on an earth runway that is watered or covered with snow and partial ice, the efficiencies of nose wheel steering and braking will be greatly reduced. In order to improve the braking efficiency, the automatic brake release switch should be turned off. The outboard throttles can be used to assist turning if required.
  • 148. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-63 June 30, 2012 Take-off on earth runway (a) In order to rotate the nose wheel easily, the best C.G. position for earth runway take-off is 24%CA~30%CA based on the take-off weight of the aircraft (54~61 tons). For an aircraft with 50~54t take-off weight, the forward C.G. should not be greater than 20%CA. To reduce the stick force, pull the elevator tab back for one and a half to two measures before take-off according to the weight (50~61 tons). (b) Taking off from a smooth and hard earth runway has no difference with that from a concrete runway except for minor buffet. (c) Taking off from an unsmooth and non-uniformly strengthened earth runway, particularly at forward C.G., the nose wheel should be rotated at the speed of 65kn~70kn (120~130km/h) so as to reduce the nose wheel load as well as aircraft buffet and longitudinal swing. When taking off from an earth runway that is non-uniform in strength, even in some places, the strength is 113.71psi~56.85psi (0.784~0.392MPa) (8~4kgf/cm2 ), the aircraft will swing longitudinally. It is difficult for the pilot to keep the run nose-up angle after the nose wheel has been rotated. The aircraft heading is maintained by rudder only, and no braking is allowed. When taking off from an unsmooth runway, it is possible to lift off too early at a lower speed. In this case, the pilot should control the aircraft timely to avoid retouch-down. Especially in the case with crosswind, it is dangerous to retouch down. (d) The piloting technique is quite complicated for the take-off when the aircraft weight is 54 tons at 20%CA C.G. and with 33~39ft/s (10~12m/s) crosswind at 90o (particularly the left crosswind). In order to reduce the nose wheel load and prevent the aircraft from longitudinal swing, the pilot should pull the stick fully back (at this moment, the stick force is 392N~441N (40kgf~45kgf) when the speed is 65kn~70kn (120~130km/h). At the same time, operate the control wheel to eliminate the aircraft banking. In this case, the aircraft is required to lift off in an approximate three-point attitude at a lower speed. (e) Before lift-off, if the engine fails at the speed less than the decision speed, the nose wheel should be lowered immediately and abort the take-off. If the speed is greater than the decision speed, continue with the take-off. So during take-off run, the navigator is required to report the speed variation in time so as to accomplish the take-off smoothly.
  • 149. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-64 June 30, 2012 Landing on earth runway (a) It is not complex for the aircraft to land on an earth runway whose standard strength is 113.71psi (0.784MPa) (8kgf/cm2 ). The control actions for visual landing are the same as normal. (b) When landing on an earth runway with poor strength or insufficient strength in some places, the stick should be pulled to the back position during landing run in order to reduce aircraft bumping. Release the propeller stop when the nose wheel has been lowered for 4~5 seconds. (c) To protect the runway surface, the brakes are normally not applied to reduce speed. To prevent the aircraft from stopping and the wheels from sinking in, the throttles should be advanced before the end of run to keep the speed at 10.8kn~13.5kn (20~25km/h) so that the aircraft can not stop when making turn at a place of lower strength. Take off on snow-covered runway (a) When taking off from a runway that is covered by snows of less than 19.5 lb/ft3 (0.6g/cm3 ) density and less than 3.94in~5.91in (10~15cm) depth, it is the same as normal take-off except for minor buffet and slight increase of run distance. When taking off from a runway where the depth of snow cover is less than 7.87in (20cm), it is no difference with normal takeoff except for minor longitudinal swing and small increase of run distance. (b) Before take off, the center of gravity should be positioned in the range of 24%CA~30%CA. After take-off, the landing gears can be raised only when the flaps have been up so as to blow off the snow on the assemblies of the landing gears. (c) Take-off from a runway covered with more than 5.91in (15cm) depth of snow or of insufficient strength and covered with packed snow is normally not allowed except for special cases (the wheels will break the snow layer). Because of the friction coefficient increase, slow increase of run speed, aircraft heading yaw, serious longitudinal swing and decrease of rudder steering efficiency, it is very complex to take off. If it is required to take off from such a runway, it is better to select the aircraft C.G. in the middle or aft position (24%CA~30%CA). In order to reduce the wheel load and eliminate the longitudinal swing, the rotation speed should be 65kn~70kn (120~130km/h). (d) Taking off from a runway of insufficient strength and covered with more than 3.94in~5.91in (10~15cm) packed snow, the run istance will be much longer than the take-off from a concrete runway. If the take-off weight is 54 tons, at 14.7psi (101.33kPa) (760mmHg) standard atmosphere pressure and -5o C temperature, the run distance is 3609ft (1100m).
  • 150. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-65 June 30, 2012 Landing on snow-covered runway (a) Landing on a snow-covered runway, it is more difficult and complicated to make the visual landing judgment and decide the flare-out opportunity than that on a concrete runway. To improve the accuracy of visual landing and opportunity of flare-out judging, landmarks should be made 328ft~492ft (100~150m) away from the threshold of the runway. (b) When landing on a runway covered with more than 5.91in (15cm) packed snow and of sufficient strength, the propeller stop should be released 4~5s after the nose wheel has been lowered in order to reduce the aircraft buffeting and heading yaw (the run speed in the latter part is 65kn~76kn (120~140km/h)). Keep the running direction with the rudder steering. Cautions for takeoff and landing on earth or snow-covered runway (a) Air fleet flight is allowed on the run way whose standard strength of the earth is more than 113.71psi~128.07psi (0.784MPa~0.882MPa) (8kgf/cm2 ~9kgf/cm2 ). In case of air fleet flight on the earth run way in winter, snow clearance is required in advance. (b) When flying on an earth runway of 71.07 psi~85.28 psi (0.49~0.588MPa) (5~6kgf/cm2 ) strength or covered with deep snow (more than 5.91in (15cm) deep), the maximum take-off weight is 48~50 tons. To improve the flight on a runway of insufficient strength, the pressure of the tyres can be reduced to 4 atmospheres. This pressure can ensure the aircraft takeoff with 61t weight on an earth runway of 85.28psi~99.64psi (0.588~0.688MPa) (6~7kgf/cm2 ) strength. But for security, the depth of the wheel tracks should be measured by running test before taking off. (c) Flight with landing gear unretracted can be performed on a wet, more than 3.94 in~5.91in (10~15cm) deep packed snow-covered and insufficiently strengthened runway (the wheels will break the snow layer) if necessary. Takeoff and landing on partial steel plate and steel plate runway The aircraft is allowed to take off and land on partial steel plate runway whose depth of wheel track in the middle of the earth part is no more than 3.15in (8cm) (no FOD obstructing A/C structure and landing gear up) , or on the steel plate runway. However, under such circumstances, operation of the aircraft must be conducted by pilots familiar with short & narrow runway takeoff and landing skills. Pay special attention to the taxi direction at the speed of 16.4~23.0ft/s (5~7m/s) with side wind of 90o .
  • 151. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-66 June 30, 2012 Measure the start point distance of T-shaped steel plate accurately before takeoff, and the distance should be arranged as per different landing weight of the aircraft with the earth strength of 56.86psi~80.93psi (0.392MPa~0.588MPa) (4kgf/cm2 ~6kgf/cm2 ). Start point distance of the T-shaped steel plate as per different landing weight of the aircraft is shown in Table 4-11. Table 4-11a Start point distance of the T-shaped steel plate Windspeed (ft/s) Weigh (t) Upwind 32.8 Downwind 16.4 No wind 52 1476 1969 2297 50 1312 1673 2133 46 1083 1509 1903 Table 4-11b Start point distance of the T-shaped steel plate Windspeed (m/s) Weigh (t) Upwind 10 Downwind 5 No wind 52 450 600 700 50 400 510 650 46 330 460 580 When earth strength is about 56.85psi (0.392kPa) (4kgf/cm2), C.G. margin is 26%CA~ 28%CA, running distance for takeoff and landing with different airborne weight under international standard atmosphere is shown in Table 4-12. Table 4-12a Takeoff and landing performance on steel plate runway Weight (t) Lift-off speed and running distance Grounding speed and running distance Partial steel plate runway Steel plate runway Partial steel plate runway Steel plate runway Lift-off speed (kn) running distance (ft) Lift-off speed (kn running distance (ft) Groundin g speed (kn) running distance (ft) Groundin g speed (kn) running distance (ft) 54 113 3117 113 2707 119 3379 119 3281 52 111 2723 111 2444 117 3150 117 3051 50 108 2067 107 2001 112 2887 112 2756 46 113 3117 113 2707 119 3379 119 3281
  • 152. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-67 June 30, 2012 Note The lift-off running distance on partial steel plate runway increases with advancement of C.G. When C.G is 20%CA, the distance increase is 70m~100m. Running distance for landing on partial steel plate runway and takeoff and landing on steel plate runway has no relationship with takeoff C.G. position. Table 4-12b Takeoff and landing performance on steel plate runway Weight (t) Lift-off speed and running distance Grounding speed and running distance Partial steel plate runway Steel plate runway Partial steel plate runway Steel plate runway Lift-off speed (km/h) running distance (m) Lift-off speed (km/h) running distance (m) Groundin g speed (km/h) running distance (m) Groundin g speed (km/h) running distance (m) 54 215 1100 214 910 52 210 950 210 825 221 1030 221 1000 50 206 830 206 745 217 960 217 930 46 200 630 198 610 208 880 208 840 Note The lift-off running distance on partial steel plate runway increases with advancement of C.G. When C.G is 20%CA, the distance increase is 70m~100m. Running distance for landing on partial steel plate runway and takeoff and landing on steel plate runway has no relationship with takeoff C.G. position. Takeoff and landing on partial steel plate runway (a) Takeoff The pilot must conduct the running along the mid-line of the run way during takeoff. During this process, the metal plate will sound and the aircraft will buffet acutely, and such buffet will be more acute when the aircraft leaves the steel plate for the earth runway. Its acceleration tends to decrease when the earth strength is below 71.07psi (0.49MPa) (5kgf/cm2 ), resulting in pitching sway and deviation of the direction (especially when the earth strength is uneven). Thus, correction with rudder is required so as to keep running direction.
  • 153. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-68 June 30, 2012 The nose wheel can not be lifted up until the aircraft leaves partial steel plate runway. After the nose wheel leaves the ground, maintain running elevation angle of the aircraft. When the airbone weight is 54t, 50t and 46t, lift-off speed of the aircraft is 116kn (215km/h), 113kn (210km/h) and 108kn (220km/h) respectively. (b) Landing The aircraft should ground accurately near the T-shaped steel plate with the same speed as that on the cement runway. After grounding, the aircraft should maintain its running direction along the midline of the runway. In case its speed saw acute decrease and tends to stop, it is necessary to advance the throttle before deceleration with the brake. In case of a low VFR, delay the normal stop release so that the aircraft will enter the steel plate runway. Takeoff and landing on steel plate runway (a) Takeoff In case the aircraft takes off on the steel plate, the pilot must control the aircraft running direction along the steel plate timely so that the aircraft will not deviate from the runway. The nose wheel should lift up as per different airborne weight and C.G position at the speed of 86kn~97kn (160km/h~180km/h). When the airbone weight is 54t, 50t and 46t, lift-off speed of the aircraft is 116kn (215km/h), 113kn (210km/h) and 108kn (200km/h) respectively. (b) Landing The aircraft should ground accurately near the T-shaped steel plate with the same speed as that on the cement runway. Keep running direction of the aircraft on the steel plate runway. In case of sidewind, watch the running direction to prevent the aircraft from deviated from the runway. (c) Cautions of takeoff and landing on partial steel plate and steel plate runway 1) Get the data of earth strength at different parts of partial steel plate and steel plate runway before flight. When the aircraft takes off or lands on them, the width of the taxi way should not be less than 29.5ft (9m), with its connecting radius of inner flange not less than 32.8ft (10m).
  • 154. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-69 June 30, 2012 2) When the aircraft deviates from partial steel plate or steel plate runway due to misoperation or other reasons, the pilot should hold the flight direction to stop the deflection. In case that the earth strength at both sides of the runway is above 56.85psi (0.392MPa) (4kgf/cm2 ) with no obstructive, keep new takeoff direction to continue the flight, but do not adjust the flight direction towards the steel plate runway. In case that the earth strength is below 56.85psi (0.392MPa) (4kgf/cm2 ), abort the takeoff. 3) Brake is only permitted on the steel plate surface in case of taxiing on the partial steel plate runway. Under such circumstances, avoid coarse brake operation so as not to damage the runway surface and the tyre. Ferry flight The ferry flight is an effective measure to conduct air maneuver and accomplish all kinds of tasks. The pilot must familiarly master ferry flight abilities in various conditions to ensure the aircraft flies to the destination rapidly, accurately and safely. Climbing After the gears and flaps have been retracted during take-off, set the engines to maximum continuous power conditions, trim the aircraft with tabs and maintain the specified speed for climbing up. At the altitude of 3281ft (1000m), the captain gives the command of “Cabin pressurized”. The copilot makes the cabin pressurization and report to the captain after the check. Generally, the optimum speed should be selected for climbing according to the take-off weight. Climbing performance of the aircraft with different weights is shown in Chapter 5. Under standard conditions, the service ceiling of the aircraft with different take-off weights is shown in Table 4-13.
  • 155. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-70 June 30, 2012 Table 4-13a Service ceiling of the aircraft Takeoff weight (t) 49 51 54 56 61 Service ceiling (ft) 34104 32972 31250 29774 27312 Table 4-13b Service ceiling of the aircraft Takeoff weight (t) 49 51 54 56 61 Service ceiling (m) 10395 10050 9525 9075 8325 Normally, the flight should be performed at 1640ft (500m) below the service ceiling. Enroute flight (a) When the aircraft climbs to the specified altitude, levels off. When the preset cruising speed is achieved, the throttles are reduced from maximum continuous power condition to the operating condition that is normally not higher than 0.85 maximum continuous power condition (72o ). During level flight, the speed will gradually increase with constant throttles as the flight weight decreases due to fuel consumption. (b) Perform the air navigation. Make full use of the onboard navigation equipment as per features of the aircraft to master the aircraft position at any time. If the change of flight data is desired, care should be taken to ensure three accuracies, i.e. listening, watching and aligning accuracies and prevent mistakes and omissions. (c) On route, the weather condition should be observed, judged and understood, especially during night or bad weather flight. The navigator should be reminded of observing hazardous weather on route with radar. (d) Be clear about the traffic situation enroute. Turn on the UHF radio to communicate in advance when flying over the halfway airfield area. The autopilot maybe used during long-range flight.
  • 156. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-71 June 30, 2012 (e) Range and duration: 1) The range and duration depend on fuel reserve quantity, the aircraft weight, flight altitude and speed. Below the service ceiling, range and duration increase with the increase of flight altitude. 2) At the indicated airspeed of 162kn (300km/h), the maximum duration is obtained at various altitudes. However, this speed is not applicable in actual flight because it is an economical speed normally, not the optimum speed. The optimum level flight speed and corresponding fuel consumption per kilometer and fuel consumption per hour at different altitude are shown in Chapter 5. The consumed fuel, traveled distance and required time before descending to the altitude of 1640ft (500m) are listed in Table 4-14. Table 4-14a Consumed fuel, traveled distance and required time before descending to the altitude of 1640ft Descended altitude (m) Fuel Consumption (kg) Distance (km) Time (min) 3281 30 5 1 6562 100 11 3 9843 150 22 6 13123 200 32 8 16404 250 43 10 19685 300 54 11 22966 350 59 13 26247 400 70 15 29528 450 81 16 32808 500 86 18 Note Descend gradually from the cruising altitude to the traffic pattern altitude at the rate of 23ft/s~39ft/s and at the normal indicated gliding speed of 243kn with no less than 16o throttles. Then reduce the speed to 189kn and enter the landing pattern.
  • 157. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-72 June 30, 2012 Table 4-14b Consumed fuel, traveled distance and required time before descending to the altitude of 500m Descended altitude (m) Fuel Consumption (kg) Distance (km) Time (min) 1000 30 10 1 2000 100 20 3 3000 150 40 6 4000 200 60 8 5000 250 80 10 6000 300 100 11 7000 350 110 13 8000 400 130 15 9000 450 150 16 10000 500 160 18 Note Descend gradually from the cruising altitude to the traffic pattern altitude at the rate of 7~12m/s and at the normal indicated gliding speed of 450km/h with no less than 16o throttles. Then reduce the speed to 350km/h and enter the landing pattern. Descending Determine the approach altitude according to the terrain elevation of the airfield area, the operating rules and regulations of the airfield, the weather condition and the instruction of the aircraft dispatcher. Judge the descent opportunity exactly as per flight altitude and the enroute terrain. During descending, the outboard throttles are normally retarded to 20o first, then the inboard throttles to 20o , and the stick should be pressed forward to maintain the rate of descent at 23ft/s~39.4ft/s (7~12m/s). Trim the aircraft with tabs. The initial descending rate is big. Usually, it is maintained at 32.8ft/s (10m/s) above 13123ft (4000m) and 23 ft/s~26.3 ft/s (7~8m/s) below 13123ft (4000m). The favorable indicated gliding airspeed is 243kn (450km/h) and not higher than 270kn (500km/h) in general. Caution It is forbidden to retard the throttles lower than 16o during descent.
  • 158. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-73 June 30, 2012 Main tasks before entering pattern (a) Turn on the radio altimeter in order to correct the barometric altimeter and for reference during landing. (b) Turn on marker beacon receiver and VOR/ILS system. (c) Select the favorable bearing to enter the airfield or locator, and make the homing timely. (d) Accurately correct the altimeter after receiving the landing conditions reported by the aircraft dispatcher. The crewmembers should make clear the procedures for entering the traffic pattern and study the particulars of the landing field and matters of attention. (e) Correct the azimuth finder 3~5 minutes before reaching the airfield as per landing heading, maintain the safe altitude, and report the procedures for entering traffic pattern to the aircraft dispatcher after finding the airfield. Pattern establishing and VFR landing (a) Procedures for penetration and approach: 1) Pattern establishment: Turn base 30 seconds after flying over the outer locator. 2) Narrow pattern: Turn base 15 seconds after passing by the outer locator. 3) Long final landing: See Figure4-6. 4) Penetration for the wide pattern: See Figure4-7. 5) Straight penetration: See Figure 4-8. The procedures above should be performed according to the operating rules and regulations of each airfield. (b) When descending to the altitude of 3281ft (1000m) or the altitude of the traffic pattern, release the cockpit pressurization and reduce the speed to 189kn (350km/h). Lower the landing gears and turn on the rudder steering switch to get ready for landing when passing by the outer locator (or over the outer locator). Table 4-15 shows the data for width control of traffic pattern for approaching at different airspeeds.
  • 159. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-74 June 30, 2012 V( ) 260kn Flap down Flap down35° 35° Vy16.4ft/s t5min40s Vy29.53ft/s Landing gear down TAS H1312ft V162kn H656ft H197ft 2.2 4.3 H2953ftH3281ft V189knV173kn 8 H2461ft 11 16 19 40 43 H<13123ft Distance(mile) Figure 4-6a Long final leg landing H60 H200 H400 H750 H1000 H900 H<4000 4 8 15 20 30 35 75 80 V300 V320 V350 V( ) 480 (km) Flap down Flap down35° 35° Vy5m/s t5min40s Vy9m/s Landing gear down TAS Distance Figure 4-6b Long final leg landing
  • 160. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-75 June 30, 2012 调整飞机校对FWY 检查航线宽度 15s . 24s Adjust the aircraft and calibrate FWY Course width check DXF270°Note down report position, landing gear down, turn on rudder control for landing T15sDXF240° v189knγ15° downwindturn FWY270° H1312ft Leveloff γ 15° crosswind turn Fly over the navigation station H656ft v146kn DXF286° γ15° finalturn FMY90° V173kn 15°Flapdown S=6.264n mile DXF238° H656ft V189kn t70s FWY0°V189kn Climbing rate no more than 16.4ft/s H328ft V162kn Flap up H26.2ft~32.8ft V135kn~140kn level Fly over the inner locator H197ft~230ft Advance inboard engine throttle and retard outboard engine throttleAdjust V140kn~146kn V146kn~151kn t70sVy10.8ft/s report 30s Check altitude and request for landing H1312ft V157kn~162kn Flap down 35° V167kn~173n FWY180° H400V330~350 Fly over side way of hte navigation station 60s DXF 240° V178kn~189knγ15° base turn Figure 4-7a Wide traffic pattern establishment
  • 161. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-76 June 30, 2012 调整飞机校对FWY 检查航线宽度 过远台侧方60s DXF240°V330~350 γ15°第三转弯 15s S=11.6km 24s 过近台H60~70 加内侧收外侧 调整V260~270 Adjust the aircraft and calibrate FWY Course width check DXF270°Note down report position, landing gear down, turn on rudder control for landing Fly over side way of the navigation station 60s DXF240°V330~350 γ15° base turn FWY180° H400V330~350 T15sDXF240° v350γ15° downwindturn FWY270° H400 Leveloff H200 V350 t70s γ 15° crosswind turn Climbing rate no more than FWY0°V350 5m/s H100V300 Flap up H8~10V250~260 level Fly over the inner locator H60~70 Advance inboard engine throttle and retard outboard engine throttle V260~270 H60~70 加内侧收外侧 Fly over the navigation station H200V270 V270~280 t70sVy3.3 report 30s Check altitude and request for landing Flap down35° H400V290~300 DXF286° V310~320 γ15° finalturn FMY90° V320 15°Flapdown Adjust Figure 4-7b Wide traffic pattern establishment
  • 162. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-77 June 30, 2012 35° Flap up H197ft Flyover theinner locator Fly over the inner locator Check altitude andrequest for landing Flap down FWY220: Note down the report position after flying over thenavigation station and keep FWY220 Calibrate FWY, check course track against the heading 背航检查航迹 Landing gear down and turn on rudder control for landing 1min before final turn Before turn 20sV173kn Flap down 15° H328ft V162kn t60sH1640ft V167kn~178kn final turn H656ft Vy16.4ft/s FW Y0°V189kn V146kn~151kn Vy9.84ft/s H1640ft V162kn H500 1640ft V178kn~189kn Fly towards the navigation station H656ftV189kn t70sγ 15° Crosswind turn Figure 4-8a Straight pattern establishment (Altitude 1640ft, time 10min)
  • 163. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-78 June 30, 2012 H200V350 t70s 15° Vy5m /s FW Y0°V350 H100V300 H500V330~350 V270~280 Vy3m/s H500V300 35° Crosswind turn Flap up H60 Flyover theinner locator Flytowardsthe navigationstation Fly over the inner locator H200 Check altitude and request for landing Flap down FWY220: Note down the report position after flying over thenavigation station and keep FWY220 Calibrate FWY, check course track against the heading 背航检查航迹 Landing gear down and turn on rudder control for landing 1min before final turn Before turn 20sV320 Flap down 15° t90sH500 V310~330 final turn Figure 4-8b Straight pattern establishment (Altitude 1640ft, time 10min)
  • 164. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-79 June 30, 2012 Table 4-15a Width of traffic pattern Slope 15o 20o TAS(kn) Enterinto crosswindleg(s) Enterinto crosswindleg parallelingtothe runway(s) Radius(km) T180o Patternwidth(n mile) Enterintocrosswind leg(s) Enterinto crosswindleg parallelingtothe runway(s) Radius(nmile) T180o Patternwidth(n mile) 189 66 29 1.9 1min53s 5.4 76 49 1.43 1min25s 5.4 216 48 6 2.5 2min12s 5.4 58 28 1.86 1min37s 5.4 243 32 3.2 2min30s 6.5 45 10 2.37 1min50s 5.4 270 20 3.9 2min45s 7.9 33 2.92 2mins 5.8 297 8 4.8 3min03s 9.6 23 3.51 2min13s 7.0 Table 4-15b Width of traffic pattern Slope 15o 20o TAS(kn) Enterintocrosswind leg(s) Enterintocrosswind legparallelingtothe runway(s) Radius(km) T180o Patternwidth(n mile) Enterintocrosswind leg(s) Enterintocrosswind legparallelingtothe runway(s) Radius(nmile) T180o Patternwidth(n mile) 350 66 29 3.6 1min53s 10 76 49 2.65 1min25s 10 400 48 6 4.7 2min12s 10 58 28 3.45 1min37s 10 450 32 5.98 2min30s 12 45 10 4.39 1min50s 10 500 20 7.3 2min45s 14.6 33 5.4 2mins 10.8 550 8 8.9 3min03s 17.8 23 6.5 2min13s 13 (c) VFR Landing: VFR landing and taxiing in fields vary due to different facilities and operating rules and regulations of each airfield. The pilots should take corresponding measures based on the features of each airfield. This is the basic condition to complete a satisfactory VFR landing in fields. (d) After touch-down, control the taxiing speed correctly, ask for the taxiing route and parking position. If the parking position is not clear on an earth runway or in a strange airfield, the outer engines may not be shut off, and shut them off along with the inboard engines after parking. The power switch of anti-icing system should be turned off after landing in bad weather.
  • 165. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-80 June 30, 2012 Cautions for ferry flight (a) Before flight, decisions on carrying the equipment such as cargo ramp, mat net and mooring should be made according to mission requirements; and the positions and prescriptions involved in the forbidden zones and control zones should be understood. (b) Give special care to the checkout and application of oxygen in flight. (c) For ferry flight under bad weather conditions, the safe altitude should be strictly maintained for approach and the pilot should be familiar with the terrain, mountain and their heights in the airfield area when the clearway condition of the take off or landing airfield is poor and the flight visibility is limited. (d) Before landing at night in a field, ask for the positions of the searchlight cars and their distances to the runway edges in order to get clear the details during VFR landing and prevent running into the searchlight cars during flare-out due to deflection or not knowing how things stand. Night flight Lighting equipment and its operation for night flight (a) Generally, the night flying lighting equipment of all airfields is set up according to the stipulations of regulations, but each airfield has its own particulars. For example, neon lamps are built up 3281ft (1000m) away from an end of the runway in some airfields. They can be found from a great distance if they are on. There is only a row of runway lights in some airfields, and do not consider the grassland side as the runway by mistake when landing on these airfields. If there is any doubt, ask and make it clear on the final leg. There are two or three searchlight cars in some airfields and they are set near the runway edges. Do request carefully in order to know how things stand during VFR landing, especially in airfields for light aircraft. (b) Cockpit lighting adjustment There are many signal lights in this aircraft. Their luminosity can all be adjusted except for the four red lights of propeller stop. The luminosity of fluorescent lights is not strong. It should be adjusted so as to fit in with the natural light outside. There is no exposure in the cockpit and no reflective light on the windshield.
  • 166. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-81 June 30, 2012 Fluorescent lights on the aft ceiling panel are not used in general because it is very easy to cause the reflection of light on windshield. When refraction and reflection of light arise on windshield due to the improper adjustment of lighting, the pilot must prevent reflection of light and refraction with the light-shield assembly. If the fluorescent light cover for the flight engineer falls down during takeoff, shade the fluorescent light with hand, and turn on the strong lighting of the landing lights to adjust the influence of the exposure shinning. (c) Usage of lights Landing lights of the aircraft are mounted on both sides of the fuselage and on the forward emergency door respectively. Since light beam irradiates forward and its range is relatively narrow, it is not easy to find taxiway exits during taxiing. The navigator’s portable light mainly functions to assist the pilot during taxiing. It should irradiate forward and towards the taxiing turn direction timely for observation, especially when looking for the taxiing center line during turning and parking. The aircraft is equipped with flashing lights. During night flight, turn them on after starting the engines and turn them off after shut-down. There are totally 24 formation lights on the aircraft. They are mounted on the top and the bottom of the fuselage and wings to mark the positions or specific signals used in formation flight. Since their power consumption is very large, they are not frequently used. There are lights with white shades in cockpit, escort cabin, cargo compartment and the tail section. They are used for illuminating and icing check on the tail at night. Night traffic pattern flight (a) Taxiing: 1) Turn on navigation lights, flashing lights, fluorescent lights and the illumination lights of rudder tab after starting the engines. 2) The taxi speed at night should usually be 2.7 kn~ 5.4 kn (5~10km/h) lower than that at daytime. During taxiing, the landing lights should be set in WEAK position. The strong illumination may be used if necessary. The navigator’s portable light should be used in time for illumination if passing crossroads and making turns. 3) If strong lights illuminate towards the aircraft during taxiing, the pilot should look at the taxiway nearer and, at the same time, ask the navigator to illuminate straight ahead with the portable light. If necessary, turn on the strong lighting for taxiing to avoid running out of the taxiway or into obstacles.
  • 167. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-82 June 30, 2012 4) Watch the ground signals with special care when entering the parking area at night. After shut-down, turn off the flashing lights and navigation lights, and turn on the lights with white shades and engine illumination lights. Then turn off the fluorescent lights and other signal lights. (b) Take-off: 1) Enter the runway and taxi to the center line. Align with the nose wheel straight with reference to the runway center line, directional lights and compass. There should not be any intersection angle between the aircraft and the runway center line. 2) Before takeoff, observe carefully the runway center line and the directional lights, and look at further position. The throttles should be advanced gently. Rough and wild actions are not allowed. Maintain the direction mainly with reference to the runway center line and the lights on both sides of the runway, and keep the aircraft running along the center line by referring to the directional lights. If any deviation, maintain the direction timely and accurately with rudder. It is necessary to guard against the excessive deflection of rudder, especially the right deflection of rudder should not be large. Otherwise, it might result in deviation from the runway. 3) The nose wheel should be rotated a little later at night than at daytime so as to maintain the direction. The lift-off speed should be 2.7 kn~5.4 kn (5~10km/h) higher than that at daytime. Lift-off with low speed should be prevented. After lift-off, climb and accelerate at a small climb angle. Do not press the stick forward blindly to prevent re-touchdown. (c) The differences of control actions on traffic pattern at night with that at daytime are as follows: 1) During take-off, the landing lights change from weak to strong. If landing lights are not on during take-off, there should not be any intersection angle during parking. The lift-off speed should be 2.7 kn~ 5.4 kn (5~10km/h) higher than normal. 2) Turn off the landing lights at the height of 82ft (25m) and retract them at the height of 164ft~230ft (50~70m) during take-off (the speed will be affected by 4.3kn~5.4kn (8~10km/h) due to the retraction and extension of the landing lights). 3) When the aircraft glides to the altitude of 984ft (300m) on the final leg, lower the landing lights (the time required to lower the landing lights is 10~15 seconds, flash the landing lights for 2~3 times 30 seconds before the outer locator). 4) Turn on the landing lights when the aircraft glides to the altitude of 328ft~492ft (100~150m) on the final leg.
  • 168. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-83 June 30, 2012 (d) VFR landing: 1) It is difficult to estimate visually for landing at night. The altitude error cannot be found easily. Maintain the specified glide data strictly and check the glide path by referring to the altitudes when passing the outer and inner locators. After passing by the outer locator, correctly select the aiming point mainly according to the landing “T” light and entrance lights. Generally, the aiming point should be selected 984ft~1148ft (300~500m) to the landing “T” lights (164 ft~328 ft (50~100m) away from the runway threshold). After turning on the landing lights, take care to keep the aiming point and do not make it move backward to prevent the approach altitude from being too low. 2) It is relatively difficult to flare out at night. Since the light changes rapidly from start of flare-out to that the aircraft has really recovered from float, it is difficult to judge the ground surface accurately. In order to make a good flare-out, the pilot’s line of sight should be diverted timely during flare-out, and look further to prevent flare out from being too high and touch down from being too heavy. (e) Landing under different illumination conditions: 1) Landing with ground searchlights only: If rain, snow or fog at night, the ground searchlights should be used for landing to avoid the light screen which is generated by the landing lights, affecting the pilot’s sight, or when the landing lights are failed. The aiming point is selected still with reference to the landing “T” lights and the runway threshold. Do not be affected by the intensity of ground searchlights or the size of the illuminated area. When landing with ground searchlights, it is easy to move the aiming point forward during glide, resulting in a too high approach. Because it is whole pitch black behind the illuminated area, the pilot dare not gaze at the normal aiming point. If the light area margin is too backward, the aiming point moves backward easily. This will result in a too low approach and undershoot. Therefore, when landing with ground searchlights, the flight data should be kept strictly and the judgement should be made precisely so as to improve the accuracy of VFR landing. After entering the light area, the control is the same as normal and there are no more difficulties.
  • 169. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-84 June 30, 2012 2) Landing with onboard landing lights only: When landing with onboard landing lights only, the glide condition is the same as normal on the first half of the final leg. When the landing lights are turned on, the pilot will often be attracted by the light involuntarily. So it is easy to make the aiming point move backward. At this time, special care should be taken to check the aircraft horizon and the rate-of-descent to strictly maintain data and keep a correct gliding angle. The pilot’s sight should not be attracted by the lighting of landing lights. Since there is no illumination of searchlights on the ground, it is not easy to accurately select the aiming point. Therefore, an approximate position should be first selected by referring to the entrance lights and landing “T” lights. After passing the inner locator, accurate correction and correct data adjustment should be made as the function of the onboard landing lights is increasing and the ground surface near the aiming point is clearer. From the altitude of 98ft (30m), the pilot’s sight should be concentrated on the judgement of ground clearance altitude. At the same time, control the flare speed by means of throttles. As the illuminance of the onboard landing lights is weak, it is relatively difficult to observe the ground surface. During flare-out, the beam of the landing lights should gradually move forward and the pilot’s sight should move forward correspondingly with the decrease of the gliding angle and recovering from flare-out. Otherwise, it will be dark for the pilot to feel the front. In this case, because the pilot feels nervous about a too low flare-out, on the contrary, a too high flare-out and even ballooning could be created. In flare-out, the pilot should be concentrated on the judgement of the relative position of the aircraft and the ground by observing the entrance lights, runway lights and landing “T” lights to recover from flare-out accurately. After entering float, observe the clearest ground surface illuminated by the landing lights to judge whether the aircraft has depression angle, which make the aircraft float with a positive pitch angle. Accurately judge aircraft sinking. But sinking is not as obvious as that in the case of using searchlights. So, the stick should be pulled backward gently to make the aircraft sink steadily and touch down lightly at the lateral of the landing “T” light. After touch-down, maintain the direction timely, retard first the inboard throttles to 0o , then the outboard throttles to 0o . At this time, issue the order to release the propeller stop with steady direction caused by nose wheel touch-down. When the speed is decreased, the rudder steering is turned off first, then the nose wheel control handle is pulled out. Change the illumination of landing lights to weak lighting and gently apply brakes to reduce the speed and taxi out the runway.
  • 170. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-85 June 30, 2012 Cautions for night flight (a) For night take-off, it is prohibited to lift off with low speed and press the stick forward blindly to increase the speed, resulting in touch-down again. (b) In night landing, flaring out outside the lighting area is forbidden and touchdown with intersection angle and nose-down angle should also be avoided. (c) When the flaps are down, roughly and wildly pressing the stick forward for gliding is not allowed to prevent the tail from stalling. Flight in complicated weather conditions Preparation (a) Pay attention to the following points when getting the weather information: 1) The entire and systematic weather situation, the position of frontal surface, the distribution of clouds, and the heights of cloud base and top. 2) The actual weather condition of the take-off, landing and alternate airfields, including cloud form, cloud height, the possibility of rainfall and hazardous weather, visibility, etc., and their variation tendency. 3) The position and intensity of cumulus congestus clouds and thunderstorm, their development and moving direction. 4) Position and strength of turbulent flow and riptide location. 5) The possible icing area and its intensity, the height of 0o C isothermal line. (b) Define the penetrating procedures, responsibility of each crewmember and cautions as per terrain features and obstacle distributions of the landing airfield. (c) Draw up the handling plan when encountering thunderstorm, icing or bumpy air. (d) The following aircraft equipment and systems should be checked with special care: 1) Standby horizon, magnetic compass, radio compass, weather radar, radio altimeter. 2) Anti-icing and heating systems. 3) The bounding jumpers and dischargers of the aircraft.
  • 171. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-86 June 30, 2012 Flight in clouds, rain and under icing condition Flight in clouds and rain Before entering the clouds, judge the cloud form and weather condition, turn on the anti-icing equipment and make the aircraft conditions proper in advance. Flying in clouds, the aircraft state is maintained on the basis of the horizon indication, and the other instruments should be cyclically checked. The control actions should be in time, gentle and accurate. If the indication of any instrument appears questionable or any instrument fails, correct judgment should be made and proper measures should be taken by referring to the indication of other instruments. In over-the-top flight, especially over the cumuli form clouds, the flight altitude should be generally 1640 ft (500m) higher than the cloud top. When climbing and descending through clouds, the flight conditions should be maintained, and pay attention to the surrounding terrain and safe altitude. Do not descend ahead of time. Flight under icing condition This aircraft is equipped with perfect anti-icing equipment. Thus the flight can be ensured under moderate and heavy icing conditions. General flight altitude of the aircraft is 19685ft~29247ft (6000m~8000m), and icing is possible when penentrating the clouds, or in rainy or foggy weather. (a) Effect of icing on flight: Icing on the wings and tail can change the surface shapes of wings to make the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance poor. Lift decreases and drag increases. This will cause the decrease of flight speed and the loss of altitude, and the difficulty for control. The negative critical angle of attack of the horizontal tail decreases as airflow separates in advance after icing. If the control action is rough and wild, it is likely to result in tail stall. Icing on the airspeed head can make ASI indication inaccurate, even inoperative. Icing on inlet guide will affect the operation of engines, even cause engine shut-down in severe case. Icing on the propellers can result in thrust reduction and engine vibration. Icing on the radio antennas will affect communication, and can even break the antennas in severe condition, resulting in the interruption of communication.
  • 172. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-87 June 30, 2012 (b) Icing judgment in flight: 1) The windshield and the leading edges of the wings are the parts to get iced over most easily. Take care to observe. Observe the icing condition on windshield glass with torch at night, and conduct periodical check to engine fairing cover for icing condition with engine lighting device. 2) Icing detectors are mounted on the aircraft and engines. Icing can be determined by their indications. If no anti-icing measures are taken in advance under icing condition, it will be possible that ASI indication goes down or indicates “0”. The phenomena of speed decrease and altitude reduction can also assist to judge. (c) Cautions: 1) Try to avoid flying in freezing area if possible. Otherwise, the flight time in freezing area should be as short as possible and pay attention to the judgement of performance and level. 2) Under the icing condition, the level flight speed should not be lower than 216 kn (400km/h), the turning bank should be less than 15o , gentle control is required, and do avoid being rough and wild. 3) When it is raining or foggy at the temperature below 5o C, check the heatings of inlet guide, windshield and airspeed head should be turned on before take-off. 4) The propeller heating can only be turned on 90s before take-off, and be turned off within 90s after landing. 5) Under complicated weather condition, it is necessary to turn on the A/C icing switch and air intake icing signal switch on RH instrument panel before the aircraft lifts off. (d) Handling of icing on the tail Ice on the tail must be cleared off before gliding and landing. If it is not sure whether ice on the tail is cleared off completely, the maximum flap deflection angle should not exceed 20o ~25o (15o in level flight, and lowered to 20o ~25o before gliding on the final leg). Maintain the gliding speed of 146kn~151kn (280~270km/h) and be careful to avoid rough and wild control actions.
  • 173. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-88 June 30, 2012 (e) When the heatings of wings, inlet guide and cargo compartment are turned on, the flight kilometric fuel consumption will be increased by 8%. (f) If ice, frost and snow still exist on the horizontal stabilizer and wing surfaces when the anti-icing system of wings is on, take-off is inhibited. Procedures for landing through cloud in bad weather Landing through cloud with instruments and using locator: (a) Pattern establishment 1) See Figure 4-9 for wide pattern. 60° 3.078nmile γ15° V167kn~194kn V173kn178kn H656ft984ft FWY240° T70Flapdownat15° 20sbeforelanding Figure4-9a Reverse straight-in landing after getting out of cloud
  • 174. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-89 June 30, 2012 γ15° V310~360 t70s V320~330 H200~300 FW Y240° 5.7km Flapdownat15 o 20sbeforelanding Figure4-9b Reverse straight-in landing after getting out of cloud For the corresponding degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) for final turn, see Table 4-16.
  • 175. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-90 June 30, 2012 Table 4-16 Degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) in final turn Name Left wide pattern Right wide pattern FWY 90o 60o 30o 0o 270o 300o 330o 0o DXF 287o 309o 333o 0o 73o 51o 27o 0o Note DXF of downwind and base turns for right wind pattern is 120o . 2) Straight pattern For straight pattern establishing, altitude 1640 ft (500m), time 10min, see Figure 4-8 for carrying out ways. For the corresponding degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) for left straight final turn, see Table 4-17. Table 4-17 Degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) in left straight final turn FWY 180o 150o 120o 90o 60o 30o DXF 215o 239o 262o 285o 308o 332o For the corresponding degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) for right straight final turn, see Table 4-18. Table 4-18 degrees of the azimuth finder (FWY) with relative bearing of the radio station (DXF) in right straight final turn FWY 180o 210o 240o 270o 300o 330o DXF 145o 121o 98o 75o 52o 28o
  • 176. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-91 June 30, 2012 (b) Final turn The main factors affecting the final turn are pattern establishment, crosswind, turning opportunity, turning bank, speed and the accuracy of instrument calibration. In order to enter the final turn correctly, emphasis should be put on the correction of wind effect in addition to the correction of instrument errors, correct control of the turning opportunity and strict keeping of flight data. For example, if there is tailwind on the base leg of a wide pattern, the entry should be earlier; for headwind, it should be later. During turning, the judgment and correction are made mainly according to the corresponding relationship of the azimuth finder with the relative bearing of the radio station. The maximum bank should not exceed 25o if it is used for correction during turning. (c) Correction for landing through cloud on the final leg 1) Points for corrections on the final leg: From piratical experience, the pithy formula can be summarized as: Rather early than late, first big and then small. If there is deviation, pointer should be moved. Consider in slightly advance to take the initiative and give considerations to both direction and altitude. The control of the aircraft is heavy due to its large inertia, therefore control actions must be gentle. The aircraft attitude should be as stable as possible. For correction, rudder should be used more than stick, and bank should be avoided. In recovery, pay attention to the lead. 2) Maintaining and correction of the glide path: After recovering from the final turn, flaps should be lowered timely, the specified rate of descent should be strictly kept and the height of passing the outer and inner locators should be controlled. If the aircraft reaches the altitude of passing the locator but it has not passed the locator yet, throttles should be advanced to level off. Resume gliding after passing the locator. When the altitude of passing the locator is too high, should calculate in head the new rate of descent according to the actual altitude. At this time, care should be taken to control the aircraft gently. When descending to the altitude of 164 ft (50m) but the runway is still not in sight, should resolutely make a go-around.
  • 177. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-92 June 30, 2012 3) Crew cooperation during landing through cloud: Close cooperation of crewmembers is another important factor for making a landing through cloud successfully. The captain should be concentrated on the control of the aircraft and coordinate the overall task of the crew. The copilot is responsible for radio-communication and observation of outside and should remind and assist the captain timely to maintain a good flight. When getting out of the cloud, pay attention to looking for the runway. The navigator masters accurately the time, corrects the wind effect, tunes the radio compass, corrects the azimuth finder, reminds the captain to correct the direction and to maintain the specified rate of descent, and looks for the runway when coming out from the cloud. The communicator is responsible for the command and meteorological information and good communications. The flight engineer takes care of engine operation, correctly completes the mechanical controls commanded by the captain, and pays attention to and provides the aircraft conditions. When the runway is in sight, the captain aligns the aircraft with runway and the aiming point by visual judgement, adjusts the gliding speed and performs VFR landing. (d) Take-off and landing in rain or snow 1) Take-off in rain or snow: Perform a take-off check, turn on the windshield wiper to clear off the water vapor and ice frost on the inner surface. During take-off, the height of nosewheel rotation may be a little lower, the lift-off speed is about 2.7kn~ 5.4kn (5~10km/h) higher. After lift-off, make the aircraft accelerate with a low angle of climb. The action must be gentle. The height of retracting the gears is 6.6 ft~9.8ft (2~3m) higher than normal. Change over to climb when the speed is increased to 146kn (270km/h). At the height of 328ft (100m) and the speed of 162kn (300km/h), turn off the windshield wiper. Other control procedures are the same as normal. 2) Landing in rain or snow: Make full use of the ground navaid. After the final turn has been completed, turn on the windshield wiper and electric fan before the outer locator, and wipe the water vapor and ice frost on the windshield with dry rags.
  • 178. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-93 June 30, 2012 When the aircraft is about to fly out of the cloud and the landmarks or lightings are dimly in sight but the runway can still not be found, do not be anxious to lock for the runway, keep the aircraft attitude and make the corrections as per indication of the instruments. When the runway is clearly in sight, align the aircraft with it, correctly adjust for the specified gliding speed and select the aiming point (it is selected about 164ft (50m) away from the runway threshold). Try to keep the aircraft as stable as possible. Hard actions should be avoided. When the aircraft enters the runway or covers the runway threshold, retard the inboard throttles to 0o or land with power-on. The visibility is relatively poor in rain or snow, so it is more difficult to judge the ground surface during landing. Therefore, it is necessary for the pilot to control the aircraft gently and make it land safely using his fine control habit cultivated in normal times. At night, the lighting in rain or snow can create a light screen. During landing, the landing lights onboard should be turned on as late as possible or land with these lights off. After coming out from the clouds, enter the landing pattern by way of “Reverse straight-in”. When it is impossible to approach in the penetrating direction because the wind speed is too high, the speed should be maintained at 173kn~178kn (320~330km/h) with altitude of 656ft (200m) or 984ft (300m) after getting out of cloud layer. After passing over the landing “T”, turn right for 60o with a bank of 15o . Keep the azimuth finder at 240o . Extend the flaps to 15o 20 seconds earlier than the calculated TB 70s and turn left to enter the final turn. Then radio compass indication in the reverse direction of landing may be referred for correction during landing. After recovering from the turn, align with the runway, extend the flaps to 35o and make VFR landing. Flight in turbulent zone and thunderstorm active zone Turbulent effect on flight If ∆ny represents turbulent strength, generally, 0.05≤Δny<0.2 is light turbulent; 0.2≤Δny<0.5 is moderate turbulent; 0.5≤Δny<1 is strong turbulent. Turbulent effects on flight are as follows: (a) Turbulent effect on aircraft structure: The aircraft has a certain loading strength. The effect of normal turbulent on aircraft structure is not too obvious. But the permitted loading strength is less for transport aircraft, especially in heavy-weight flight. Affected by strong turbulent for a long time, some parts such as wings may be permanently distorted, or even be damaged partly due to excessive load variation.
  • 179. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-94 June 30, 2012 (b) Turbulent effect on instrument indication: All of the instruments on the aircraft have certain delay characteristics. In turbulent air, the instruments will create indication errors as they are suffering from irregular vibration. Especially, aerodynamic instruments, such as vertical speed indicator, altimeter and airspeed indicator, can exhibit larger errors, and can not reflect the instant conditions of the aircraft timely and accurately. In night flight, turbulent can cause jumping of instrument indication. (c) Turbulent effect on aircraft control: Aircraft turbulence can often make the flight altitude, speed and flight conditions vary irregularly. This will bring great difficulty for the pilot to control. If the aircraft encounters very strong up current, it is possible to make the aircraft close to its critical angle of attack. If the aircraft encounters strong down current at low altitude, it is possible to cause the aircraft to drop down to a dangerous altitude. Flight under turbulent condition (a) When flying into strong turbulent area, leave the turbulent zone by changing heading or altitude. If running into the strong turbulence near the service ceiling, the flight altitude should be lowered by 3281ft~8202ft (1000~2500m). Mach number should not be higher than 0.6 during descent. If flying into strong turbulent zone of turbulence band, get out by reducing altitude of 1640ft~3281ft (500~1000m) or getting off the course by 27n mile~37.8n mile (50~70km). (b) The flight altitude should be adequate. Maintain the indicated airspeed of 216kn~243kn (400~450km/h) at the altitude of 9843ft~19685ft (3000~6000m), and 238kn (440km/h) from 19685ft (6000m) to the ceiling. It is forbidden to decrease or increase the speed beyond the specified range. (c) During flight under light turbulent condition, the autopilot may be used to reduce the pilot’s fatigue and enhance the accuracy of holding aircraft conditions. It is forbidden to use the autopilot when the turbulence is more severe than the moderate. (d) The maintaining of aircraft attitude should mainly rely on the aircraft horizon with reference to the other instruments. Control actions should not be rough and wild, otherwise turbulence will be more severe. When making turn or correcting heading under turbulent condition, the maximum bank should not be greater than 15o . If the speed is too low, the altitude may be reduced properly. When the aircraft enters high angle of attack accidentally and minor buffet occurs, push the stick forward and increase the speed, but should recover from bank first if during a turn.
  • 180. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-95 June 30, 2012 Flight in thunderstorm active area: (a) Before take-off, must understand the weather situation and its future development trend, make the handling plan if running into thunderstorm. The back-up fuel quantity should be calculated accurately. (b) In flight, try to maintain over-the-top visual flight if possible, it is strictly forbidden to enter cumulonimbus clouds and cumulus congestus clouds. The navigator should often observe thunderstorm distribution situation with radar, and report it to the crew timely. If cumulonimbus cloud is found, while taking measures onboard, report to the ground in order to make the ground crew understand aircraft movement. (c) Handling procedures when running into cumulus congestus clouds and cumulonimbus clouds: 1) If cumulonimbus clouds are dispersed and isolated, a visual circuitous flight should be taken. The distance from the boundary of cumulonimbus clouds should not be less than 2.7n mile (5km) and that from the source of cumulonimbus clouds should not be less than 5.4 n mile (10km). If flight through the gap between two thunderstorm zones, the space observed from the radar should not be less than 10.8 n mile (20km). 2) When there is no way for circuitous flight and the aircraft can not climb above the cloud, reduce the altitude and fly beneath the clouds if the cumulonimbus cloud base is higher and the terrain along the course is also smooth. But the flight altitude should be neither too low nor close to the cloud base, normally fly at the height which is one third of the height from the ground to the cloud base. When approaching the edge of thunderstorm, the radio equipment should be turned off to prevent the aircraft from being struck by lighting. 3) In case of radar failure, only the visual circuitous flight is allowed. If no way to bypass the thunderstorm-acting zone, decision should be made to return or fly to an alternate airfield.
  • 181. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-96 June 30, 2012 Formation flight Operating in trail Basic formation (See Figure 4-10) Generally, one fleet is formed by three aircraft, with the distance between each aircraft and fleet being 3281ft (1000m) and 4921ft (1500m) respectively, while the altitude between each aircraft is 66ft~98ft (20~30m). 3281 ft 66ft~98 ft 4921 ft Figure 4-10a Formation of operating in trail 1000m 20~30m 1500m Figure 4-10b Formation of operating in trail
  • 182. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-97 June 30, 2012 Engine start and taxiing (a) Engine start 1) All aircrew members should be onboard 5~15min before engine start. 2) The leader commands the engine start as per required time of takeoff, engine start, warmup and taxi to the takeoff line. 3) Engine run is generally conducted as per the leader command, required time or the signal from ground crew. (b) Taxiing 1) After the report of “engine run completed” from the last wing is received by the leader, each aircraft will taxi consequently to the takeoff line with the permission of the ground dispatcher. 2) During the taxiing process, the distance between each aircraft should not be less than 164ft (50m). In case that the taxiing is performed on the earth runway, increase the taxiing distance properly, watch the wind direction and avoid the dust as much as possible. 3) Each aircraft should taxi into the runway as per their takeoff sequence and form a snake-like queue with the leader at the downwind side, and the distance between each wing should be not less than 131ft (40m). See Figure 4-11. Figure 4-11 Parking diagram
  • 183. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-98 June 30, 2012 Takeoff and rendezvous (a) Takeoff and climbing 1) The leader shall ask for takeoff when the report of “ready” from the last wing is received. 2) By the time that the leader (prior aircraft) starts taxiing, the next aircraft shall put the throttle angle at 30o ~40o and taxi to the position where the former aircraft stands. The takeoff interval is 1min. 3) After takeoff, the leader should follow the specified data strictly and climb up along the takeoff direction with reference of obvious target ahead. In case of side wind, correct the drift and inform the wing of the corrected value. 4) In the process of climbing up, each wing should observe flight status of leader or the previous aircraft, and strictly follow the specified data of climbing. 5) Coordination of crew members after takeoff: The leader should watch the overall situation and strictly follow the stipulated data and position required, while the copilot is responsible for observing the aircraft status and pilot’s operation, adjusting the throttle angle as per the pilot’s command and flight purpose, and remind the pilot of any deviation or assisting in correction of such deviation. The navigator should master an accurate time as required, report the corrected heading and climbing data, and the mechanic must watch the instrument readout and engine operating status in an all-round way. 6) Takeoff and climbing in trail: The position and time of takeoff should be stipulated in advance and the data should be followed strictly. (b) 180o turning and rendezvous (see Figure 4-12). 1) The leader sends out verbal command or signal of “turning” as per required time and makes a 180o turn leftward (rightward) with stipulated angle. Figure 4-12 180o turnning rendezvous for operating in trail
  • 184. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-99 June 30, 2012 2) On receiving the verbal command of “turning” or seeing the signal, each wing should remember the turning time and turn as per stipulated interval and the projection angle of the leader (previous aircraft) on the windshield glass. 3) During the turning process, the leader must follow strictly the stipulated turning data. During the first half (90o ) of turning, the wing should mainly follow the stipulated data with the projection angle as an assisted reference, while during the second half of turning mainly refer to the projection angle with the stipulated data as an assisted reference. In case of any overrun or drop-off, adjust the turning angle and speed properly for correction. Each aircraft should maintain their position in the turning process so as to follow up the fleet after turning. 4) After the turning, the leader keeps level off at the speed of 189kn (350km/h) and height of 3609ft (1100m) and leads the wing to the preset height until the last wing has joint the fleet. See Table 4-19 for climbing data of each aircraft at a separation of 3281ft (1000m) and the fleet distance of 4921ft (1500m). Table 4-19a Climbing data of the aircraft Item Data Aircraft IAS (kn) Climbing rate(ft/s) Altitude at crosswind leg (ft) Time of crosswind lge Distance of crosswind leg (n mile) Leader 189 11.48 3281 4min36s 12.96 Aircraft No.2 189 12.14 2953 4min11s Aircraft No.3 189 13.12 2625 3min46s Aircraft No.4 189 14.11 2297 3min23s 8.91 Aircraft No.5 189 15.42 1969 2min58s Aircraft No.6 189 16.40 1640 2min33s Aircraft No.7 189 17.39 1312 2min10s 5.13 Aircraft No.8 189 18.70 984 1min45s Aircraft No.9 189 19.69 656 1min20s
  • 185. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-100 June 30, 2012 Table 4-19b Climbing data of the aircraft Item Data Aircraft IAS (km/h) Climbing rate(m/s) Altitude at crosswind leg (m) Time of crosswind lge Distance of crosswind leg (km) Leader 350 3.5 1000 4min36s 24 Aircraft No.2 350 3.7 900 4min11s Aircraft No.3 350 4 800 3min46s Aircraft No.4 350 4.3 700 3min23s 16.5 Aircraft No.5 350 4.7 600 2min58s Aircraft No.6 350 5 500 2min33s Aircraft No.7 350 5.3 400 2min10s 9.5 Aircraft No.8 350 5.7 300 1min45s Aircraft No.9 350 6 200 1min20s (c) Projection angle of 180o turning rendezvous 1) Figure 4-13 and Table 4-20 are projection angle of 180o turning rendezvous of the leader and the previous aircraft at a distance of 4921ft (1500m). L3° L18° R9° R1° FW Y225° FWY270° FW Y315° FWY0° Figure 4-13 Projection angle of 180o turning rendezvous of leader and the previous aircraft at a distance of 4921ft (1500m)
  • 186. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-101 June 30, 2012 Table 4-20 Projection angle of leader and its previous aircraft (Distance: 4921ft (1500m)) Azimuth angle 0o 315o 270o 225o Visual angle Left 18o Right 1o Right 9o Left 8o 2) Figure 4-14 and Table 4-21 are projection angle of 180o turning rendezvous of the wing and the leader (previous aircraft) at a distance of 3281ft (1000m). L9° L15° R15° R3° FW Y225° FWY270° FW Y315° FWY0° Figure 4-14 Projection angle of 180o turning rendezvous of the wing and the leader (previous aircraft) at a distance of 3281ft (1000m) Table 4-21 Porjection angle of each wing and the leader (previous aircraft)(Distance: 3281ft (1000m)) Azimuth finder 0o 315o 270o 225o Visual angle Left 15o Right 8o Right 15o Left 9o
  • 187. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-102 June 30, 2012 Trail in straight line Variance of distance and the altitude difference of trail flight is mainly judged and corrected timely through projection position, size and clearness of the leader (previous aircraft) on the windshield glass. (a) Direction maintenance 1) Trail flight of single aircraft should keep a straight line and its judgement is as per the leader (previous aircraft) heading. Both the leader and the wing should correct the drift together and keep the flight at the same track. 2) Keep a straight line, and the leader must follow strictly the flight data. The track is preferred to be corrected once for all and frequent track correction is not suggested. During the straight-line followup, the wing should keep level-off, refer to the previous aircraft lines and align with certain position of the leader (previous aircraft) for direction maintenance. 3) Upon drift correction, keep the aircraft at level position and correct with sideslip method. The rudder should be operated more than that of the rod. 4) During the single aircraft trail, aircraft No.2 should strictly keep the direction which is favorable for the fleet. (b) Distance maintenance 1) Judgement Draw two vertical lines which are parallel to each other as per the calculated result, and envelope the previous aircraft between these two lines during flight. If projection of the previous aircraft spills over the lines, the aircraft turns out to overrun, if smaller, the aircraft drops off. Formula: L= Where: L referes to projection length of the previous aircraft between two parallel lines on the windshield. The navigator observes the measuring distance on the fluorescent screen from the JYL-6AT weather radar and reports it to the pilot with intercom. Judge as per flight speed, altitude and adjunct feature of the previous aircraft on its fuselage. Length of wing span×Distance of pilot’s eye from the windshield glass Trail distance
  • 188. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-103 June 30, 2012 Drop-off and overrun can also be indicated by the corrected IAS and stipulated speed difference, and as per adjunct clearness of the previous aircraft on its fuselage. However, such method is not objective enough that during the flight, if the altitude remains, in case that the previous aircraft tends to climb up, the distance is far, or else near. 2) Distance correction Keep the throttle at required position and adjust the speed by means of inboard throttle control. In case of distance difference during the correction, pay attention to aircraft inertia and the lead to avoid an excessive speed difference. Range of speed difference correction with inboard throttle control: 1st fleet ±10.8kn (±20km/h) 2nd fleet ±21.6kn (±40km/h) 3rd fleet ±32.4kn (±60km/h) Correction with turning cutoff radius: turn early for far distance, and vice versa. The time for turning correction is calculated as per the distance difference with the previous aircraft and the ground speed. Correct T/2. (c) Keep altitude difference 1) During the trail flight, the latter aircraft should be 66ft~98ft (20~30m) higher than the former one, and it cannot enter the wake region of the previous aircraft at a proper altitude difference, by when, there is no clearance between stabilizer and rear edge of the previous aircraft, and the clearance will appear at the difference higher than stipulated altitude. In case that the altitude difference is below stipulation, full nozzle will show up. The judgement can also be performed as per the altimeter indication. 2) Timely push or hold the stick back when adjusting the distance with throttle control, in case of any altitude difference change. Upon altitude difference correction, adjust the speed timely to keep the distance as well. 3) As for climbing up and sliding in trail, the latter aircraft should also be 66ft~98ft (20~30m) higher than the former aircraft, and the track of each aircraft should parallel to each other rather than the same as that of the leader. It is very difficult for the single aircraft to keep the climbing and sliding distance in trail since drop-off is frequent for climbing, and overrun is likely to occur for sliding. Especially before sliding at high altitude, the pilot should enlarge the distance properly, and adjust as per stipulated range after the sliding status is stabilized, so as to prevent the speed from overrun.
  • 189. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-104 June 30, 2012 Turn in trail (a) Time of entering the turn 1) Timing turn The latter aircraft times at the moment when the previous aircraft begins to turn, and then turns as per stipulated turning interval. Turning interval=trail distance÷flight speed 2) Turn as per visual angle After the previous aircraft entered the turning, the following aircraft turns as per its visual angle which is half turning angle of the previous aircraft during its track interval. (b) For example, suppose IAS=216kn (400km/h), turning slope=15o , tracking distance = 3281ft (1000m), then tracking interval is 8.3s, and turning angle is 11o . Therefore, visual angle of the following aircraft to the previous aircraft is 5.5o . During the turning process, both the following aircraft and the previous aircraft should stabilize their positions. In case there is rightward displacement for the projection of the previous aircraft on the windshield glass, correct it timely by means of slope adjustment. In case of turning left, the previous aircraft tends to move leftward and slope increase is required. When the previous aircraft moves rightward, slope decrease is required. Do not increase or decrease the slope excessively. (c) When recovering from the turn, the following aircraft should level off properly as per recovery of the previous aircraft and the combining lines of previous several aircraft and current heading, so as to corrct the heading and distance timely. Break to land (a) Before the break, the leader should lead the whole fleet enter the airport accurately along the landing course as per remarkable ground target, navigation aids and the position of fleet and runway at the height of 3281ft (1000m) and speed of 216kn (400km/h). It should turn 180o leftward (rightward) for entering the course and land with the slope of 25o , speed of 227kn (420km/h) and descent rate of 16.4ft/s (5m/s). Aircraft No.2 begins timing at the moment when the leader enters the turning and flight one “TB” forward for break landing with the same data as that of the leader. Each aircraft following aircraft No.2 should turn as per the same method. Drift double correction is required at the downwind leg.
  • 190. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-105 June 30, 2012 (b) Decrease the speed at sideway of the threshold to extend the landing gear at the course altitude of 984ft (300m). Extend the flap at 15o 15s before the base leg, and enter the turning 30s after flying over the outer locator side at the slope of 14o , speed of 173kn (320km/h) and visual angle of 62o .During the second half (90o ) of turning, descend with the speed of 6.6ft/s~9.8ft/s (2~3m/s) and recovered turning altitude of 656ft (200m). (c) The landing interval is 1min20s. See Figure 4-15 for break to land. t30s V 227kn ttiming Figure 4-15a Single aircraft trail and break to land t30s V 420 320 ttiming Figure 4-15b Single aircraft trail and break to land
  • 191. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-106 June 30, 2012 Night trail of single aircraft (a) Long-time focus of a single point will probably cause illusion if deviation is not found and corrected timely; (b) Separation between each aircraft should not be less than 328ft (100m) during night taxiing, and put the landing light at ON position when taxiing forward to approach the previous aircraft; (c) Takeoff interval is 1min, and the trail distance between each aircraft is 4921ft (1500m). See Table 4-22 for takeoff, climbing and turning data of the aircraft. (d) During the takeoff rendezvous, the leader (previous aircraft) should turn on the flash light until the following aircraft follows up. Each aircraft should enter the turning rendezvous as stipulated time. When entering the fleet, each aircraft should strictly follow the stipulated speed to prevent the overrun due to excessive speed difference. Table 4-22a Takeoff, climbing and turning data of the aircraft Item Data Aircraft IAS (kn) Climbing rate (ft/s) Altitudeat the beginning of 180o turn (ft) Time at the beginning of 180o turn Climbing rate for turning (ft/s) Altitude upon completion of the 180 o turn (ft) Leader 189 13.1 1640 2min06s 13.1 3281 Aircraft No.2 189 16.4 984 1min43s 16.4 3346 Aircraft No.3 16.7 6 656 1min20s 23.0 3412 Table 4-22b Takeoff, climbing and turning data of the aircraft Item Data Aircraft IAS (km/h) Climbin g rate (m/s) Altitudeat the beginning of 180o turn (m) Time at the beginning of 180o turn Climbing rate for turning (m/s) Altitude upon completion of the 180 o turn (m) Leader 350 4 500 2min06s 4 1000 Aircraft No.2 350 5 300 1min43s 5 1020 Aircraft No.3 350 6 200 1min20s 7 1040
  • 192. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-107 June 30, 2012 Each aircraft should enter the 180o turning rendezvous as per stipulated time and follow the required speed when joining the fleet to avoid exceesive overspeed. The projection angle for 180o turning rendezvous is the same as that of the daytime. (e) Trail of straight line 1) Maintain the direction. align the white-colored tail light of the previous aircraft to keep the red (leftward) and the green (rightward) navigation light symmetrical to each other, and refer to the heading simultaneously. 2) Keep the distance. Keep the stipulated speed as required and judge the distance as per formation light and navigation light of the previous aircraft. Action of the previous aircraft and its distance is hard to be judged correctly in blurred projection line. The aircraft is likely to over run in the moonlight night, and drop off in dark night. 3) Maintain the altitude difference. The altitude difference should not be excessive to avoid the confusion between the ground light and the previous aircraft. The altitude difference is lower if formation light can not be seen clearly,and higher if only seen the formation light. 4) Tail turn. For the turning moment, timing and turn as per the visual angle and airdrop color-changing signal light of the leader (previous aircraft), and the flare bomb of the leader (previous aircraft) or the fixing point above the flashing ground target. During the turning process, observe the whole wing span of the previous aircraft rather than the mere white tail light. (f) Break to land Each aircraft should turn on their flashing light during the break landing process. For observation convenience, the following aircraft might be lower than the previous one in its altitude. Each crew member should follow up their separated duty clearly and special personnel are required for position observation of the previous aircraft. The visual angle to the previous aircraft after the base turn is 90o . See Table 4-23 for the break landing data.
  • 193. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-108 June 30, 2012 Table 4-23a Data of break landing Aircraft No. 1 2 3 Tdelay 0 1min2s 1min2s Vg(ft/s) 16.4 10.8 8.2 Table 4-23b Data of break landing Aircraft No. 1 2 3 Tdelay 0 1min2s 1min2s Vg(m/s) 5 3.3 2.5 (g) Cautions for night trail 1) Report timely if the previous aircraft is lost. Under such circumstances, raise the altitude properly and turn on the flashing light and the light of escort cabin, and apply the previous aircraft for turning on these lights, then recover the formation or return to land (single aircraft) as per current situation. In case of rejoining the formation, avoid excessive speed difference to prevent collision between two aircraft. 2) Generally, the position and distance of the ground projection in the fleet tends to be excessive. When flying over the light area, formation light of the previous aircraft will be darken. 3) The fluorescent light in the cockpit should not be excessively bright during the night trail, so as not to cause negative effect for observation of the previous aircraft. 4) When flying over the light area (cities), altitude difference of the following aircraft should not be excessive, and the pilot should focus his eyesight properly to avoid focusing on a single point (for example the tail light) in case of any illusion. If illusion occurs, report to other crew members and appeal the other pilot who is not in eyesight illusion for aircraft control. Aircraft should be controlled strictly as per the instrument indication, and other crew mebers should remind timely. In case that the eyesight illusion can not disappear for a long time, appeal the leader for escaping the formation and return to land. Single aircraft trail limitations (a) The throttle angle of straight-line trail is ranged between 25o ~70o , and the throttle angle is allowed to be positioned at 0o in no case. (b) Speed difference for 180o turning rendezvous is (+27 -16 )kn ((+50 -30 ) km/h.) (c) See Table 4-24 for Max. allowable error for each aircraft.
  • 194. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-109 June 30, 2012 Table 4-24a Max. allowable error of each aircraft Aircraft No. Takeoff time (s) Climbing speed (kn) Maneuver speed (kn) Trail distance (ft) Turning slope (o ) Landing time (s) Difference of altitude (ft) Leader ±1 ±2.7 ±2.7 0 ±32.8 Aircraft No.2 ±1 ±2.7 ±10.8 656 ±2 ±15 ±49.2 Aircraft No.3 ±1 ±2.7 ±13.5 820 ±2 ±15 ±65.6 Aircraft No.4 ±1 ±2.7 ±16.2 984 ±2 ±15 ±32.8 Aircraft No.5 ±1 ±2.7 ±18.9 984 ±2 ±15 ±49.2 Aircraft No.6 ±1 ±2.7 ±21.6 984 ±2 ±15 ±65.6 Aircraft No.7 ±1 ±5 ±24.3 984 ±2 ±15 ±32.8 Aircraft No.8 ±1 ±2.7 ±27.0 984 ±2 ±15 ±49.2 Aircraft No.9 ±1 ±2.7 ±29.7 984 ±2 ±15 ±65.6 Table 4-24b Max. allowable error of each aircraft Aircraft No. Takeoff time (s) Climbing speed (km/h) Maneuver speed (km/h) Trail distance (m) Turning slope (o ) Landing time (s) Difference of altitude (m) Leader ±1 ±5 ±5 0 ±10 Aircraft No.2 ±1 ±5 ±20 200 ±2 ±15 ±15 Aircraft No.3 ±1 ±5 ±25 250 ±2 ±15 ±20 Aircraft No.4 ±1 ±5 ±30 300 ±2 ±15 ±10 Aircraft No.5 ±1 ±5 ±35 300 ±2 ±15 ±15 Aircraft No.6 ±1 ±5 ±40 300 ±2 ±15 ±20 Aircraft No.7 ±1 ±5 ±45 300 ±2 ±15 ±10 Aircraft No.8 ±1 ±5 ±50 300 ±2 ±15 ±15 Aircraft No.9 ±1 ±5 ±55 300 ±2 ±15 ±20
  • 195. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-110 June 30, 2012 Special case treatment in formation flight Overrun of wing Overrun of wing generally occurs at the moment of turning rendezvous and entering into the clouds. Under such circumstances, report to the leader immediately about this case and the current altitude. Meanwhile, observe carefully to get the interval as per the anti-direction of the turning. Listen to the leader command. Once the leader (previous aircraft) is found, rejoin the fleet. Leader loss Report immediately in case of the leader loss. Each crew member should observe and search carefully and selectly, meanwhile deviate the aircraft towards the heading where no aircraft exists. Once the leader is detected, rejoin the fleet. If the leader can not be searched, report to the ground dispatcher and return to land. Blind maneuvering flight is strictly prohibited in case of leader loss, which will severely threaten the flight safety. Engine failure (a) If engine failure occurs to the leader, inform the wing first and appoint one deputy leader, and then lower the altitude to enlarge the altitude difference with the wing. Escape the fleet and return to land along the shortcut selected as per the favorable direction. (b) If engine failure occurs to the wing, report to leader first and appeal for escaping the fleet, and then lower the altitude, get the interval and return to land along the shortcut. Treatment of entering wake flow of the leader (previous aircraft) (a) Under such circumstances, the aircraft tends to swing and the altitude will descend, the rudder will be heavier and performance lowered, with deviation correction delay. The left wing will even go downward for worse. (b) After entering the wake flow, control the aircraft timely with force to eliminate the slope. Increase the speed by means of throttle advancement and hold the stick back gently to paddle the rudder outward with proper speed so as to lead the aircraft fly out of wake flow of the leader (previous aircraft). (c) If the aircraft enters the wake flow during its landing of gliding by the final leg, in case there is severe dive and decline of wing, advance the throttle to go around at once if the correction is difficult, and avoid a reluctant landing which will cause negative effect.
  • 196. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-111 June 30, 2012 Treatment of entering the clouds (a) Principle The leader should detect the clouds timely and be responsible for the solution, then inform other aircraft in advance and handle it calmly, while each wing should listen to the leader command carefully and implement in no hesitate, and remind the problems being detected. (b) Steps 1) Forced entering into clouds in 180o turning rendezvous (formation turning) Under such circumstances, once the leader (previous aircraft) is lost, the aircraft should enlarge the distance with each other by means of changing the banking and altitude difference to ensure the flight safety of the whole fleet. The leader (previous aircraft) should report the altitude for entering into the cloud and the level flight, so that the following aircraft can adjust the difference. During the 180o turning rendezvous, before the forced entrance into the cloud, the leader (previous aircraft) can lower its altitude below the clouds if permitted by the terrain. However, it should report the level flight altitude timely so that the following aircraft can adjust the difference. The first fleet makes the turn by means of changing the slope, and the leader of the second fleet times by the moment when the last wing of the first fleet finishes the turn, and then flies forward a “TB” time, making the turn as per the method by which the first fleet makes the separation. The third fleet makes the turn and separation as per the same steps of the second fleet. In case that the leader of the first fleet reports entering into clouds and separation as per the preset method, takeoff on ground shall all be terminated. Table 4-25 and Figure 4-16 are stipulated data followed by each aircraft during the forced entrance of clouds in 180o turning rendezvous. 2) Small pieces of clouds penentration: After the verbal command of “penentrate the clouds as per stipulated data” is received from the leader, each aircraft should penetrate following the stipulated data and must keep the flight status as required. After the penetration, pay attention to adjust the position in the fleet.
  • 197. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-112 June 30, 2012 Table 4-25a Stipulated data followed by each aircraft during the forced entrance of clouds in 180o turning rendezvous Item Data Aircraft IAS (kn) Radius R (ft) Slope γ (o ) Time of 180o turning rendezvous Result of formation separation Interval (ft) Distance (ft) Altitude difference(ft) Leader 189 9186 20 1min 27s ~6562 0 Aircraft No.2 189 12467 15 2min 00s ~6562 ~14764 656 Aircraft No.3 189 15748 12 2min 30s ~6562 ~14764 13132 Table 4-25b Stipulated data followed by each aircraft during the forced entrance of clouds in 180o turning rendezvous Item Data Aircraft IAS (km/h) Radius R (m) Slope γ (o ) Time of 180o turning rendezvous Result of formation separation Interval (m) Distance (m) Altitude difference(m) Leader 350 2800 20 1min 27s ~2000 0 Aircraft No.2 350 3800 15 2min 00s ~2000 ~4500 200 Aircraft No.3 350 4800 12 2min 30s ~2000 ~4500 400 R9186 ft R12467 ft R15748 ft 14764 ft 6562 ft 14764 ft 6562 ft Figure 4-16a Separation after the 180o turning rendezvous
  • 198. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-113 June 30, 2012 R2800 R3800 R4800 4500m 4500m 2000m 2000m Figure 4-16b Separation after the 180o turning rendezvous 3) Massive clouds penetration: After the verbal command of “change the speed for separation” is received, each wing should control the flight speed as required for enlarging the trail distance. After the fleet penetration, the leader should inform each wing of rejoining the formation, and they should increase the speed accordingly to take their separated position. 4) When the low clouds increases and the cloud layer becomes thicker which is difficult for a continuous formation flight, the leader should send the verbal command of “altitude and speed change for separation”. On reciving such command, each wing should control their speed and change altitude as stipulated in Table 4-26 to enlarge the distance, increase altitude difference and stop the flight mission. At the same time, the ground dispatcher should guide each aircraft to lower their altitude as per the preset penetration solution and site. Each aircraft should return to land separately. Table 4-26a Altitude changed with speed alternation Aircraft No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Speed difference (kn) +16.2 +10.8 +5.4 - -5.4 -10.8 -16.2 -21.6 -27 Altitude difference (ft) - +984 - +984 - +984 - +984 - Table 4-26b Altitude changed with speed alternation Aircraft No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Speed difference (km/h) +30 +20 +10 - -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 Altitude difference (m) - +300 - +300 - +300 - +300 -
  • 199. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-114 June 30, 2012 5) For the separated No.3 and No.4 fleet, the leader should command for flying at oringal speed (△V=5.4kn (10km/h), and the separation is 3281ft (1000m) for every 6min) after a period of flight time as per the current weather condition. On receiving such command, each wing should fly as per their original speed. 6) During the treatment of entering into the clouds, both the leader and the wing should turn on the flashing light, and the wing (following aircraft) navigator should observe the separation with the previous aircraft with radar during the process of fleet separation and rejoining. Meanwhile, other crew members of the leader (previous aircraft) should strengthen the air-to-air observation for prevention of collision. Climbing and descent during cloud penetration When the fleet is climbing or descending during the cloud penetration, the aircraft should keep the safety interval with each other, and the length of that time depends on cloud thickness and flight skills of the pilot. Calculation of safety interval t safe=K Where, K represents the safety factor, and its range depends on flight skills of the pilot. For a pilot of medium level, K=2. △V——Error of speed maintenance, 5.4kn~10.8kn (10km/h~20km/h) in general H——Cloud thickness; U——Climbing/desending rate V——TAS during penentrating climb/descent For example, a pilot of medium level keeps the speed error of 5.4kn (10km/h), TAS of 194kn (360km/h) and climbing rate of 8m/s during the penetrating climb. The cloud thickness is 4921ft (1500m). Thus, safety interval during the penetrating climb is obtained through: Tsafe=2× 8×100 2.8×1500 =10.5 As a result, the interval is 10.5s. H•△V V•U
  • 200. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-115 June 30, 2012 Fleet penentrating climb and rendezvous above the clouds (a) Each aircraft of the fleet perform the penetrating climb along the same direction and rendezvous above the clouds 1) After the leader takes off, each wing should take off at every other safety interval. After the takeoff, each wing climbs in straight line along the takeoff direction with IAS of 189kn (350km/h) and climbing rate of 19.7ft/s~26.3ft/s (6~8m/s). During the penentrating climb, the following aircraft should get altitude difference of the previous aircraft as per the takeoff interval and climbing rate. Meanwhile, the leader reports his current altitude for every ascension of 3281ft (1000m). Each wing should check and adjust his current altitude as per the reported data. 2) During the penentrating climb, each aircraft should turn on the flashing light until completion of such penentration. 3) Each aircraft should follow strictly the stipulated data as required and pay attention to correct the indication error. 4) Having penentrated through the clouds, the leader performs level flight at the altitude of 984ft~1640ft (300~500m) above the cloud top with IAS of 350km/h, and inform the wing of relavent data like the altitude when getting out of clouds and level flight, etc. When the last wing reports the completion of penentration, the leader turns with the slope of 15o , IAS of 189kn (350km/h) and climbing rate of 13.1ft/s (4m/s) and send out verbal command of turning rendezvous, by when, each wing begins to time. See Table 4-27 for turning delay of each aircraft. Table 4-27 Turning delay of each aircraft Sequence 1 2 3 Tdelay 0 1min1s 2min7s 5) The wing should inform the leader of his penentration completion, and levels off at an altitude of 66ft~98ft (20~30m) higher than the leader’s level flight (previous aircraft), and pay attention to search for the leader. After the leader’s turn, the wing makes 180o turning rendezvous leftward (rightward) as per the same data as the leader after half takeoff interval and period of follow-up. During this process, each wing should follow strictly the stipulated data, check the turning timing as per the visual angle and adjust timely the position by means of slope and speed correction. See Table 4-28 for projection of the 180o turning rendezvous above clouds.
  • 201. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-116 June 30, 2012 Table 4-28a Projection of 180o turning rendezvous Azimuth finder 0o 31 o 270o 225o Projection angle (VTAS238kn) Left 17o Right 2o Right 19o Right 12o Projection angle (VTAS238kn) Left 18o Right 4o Right 21o Right 17o Table 4-28b Projection of 180o turning rendezvous Azimuth finder 0o 31 o 270o 225o Projection angle (VTAS440km/h) Left 17o Right 2o Right 19o Right 12o Projection angle (VTAS440km/h) Left 18o Right 4o Right 21o Right 17o 6) After the leader (previous aircraft) is confirmed, the wing should rejoin the fleet as per formation requirement when permitted. See Figure 4-17 for details. 7) After the formation is completed, the leader commands to ascend to the preset altitude. Figure 4-17 Penentrating climb and rendezvous above clouds along the same direction (single aircraft) (b) Penentrating climb along the course and follow up the fleet with straight line flight 1) If the terrain stops the aircraft from climbing up in line as per the takeoff direction, fly over the outer locator/sideway as per the stipulated method in Figure 4-18.
  • 202. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-117 June 30, 2012 tlmin30s tlmin20s H656ft 15° 189kn 19.7ft/s Figure 4-18a Flight method in case of terrain stop tlmin30s tlmin20s H200 15° 350 6m/s Figure 4-18b Flight method in case of terrain stop 2) Each wing should fly along the leader course with IAS of 189kn (350km/h) and climbing rate of 19.7ft/s~26.2ft/s (6~8m/s). 3) Having penentrated the clouds, the leader performs level flight at an altitude of 984ft~1640ft (300~500m) above the cloud top (above the safety altitude) with IAS of 189kn (350km/h) and report the level flight altitiude. 4) Each wing keeps the same altitude as that of the leader after the penentration. Meanwhile, aircraft No.2 and No.3 follows up the leader along the straight line with IAS of 216kn (400km/h) and 243kn (450km/h) respectively, search its position and measure the distance with the navigation radar. The speed difference is 27kn (50km/h) and follow-up distance for every 3min is 8268ft (2520m).
  • 203. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-118 June 30, 2012 See Table 4-29 for follow-up time at different distance (△V=27kn (50km/h)). Table 4-29a Follow-up time Follow-up distance (n mile) 8.10 7.56 7.02 6.48 5.94 5.40 Time requried 18min 16min50s 15min40s 14min40s 13min10s 12min Table 4-29b Follow-up time Follow-up distance (km) 15 14 13 12 11 10 Time requried 18min 16min50s 15min40s 14min40s 13min10s 12min Break above clouds and penentrating descent (a) The fleet breaks above the clouds and perform penentrating descent separately. Before the break, proper maneuvering flight is required so that the fleet will be able to land along the landing direction or enter the navigaton zone for penentrating descent against the landing direction. See Figure 4-19. 40° Figure 4-19 Break above clouds and penentrating descent (b) After flying over the navigation station, the leader turns leftward (rightward) into one correction angle and continues the level flight (correction angle and the time of flight after flying over the navigation station depends on the cloud thickness, flight speed and the descending rate) as per estimated time, then commands break. Meanwhile, it turns leftward (rightward) for penentrating land as per the stipulated slope. See Table 4-30. tLeader= Descen Levelnnav.statioField V V × rateDescent H-H
  • 204. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-119 June 30, 2012 (c) On receving the break command from the leader, each wing should continue level flight against the landing direction and turn for penentrating landing after half landing safety interval and follow-up time. Having recovered from the turn, the wing should extend the landing gear and flap as per stipulated time, follow the stipulated data, align with the outer locator and glide for visual landing. twing=tleader+ 2 T+T timeup-followtimelanding (d) Cautions: 1) Integrate the data. Each wing should keep flying against the landing direction after the leader’s escape. 2) Take the occasion of final turn accurately with the slop of 15o . 3) Each wing should extend the landing gear and flap as per the leader’s stipulated time after the final turn. Table 4-30a Time from level flight to break (leader) H(ft) Vy(ft/s) 6562 9843 13123 16404 19.7 4min 24s 6min 50s 9min 24s 11min 48s 26.2 3min 18s 5min 8s 7min 8min 48s Table 4-30b Time from level flight to break (leader) H(m) Vy(m/s) 2000 3000 4000 5000 6 4min 24s 6min 50s 9min 24s 11min 48s 8 3min 18s 5min 8s 7min 8min 48s
  • 205. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-120 June 30, 2012 Airdrop and airborne flight Airdrop and airborne calculation and several methods of sighting Operating principle The aircraft adopts KM-001A sighting equipment in its airdrop and airborne system. It is designed as the optical sighting system of collimation style, and its operating procedure is as follows: The navigator obtains the sighting angle and latitudinal angle of deviation as per the datum for airdrop flight in advance, and then preset these values to sighting system through their hand wheels. The sighting of direction is performed by adjusting the handwheel of latitudinal angle of deviation as per the indication of the ground speed drift gauge or the landmark track within the visual field. Adjust the optical net by turning the handwheel of observation angle to follow the target, and press the airdrop button when the angle of observation equals to that of sighting to unlock the platform for airdrop. See Figure 4-20. Horizon airdrop value is calculated through: 0 verageA Decline μcos H εcosZ+a =φtan H AverageεsinZ+D =μtan 0 ψ-aiming angle ψinclined-inclined aiming angle μ-lateral deflection angle μo-inclined angle of aiming plane α-drift angle a-longitudinal range before parachute develop A-longitudinal range of airdropping object H-aircraft altitude Z-deviation length εaverage-average wind direction angle D-lateral deviation length before parachute develop uaverage ̄-average wind speed W-aircraft ground speed V-aircraft air speed d-side range of airdropping object u-wind speed at the altitude of aircraft Figure 4-20 Airdrop sighting
  • 206. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-121 June 30, 2012 Airdrop/paradrop data calculation (a) Airdrop with parachute, calculation of track data in windy condition Drop time after openning of parachute T’= tDescenV hH- Where, H——Altitude of airdrop h——Altitude of drop before parachute deploy VDescent——Descent speed after the opening of parachute Range: A=AO+E×cosFJAverage Where, AO——Range of windless condition before opening of parachute Latitudinal length of deviation: d=E×sinFJDescent For example, in case that the object is with parachute, suppose t=3s, H=800m, V=240km/h, KCHJ=0o , KXaverage=238o , Uaverage=6m/s, ΔC=-2o , VDescent =5m/s, AO=150m, h=40m. Then A and d can be obtained through: T’= 5 40-800 =152s E=152×6=912m FJaverage=238o -(-2o ) ±180o -0o =60o A=150+912×cos60o =606m d=912×sin60o =790m Thus, A=606m, d=790m (corrected leftward) (b) Distance sighting by means of angle measurement Sighting angle tgφ= H Sfront Where, Sfront——Distance between the target and the signal sending point along the track, which is known as aimoff. Sighting of direction---approach and application (a) Sighting of direction with the scale line at front windshield glass Figure 4-21 is mark line at front windshield glass of the aircraft. Therein, the vertical markline AB right in front of the pilot is drawn with one plumb line hanging right in front of the pilot seat as reference, which will be projected to the windshield glass along the A/C longitudinal axis. Thus, the ground objects observed through this line by the pilot as per the preset flight attitude are all on the course line.
  • 207. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-122 June 30, 2012 C B D A 18.504in 55° 0 6.639 in Verticalmarkline Figure 4-21a Projection line of pilot front windshield glass C B D A 470mm 55° 0 170mm Verticalmarkline Figure 4-21b Projection line of pilot front windshield glass
  • 208. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-123 June 30, 2012 Zero point on the vertical markline is the projection of tangent on the windshield glass between the visual line and the nose at the moment when the pilot is observing the target ahead. When the pilot is observing the ground, all the objects observed through this line are on the same line paralleling to latitudinal axis of the aircraft. The projection scale of the horizontal markline functioned to correct the latitudinal length of deviation in general is started from zero point of the vertical markline, with separation of each scale being 1cm. The distance (L) between the pilot eye and the shielding point on windshield glass is pre-calculatable, and the shielding angle βshield is also measurable at mean time. Shied βCos•L 01.0 is a constant, and the ground distance represented per projection scale on the windshield glass is easy to be obtained by multiplying it with the airdrop altitude. Accordingly, the corrected projection scale can be obtained as per the preset latitudinal length of deviation. Upon sighting of direction, obtain the projection scale required by correction of preset latitudinal length of deviation on the windshield glass first. When the target is detected, the pilot judges its deviation angle at the preset sighting point and controls the aircraft until the target moves above the preset projection scale, then observes the track of the target projection on the windshield glass to see if it is able to pass through the calculated projection scale. If not, correct it by means of heading and sliding methods until a successful through. As a result, the latitudinal length of deviation is corrected. (b) Sighting of direction with auxiliary landmarks 1) Upon ground preparation, work out the latitudinal distance between each obvious landmark and the target with the large scale map or aviation shooting pitcture as per the entering direction, and mark the distance on the plan. 2) When performing the airdrop, sight with the aid of one favorable landmark as per the calculated latitudinal length of deviation. Suppose the latitudinal distance between the landmark and the target is 750m leftward, correct the latitudinal length of deviation leftward by 750m. When the target is detected, the latitudinal length of deviation can be obtained by aligning the aircraft right with the landmark.
  • 209. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-124 June 30, 2012 (c) Sighting of direction with scale line on the windshield glass 1) Draw the longtitudinal line and the shielding line on the windshield glass as per the projection data. 2) Draw the distance of projection on the windshield glass obtained as per the airdrop altitude on the shielding line to both sides of the longtitudinal markline in the form of scale line, with the separation of 100m between each. 3) During the airdrop sighting, align the corrected scale line of latitudinal length of deviation with the airdrop target. See Table 4-31 for Projection data of pilot front windshield glass. Table 4-31a Projection data of pilot front windshield glass m′(in) D (ft) Content H (ft) 328 656 984 1312 1640 1969 2297 2625 2953 3281 Longitudin almarkline (leftward) 1969 0.79 1.57 2.36 3.11 3.86 4.61 5.35 6.10 6.85 7.60 2625 0.59 1.18 1.77 2.36 2.95 3.58 4.17 4.76 5.35 5.98 3281 0.47 0.94 1.42 1.89 2.36 2.87 3.35 3.82 4.33 4.84 3937 0.39 0.79 1.18 1.61 2.01 2.44 2.83 3.27 3.70 4.13 Longitudina lmarkline (rightward) 1969 0.79 1.61 2.44 3.31 4.21 5.16 6.10 7.05 8.07 9.13 2625 0.59 1.22 1.85 2.48 3.11 3.78 4.45 5.16 5.91 6.65 3281 0.47 0.94 1.42 1.93 2.44 2.95 3.50 4.06 4.61 5.16 3937 0.39 0.79 1.22 1.61 2.05 2.44 2.87 3.31 3.78 4.21 Note a) Data calculation: β=83o , L=800mm, α=35o ~45o . b) d refers to latitudinal length of deviation ft(m), m’ refers to distance of projection on the windshield glass (in), H refers to the flight altitude (m), β refers to the shielding angle, L refers to distance between the pilot eye and the shielding point, and αis the slope angle of the windshield glass. c) Projection of the copilot windshield glass: Convert the data at the left side and right side of the longitudinal markline in Table 4-31. See Figure 2.
  • 210. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-125 June 30, 2012 Table 4-31b Projection data of pilot front windshield glass m′(mm) D (m) Content H (m) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Longitudin almarkline (leftward) 600 20 40 60 79 98 117 136 155 174 193 800 15 30 45 60 75 91 106 121 136 152 1000 12 24 36 48 60 73 85 97 110 123 1200 10 20 30 41 51 62 72 83 94 105 Longitudina lmarkline (rightward) 600 20 41 62 84 107 131 155 179 205 232 800 15 31 47 63 79 96 113 131 150 169 1000 12 24 36 49 62 75 89 103 117 131 1200 10 20 31 41 52 62 73 84 96 107 Note a) Data calculation: β=83o , L=800mm, α=35o ~45o . b) d refers to latitudinal length of deviation (m), m’ refers to distance of projection on the windshield glass (mm), H refers to the flight altitude (m), β refers to the shielding angle, L refers to distance between the pilot eye and the shielding point, and αis the slope angle of the windshield glass. c) Projection of the copilot windshield glass: Convert the data at the left side and right side of the longitudinal markline in Table 4-31. See Figure 2. (d) Sighting of direction by means of double angle offset Align the track with the target, and setup the corrected angle of heading and slope as per the obtained latitudinal distance of deviation to make anti-directional movement. Such correction is conducted at a distance longer than double turning radius below the release point. See Figure 4-22. If correct the direction by 800m rightward, turn 30o rightward first and then 30o leftward with the slope of 15o , by keeping the preset track, the aircraft can fly to the preset release point.
  • 211. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-126 June 30, 2012 V=173 kn H=6562 ft γ=15° 2652ft Preset track Figure 4-22a sghting of direction as per double angle offset method V=320 H=2000 γ=15° 800 Preset track Figure 4-22b sghting of direction as per double angle offset method Refer to Table 4-32 for correction distance of double angle offset.
  • 212. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-127 June 30, 2012 Table 4-32a Correction distance of double angle offset. θ d(t) γ 15o 20o 25o 30o 35o 40o 45o 15o 656 1181 1837 2624 3592 4593 5774 20o 492 853 1345 1935 2611 3379 4232 Note a) θ refers to variation angle, d refers to latitudinal length of deviation, and γ refers to the slope angle. b) Calculation data: V=173kn, γ =15o R=9843ft;V=173kn, γ =20o R=7218ft. Table 4-32b Correction distance of double angle offset. θ γ 15o 20o 25o 30o 35o 40o 45o 15o 200 360 560 800 1095 1400 1760 20o 150 260 410 590 796 1030 1290 Note a) θ refers to variation angle, d refers to latitudinal length of deviation, and γ refers to the slope angle. b) Calculation data: V=320km/h, γ =15o , R=3000m;V=320km/h, γ =20o , R=2200m.
  • 213. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-128 June 30, 2012 Steps: 1) Align the aircraft with target detected or the heading of airdrop. Visually obtain the latitudinal length of deviation between the aircraft and the target to obtain the distance to be corrected. 2) Get the converted variation angle as per the latitudinal distance of variation to be corrected. 3) Make the correction as per the calculated variation angle in reversal direction. (e) Correct the latitudinal distance of deviation through heading change Calculate mentally the latitudinal distance of deviation which is correctable by the each fixed angle within a certain period of time as per the current ground speed. Suppose d=300m, heading angle changes by 20o , then the correctable latitudinal length of deviation per second is 30m (i.e. 2 o for heading and 3m for correction of latitudinal length of deviation ). If the latitudinal length of deviation is corrected another 300m leftwards, change the heading by 10o , and recover after level flight of 20s, then the aircraft has been corrected to preset track. Steps: 1) Calculate mentally the heading and time of flight as per the latitudinal distance of deviation. 2) Align the aircraft with the preset heading and recover after the calculated time. 3) See Table 4-33 for information of deviation distance correction. Table 4-33a Distance of deviation to be corrected Deviation Time distance (ft) Corrected heading 5s 10s 15s 20s 25s 30s 5o 128 256 381 509 633 761 10o 259 377 761 1010 1266 1519 15o 381 761 1129 1509 1886 2260
  • 214. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-129 June 30, 2012 Table 4-33b Distance of deviation to be corrected Deviation Time distance (ft) Corrected heading 5s 10s 15s 20s 25s 30s 5o 39 78 116 155 193 232 10o 78 115 232 308 386 463 15o 116 232 344 460 575 689 (f) The navigator sight the direction with the KM-001A airdrop (airborne) sighting system. 1) White light sighting During the daytime, it is required to replace the KM-001A airdrop (airborne) sighting system with the pectroscope of white light, and adjust it properly. Upon replacement, install the pectroscope at correct position and tighten the screw. Maintain stable flight when the aircraft entered the airdrop course. Adjust the bracket hand wheel to make the level at middle position. Power on the white light to preset the sighting angle and latitudinal angle of deviation. Unlock the handle of hand wheel for observation angle and preset the angle of observation and the sighting angle at 80º~90ºand 60o ~70o espectively. The navigator presets the drift angle and latitudinal angle of deviation for the sighting system as per current air data, and controls for direction sighting by means of target or landscape observation through the cross line. The direction sighting is completed when the target or landscape moves longitudinally along the cross line. Upon sighting of distance, rotate the observation hand wheel to make the divition center target the goal as required. When the airdrop indicating light comes on, align the center point of the cross line with the target and observe the status of indicating light and the feedback of the observation hand wheel. When the indicating light comes off and there is feedback from the observation hand wheel, perform the airdrop immediately. When the indicating light comes on, continue to rotate the observation hand wheel for sighting, and rotate the hand wheel quickly in a few seconds to extinguish the indicating light and make the hand wheel stop at the feedback position. For this moment, the target should be above the cross line. Perform the airdrop as soon as the target overlaps the center point of the cross line.
  • 215. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-130 June 30, 2012 The sighting system is also available for mechanical sighting ring. With the connecting line of the centers of two rings as the alignment line, the target is sighted through the center of the two rings. Other steps are the same as that described above. 2) Low light sighting When the sighting system is applied at night in low visibility, replace proper pectroscope as required. Install the low light telescope on the sight tool, tighten the screw and lock the clamp. Maintain stable flight when the aircraft entered the airdrop course. Adjust the bracket hand wheel to make the level at middle position. Power on the white light to preset the sighting angle and latitudinal angle of deviation. Other steps are the same as that of white light sighting. Remove the low light sight tool upon completion of the operation. Airdrop and airborne signal (a) Signal of ready: the yellow light comes on and the horn produces short blast. (b) Signal of implementation: The green light comes on and the horn keeps ringing. (c) Cease of airdrop and airborne: the red light comes on and the horn stops ringing. (d) Auxiliary signal: Ready, white flag up; start airdrop (airborne), green flag up; stop, red flag up. Ground preparation of airdrop and airbone for single aircraft Preflight preparation (a) Get a clear understanding of the requirement of flight task and steps of implementation and propose the flight plan. (b) Reasearch of airdrop (airborne) field is conducted in details with the aid of large scale map and aviation photo, etc. On-site study to geological condition of airdrop (airborne) field, area, terrain, surrounding village, river, mountain and sighting landmarks is also permitted if feasible. (c) Selection of entrance site: decide the direction of entrance, standby entrance direction and method for pattern establishment as per the terrain, standard altitude and wind at the airdrop (airborne) site. (d) Get a clear understanding of and memorize the T plate signal and communication rules of the field.
  • 216. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-131 June 30, 2012 (e) Perform necessary trail assembly, trail airborne and power-on check. Settle the crewmember and position the personnel as required. Familiarize the cooperative control with each other and the pilot and navigator draw the scale line of the windshield glass. (f) Work out loading plan or grouping the airborne as per the task requirement, loading quantity, weight, volume or number of airborne force to obtain the takeoff weight. Make clear the entrance frequency and altitude, speed and min. allowable speed of each entrance. Obtain the takeoff and landing C.G and C.G variation after the release of each group of cargo. (g) Get relative data for airdrop calculation. (h) Workout the safety precautions. Study the special cases that might occur during the implementation of flight mission. Airdrop is not allowed in the following cases: 1) Ground instruction missed or prohibited by ground instructin; 2) Target and signal not seen clearly; 3) Exccesive error after the ready warning, or entrance angle beyond 20o . 4) Personnel, vehicle or animal near the bulleye threatening the safety. 5) The navigator loses boresight point or incertitude for the airdrop (airborne) moment. 6) Roller troubleshooting undone, cargo not ready or weather condition not as required. 7) Obvious error between air and ground calculation result. Preflight preparation (a) Get a thorough understanding on weather condition of the track and the airdrop area, as well as average direction and speed of wind at the altitude of airdrop (airborne) and on ground and their variation. Workout the direction for entering the airdrop to obtain the navigation data. (b) Check the loading status. Check the loading/ airborne force group for any variation, loading for correctness and reliable fixation, the cargo locking at the side rail as required, the platform shackle be well locked, and no foreign object between platform and the raceway. Check the limit switch for correct connection, the static line be well fixed on the ripcord, and the cord retraction mechanism for retract position. (c) Further cooperate with the electric personnel and airdrop personnel (airborne force leader or personnel for parachute discharging) to make clear the operation and signal rules. (d) Before taxiing, check the light and horn signal for normal condition.
  • 217. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-132 June 30, 2012 Airdrop and airborne of single aircraft (a) Enter the track as per the preset plan after takeoff. Communicate with the airdrop (airborne) site on estimated time of arrival and working status 10min~15min before approach. Consult the wind information, correct the airdrop (airborne) result and report the dispatcher of relavent data. (b) Search for the airdrop (airborne) field as per estimated time of arrival, track and features of the field, and descend to preset altitude after the entrance point and target are detected. Follow the airdrop (airborne) track. See Figure 4-23 for operation procedures on the airdrop (airborne) track. (c) Request the dispatcher for return upon completion of the airdrop (airborne). 1.Open the cargo door and release the cord. 2.Flap down at 15 o . 3.Sight in general. 4. Correct the heading as per the verbal command of navigator after shielding. 11.Keep the heading. 12.Get the airdrop (airborne) information, correct the result and report to the ground. 13.Get ready for the next airdrop (airborne) and the electric personnel reports after the preparation is done. 14.In case of a further entrance, perform the base leg 1min/1min20s after flying over the sideway, and then confirm about the airdrop result. 5.Verbal command of “Ready” 15s before the airdrop (airborne), the yellow light comes on and the horn make shortblast twice. 6. Follow relavent data and keep flight status. 7. The navigator commands“airdrop (airborne)”, the green light comes on and the horn blasts. 8. The navigator presses thebutton to stop the airdrop (airborne), the red light comes on and the horn stops blasting. 9. Retract the flap and cord and close the door. 10.Perform the crosswind turn 25s after flying over the target. V=189 kn R=1.620 n mile γ=17°~18° S=1.620nmile t=8min Figure 4-23a Operation procedures on airdrop (airborne) track
  • 218. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-133 June 30, 2012 1.Open the cargo door and release the cord. 2.Flap down at 15 o . 3.Sight in general. 4. Correct the heading as per the verbal command of navigator after shielding. 11.Keep the heading. 12.Get the airdrop (airborne) information, correct the result and report to the ground. 13.Get ready for the next airdrop (airborne) and the electric personnel reports after the preparation is done. 14.In case of a further entrance, perform the base leg 1min/1min20s after flying over the sideway, and then confirm about the airdrop result. 5.Verbal command of “Ready” 15s before the airdrop (airborne), the yellow light comes on and the horn make shortblast twice. 6. Follow relavent data and keep flight status. 7. The navigator commands“airdrop (airborne)”, the green light comes on and the horn blasts. 8. The navigator presses thebutton to stop the airdrop (airborne), the red light comes on and the horn stops blasting. 9. Retract the flap and cord and close the door. 10.Perform the crosswind turn 25s after flying over the target. Figure 4-23b Operation procedures on airdrop (airborne) track
  • 219. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-134 June 30, 2012 Gravity drop delivery The small cargo on the 1m platform is delivered by means of gravity drop with the roller. The max. quantity of cargo airdrop is 12 sets, with either single or running drop to be available. During the gravity airdrop, the cargo is thrusted down by the horizontal component (G2) of its weight through the bevel between the roller and the ground. See Figure 4-24. Roller bevel Ground G G1 G2 Figure 4-24 Schematic diagram of gravity drop Preparation before gravity drop (a) Check quantity, weight of cargo and the platform lock postion for correctness. (b) Fix the sight and check the cockpit equipment, turn on airdrop circuit breaker of navigator, communicator and the electric personnel. (c) Put the light/heavy selector for normal cargo drop on the airdrop (airborne) console of the navigator at LIGHT position to light up the platform lockup indicating light. Meanwhile, correspond the positions of lock selector on the console with the lock number on the platform (single drop to platform closest to the door, and arbitrary running drop at required position).
  • 220. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-135 June 30, 2012 Operation (a) Obtain data of latitudinal length of deviation (d), range (A), shilding distance (S) and time (t) and sighting angle (ψ) (including verbal command of “READY” 15s before the airdrop) as per the wind information integrated on the basis of airdrop altitude. Adjust and fix the sight. (b) Enter the final leg, and the navigator sends out verbal command of “open the door”, “release the cord”, put the door switch at ON position and check each indicating light for correct position (green light for door open comes on). (c) Enter at an altitude 164ft (50m) below that of the airdrop. The navigator sends out verbal command of “Ready” 15s before the airdrop and press the “Ready” button to light up the yellow “Ready” light, by when, the horn continues blasting. The pilot advances the throttle by about 30o gently and coordinately to level up the aircraft. Keep the climbing rate of 16.4ft/s (5m/s) to make the altitude of platform separation equal to that of the airdrop. During the gravity airdrop, the pilot should follow strictly the data of speed, climbing rate and altitude as they are direct influence to hit probability. Upon airdrop, the navigator press the “CARGO DROP” button, the green light comes on, the horn produces successive blast and the platform unlocks as per the control mode. Meanwhile, the lock light in front of the platform to be released should be come off individually. (d) When the platform is unlocked, it will move backward, causing slight pitching moment of the aircraft. In this case, push the throttle forward gently and timely to maintain the climbing rate. Press STOP or RELEASE button upon completion of the airdrop, the red light comes on and the horn stops blasting. Retract the cord manually and close the door. Note The slope of bevel is 4o 20’ for floor behind frame 34, thus no necessary to push the throttle for gravity airdrop from the platform. Separation time of cargo on the platform during gravity airdrop See Table 4-34 for separation time of cargo on the platform during gravity airdrop with IAS of 189kn (350km/h). Table 4-35 is distance between the lock and the cargo door.
  • 221. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-136 June 30, 2012 Lock No. G(t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 45 2.9 3.2 3.6 3.9 4.3 4.6 5 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.5 51 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.6 5.0 5.3 5.6 5.9 6.2 54 2.5 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.8 6.1 58 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.4 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.7 Note c) G: flight weight of airdrop(t); d) T: separation time (s); e) Calculation formula: T= a s2 ① a=g×sinα-f×g×cosθ ② s—— Distance between the lock and the cargo door f—— Friction factor of roller a—— Acceleration θ—— Angle between floor bevel and the ground. θ (behind frame 34)=level pitching angle+4o 20’; θ (before frame 34)= level pitching angle+3o . g—— Gravity acceleration T—— Separation time of cargo
  • 222. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-137 June 30, 2012 Table 4-35a Distance between the lock and cargo door Lock No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S(ft) 15.98 19.26 22.54 25.82 30.97 34.25 37.53 40.81 44.09 47.38 50.66 Table 4-35b Distance between the lock and cargo door Lock No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 S(m) 4.87 5.87 6.87 7.87 9.44 10.44 11.44 12.44 13.44 14.44 15.44 16.44 No flap down upon gravity airdrop. With flap down, the pitching angle of aircraft is reduced by 3o ~5o which further decreased the value of G2, prolonging the separation time of cargo. Failure reasons for gravity airdrop (a) Airdrop circuit failure (b) Cargo release button not fully pressed; (c) Door not fully opened; (d) ”Heavy/light” selector at wrong position (e) Airdrop switch “EMER HORIZON” not at RELEASE position (f) Circuit breaker not cut in. Emergency airdrop Emergency airdrop is available in case of normal airdrop failure or special circumstances. In such case, cut in the “EMER HORIZON” switch at the position of navigator or pilot. The “EMER ARDP” light comes on after the door is opened, and the cargo on each platform is thrusted down one by one. Extraction airdrop The roller is available for heavy cargo airdrop. The extraction parachute pack is hung up at two parachute releasing devices between frames 47~49 on the ceiling of cargo cabin. The navigator press the button to release the cargo and the bomb shackle is released, with platform shackle being unlocked. Meanwhile, the extraction parachute pack is thrown out, and the parachute is extended to separate the platform from the aircraft.
  • 223. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-138 June 30, 2012 Preparation before extraction airdrop (a) Turn on corresponding circuit breaker. (b) Upon normal release of cargo, put the LIGHT/HEAVY selector at HEAVY position, and indicating light of relavent platform comes on, lock indicating light comes on. Put the release sequence selector and unlock selector at their required positions as per the airdrop plan. 1) Single airdrop of cargo at 6m or 4m platform (I): Put the release sequence selector at I position, and unlock selector at No.4 position 2) Single airdrop of cargo at 4m platform (II): Put the release sequence selector at II position, and unlock selector at No.8 position; 3) Single airdrop of cargo at 4m platform (III): Put the release sequence selector at II position, and unlock selector at No.12 position (Single airdrop of cargo for platform III must be performed by hanging its traction parachute to the traction parachute support of platform II at the right side when the cargo of platform II is dropped out). 4) Single airdrop of cargo at 6m platform (II) : Put the release sequence selector at II position, and unlock selector at No.12 position; 5) Running drop of cargo for two 6m platforms: Put the release sequence selector at RUNNING DROP position and unlock selector at No.12 position. 6) Running drop of cargo at 4m platform (I, II): Put the release sequence selector at RUNNING DROP position and unlock selector at No.8 position. If there are only two 4m platforms, put the selector of platform I at No.1~No.4 position as required, and that of platform II at any position of lock No.5~No.12 as required, unlock selector at No.12 position, and release sequence selector at RUNNING DROP position. (c) For prevention of special cases and in favor of cargo separation from the aircraft, on receiving the verbal command of “Release” from the navigator, the pilot should advance the throttle to above 72o gently and coordinately, and retract it to original position after cargo separation. (d) Movement of platform I near the cargo door will cause slight pitching moment to the aircraft, and slight buffeting will occur, then the aircraft will slide stably and slowly. At this moment, the pilot should pull the throttle and balance the aircraft with rudder tab. (e) Movement of platform II will generate bigger pitching moment which is more obvious with the cargo loading of more than 3.5t, while such moment will not be so big after cargo separation of platform II.
  • 224. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-139 June 30, 2012 (f) Select proper traction parachute as per the cargo weight for extraction airdrop, and the parachute area should not be excessively large. Meanwhile, the cord should not be too long so that it will not bump the tail. Time for separation of cargo from the platform depends on the extractive force, weight of platform and flying weight, i.e. traction parachute area, resistance factor, track, flight speed and platform movement friction. Time of cargo separation at each platform for single airdrop is: 4m platform: 2.7s (I), 3.0s (II), 3.4s (III), and 6m platform: 3.1s (I) and 3.4s (II). In case of running drop, the length of time should be more than 3.4s (II). Special extraction airdrop operation (a) When the traction parachute is released, and the platform stays at original position: 1) Cut off the parachute cord; 2) Cut off the circuit breaker for normal/emergency airdrop, and put the change-over switch at NEUTRAL position. 3) Fix the platform I on the mooring ring with two cables. 4) Close the cargo door. Obtain and adjust aircraft C.G. (b) Reason for extraction airdrop failure: 1) Airdrop sequence selector at wrong position; 2) Extraction parachute shackle failure; 3) Platform lock selector at wrong position. The circuit is cut in only with this selector positioned at No.4, No.8 or No.12. 4) Airdrop sequence interlock limit switch not cut in, others are the same as that of gravity airdrop. Cautions: (a) When operating on the platform inside the cargo compartment, no pulling of the cutter fuse cord on the platform is allowed. (b) Upon opening of cargo door, personnel approaching to the platform or standing between the platform and the cargo door is not allowed. (c) It is not allowed to cut off the traction parachute cord and close the cargo door until the platform is tied down well with the cable. (d) Personnel without protection of the safety belt are not allowed to work at the cargo door.
  • 225. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-140 June 30, 2012 Aircraft C.G adjustment and aircraft control in special circumestances (a) When the platform is stagnated at the cargo door in flight, no severe movement of control surface (especially the rudder and the aileron) is allowed. (b) When the platform stagnates at the cargo door at an altitude of more than 13123ft (4000m), fly and descend with IAS of ≮173kn (320km/h). When the aircraft is desended at the altitude of 13132ft~19685ft (3000~4000m), keep level flight with the speed of 173kn~189kn (320~350km/h) and conduct the following operations: 1) Fix the stagnated platform with four cables and cut off the traction parachute cord. 2) Move the detachable items on the platform and adjust the position of crew members to keep the landing C.G within the allowable range of 16CA~32%CA. (c) In case that the cargo on platform II can not be dropped after the cargo on platform I has been released, all the crew members should go to the rear part of cargo compartment to maintain the aircraft C.G within the range of 18%CA~20%CA. (d) When the aircraft flys with the cargo door opened and C.G of 36%CA, follow limit C.G stipulation. See Table 4-36 for airdrop data of the aircraft. Table 4-36a Backward C.G airdrop data Platform Flight attitude Form of airdrop Cargo size Freight parachute Extraction parachute Weight (kg) Altitude (ft) Area (ft2 ) Qty. Area (ft2 ) Weight of parachute assembly (kg) Length of parachute cord (ft) 1m Level flight at platform before frame No.43 Gravity 500~1000 3.94 3229 At platform behind frame No.43 with speed of 16.4ft/s (Climbing) Gravity 500~1000 3.94 3229 4m I Level flight Towing 2000~2500 3229 300 53.8 12 82 II Level flight Towing 2000~2500 3229 300 53.8 12 98.4 6m I Level flight Towing 4000~4500 3229 300 96.9 16 82 II Level flight Towing 4000~4500 3229 300 96.9 16 98.4
  • 226. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-141 June 30, 2012 Table 4-36b Backward C.G airdrop data Platform Flight attitude Form of airdrop Cargo size Freight parachute Extraction parachute Weight (kg) Altitud e (m) Area (m2 ) Qty. Area (m2 ) Weight of parachute assembly (kg) Length of parachut e cord (m) 1m Level flight at platform before frame No.43 Gravity 500~1000 1.2 300 1 At platform behind frame No.43 with speed of 5m/s (Climbing) Gravity 500~1000 1.2 300 1 4m I Level flight Towing 2000~2500 2.3 300 5 5 12 25 II Level flight Towing 2000~2500 2.0 300 5 5 12 30 6m I Level flight Towing 4000~4500 2.3 300 5 9 16 25 II Level flight Towing 4000~4500 2.0 300 5 9 16 30 Note Single or successive drop is applicable to both gravity airdrop and towing airdrop. Airdrop or airborne with autopilot control Autopilot airdrop or airborne is also available for the pilot or navigator. (a) When the aircraft is balanced at the airdrop altitude, cut in the autopilot and the navigator might control at the altitude ≮19685ft (6000m). (b) Maintaince of flight status with autopilot is more reliable than manual control regardless of single or running drop. However, attention should always be paid to operating status of the autopilot, and be ready for an immediate off in case of any failure. (c) The aircraft’s turning respondance to the autopilot tends to be somewhat hysteretic. In case of indetectable banking on the instrument after the turning, press the button for banking recovery to level off the aircraft.
  • 227. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-142 June 30, 2012 (d) For single airdrop of heavy cargo, especially whose weight is beyond 4t, even if the altitude correction switch is powered on, the aircraft will slide at the descending rate of 6.6ft/s~9.8ft/s (2m/s~3m/s) after the cargo at platform I is separated. Therefore, the autopilot should be cut out upon separation of cargo at platform I. Caution The nose tends to be sunk obviously when the autopilot is cut off. In this case, hold the stick back timely and balance the aircraft with trim tab, then cut in the autopilot again. The aircraft will climb with a rate of 9.8ft/s~16.4ft/s (3~5m/s) after the separation of platform II from the aircraft. In case of running drop by platform I and platform II, the autopilot can keep the aircraft in level flight. Plateau airdrop Features (a) High altitude The standard altitude of the drop zone in plateau is higher, and the terrain is more complicated with accumulative of mountains. Generally, true altitude for airdrop is 3281ft~6562ft (1000~2000m) and sea level elevation is above 16404 ft (5000m). The range tends to be increased with higher altitude, smaller air density, higher speed of declining and high TAS of the aircraft. In case of high altitude airdrop, the speed of aircraft approaches that of the min. level maneuvering speed. As a result, stability and controlability tends to be degraded. The altitude is higher and temperature lower in plateau, and the temperature inside cargo compartment is especially low after the door is opened in winter, requiring the electric personnel and airdrop personnel to work with oxygen mask, which is very inconvenient. (b) Poor obstruction condition Flat ground is rarely distributed in the mountainous western plateau, and the area is relatively small. Therefore, the pattern establishment, entering direction and altitude of airdrop are somewhat limited. Generally, the aircraft has to level up as soon as the airdrop is completed so as to control the timming and radius of turning. Moreover, the turbulent flow in flight and moderate/strong turbulence along the airway make it more difficult for the pilot to follow the stipulated data when controlling the aircraft.
  • 228. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-143 June 30, 2012 (c) Drop zone difficult to be detected With larger areas of land, fewer and smaller man-made landmarks and less accuracy of map, the field for airdrop generally has to be searched as per latitude and longitude. (d) Poor conditions of communication and navigation Sometimes there are only small-sized short wave radio stations on site, limiting the contact distance. As a result, timely ground guidance is somewhat difficult. The navigation station is rarely distributed and with lower power, and due to terrain influence, its receiving distance is comparatively nearer and the indication tends to be unstable. (e) Poor guaranteed condition of weather Information of current weather condition in airdrop region and the airway is generally beyond control in plateau mountainous area where the meteorological environment is complicated, and there are fewer meteorological stations which are far away from the drop zone. Lacking the detailed information of wind, the airdrop tends to be less accurate. Preparation and operation Besides general preparation and operation steps, pay attention to the following items: (a) Collect information, collate and modify the information on the map. Study the terrain and altitude of mountain within the airdrop region with maps of different scales. Select the airway with the aid of obvious landmarks and terrain features and keep off the projecting mountains. (b) Altitude of airway should be 1969ft~3281ft (600~1000m) above the peak around, and the point for level flight and sliding should be calculated strictly. After takeoff, it is necessary to level up to stipulated altitude, and fly to the mountain area with benign function of engine. The altitude of airway should rather be higher than lower, and under complicated weather condition, climb up above the clouds where the visibility is better so that turbulence, icing or possible engine failure are able to be handled. (c) Work out the airdrop altitude and method for establishing the traffic pattern of entering or going out of the drop zone as per standard altitude and obstruction condition. The true altitude for airdrop should not be lower than 600m, In case that the differences between terrain, standard altitude is obvious, set the altitude of airdrop and work out the method for establishing the traffic pattern as per current situation. Raise the airdrop altitude in poor airflow condition.
  • 229. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-144 June 30, 2012 (d) Standarized weather condition for airdrop: Total cloud cover within the airdrop region should not exceed 5/10, and that below the altitude of airdrop not exceed 3/10, and the visibility should be more than 5.4 n mile (10km). (e) Obtain the max. takeoff weight as per standard altitude of airport, temperature, direction and speed of wind and length of runway. Obtain min. fuel load of the aircraft and min. fuel load for returning as per local weather condition and quantity of standby airport for landing. Enough standby fuel should be reserved, and pay attention to min. fuel load for returning in flight. (f) Airdrop cargo packing and equipping of parachute: Given parachute quality and relatively small load in opening status, the loading can not be too heavy. For avoidance of damage for cargo without parachute upon touch-down, the four-layer hempen sack is preferred and the cargo should be packed tight interior and loose exterior, with the weight of each pack being 40kg. (g) In case troubleshooting of the oxygen system can not be done, use the emergency oxygen bottle timely and return to land immediately. (h) High altitude airdrop makes latitudinal control of the aircraft more difficult, especially under disturbance and turbulence. Thus, IAS should not below 173 kn (320km/h), and turning bank not more than 15o . (i) The crew members should cooperate closely with each other to avoid idle run for the sake of misoperation. Strictly follow the data in flight and strengthen the visual observation for prevention of colliding with the mountain. Formation airdrop (airborne) Preparation Except for the airdrop (airborne) preparation of single aircraft, the following details should also be cared: (a) Make clear the flight data of leader and wing for formation airdrop (airborne) and the method for following these data in the air during the flight preparation. (b) Decide the airdrop (airborne) entrance direction and method of course establishment as per the field area, funnel condition and information of foe, etc.
  • 230. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-145 June 30, 2012 (c) Coordination of the leader and wing: 1) Confirm communication signal and work out shield command solution of the fleet airdrop (airborne); 2) Confirm stipulations on airdrop (airborne) steps of the leader and the wing; 3) Work out solutions for airdrop (airborne) special treatment Upon formation airdrop (airborne), both the leader and the wing should follow the stipulations below: (a) The leader should follow strictly the stipulated data and correct gently and accurately to create favorable conditions for the wings to maintain their positions in formation flight. (b) In case of any special circumstances, the leader should deal with the cases calmly, decisively and correctly and commands timely. (c) Each wing should maintain their positions in the fleet as per stipulated data and try their best to drop items or airborne force at the same site as that of the leader. (d) The wing should calculate the airdrop (airborne) data for conduct single airdrop (airborne) timely and remind the leader of any severe mistake. Main operation procedures of airdrop (airborne) for single aircraft in trail flight (a) The leader should inform each wing of the calculated airdrop (airborne) data when approaching the airdrop (airborne) track starting point. The leader commands “open the door” 6~8min before the airdrop (airborne) and each wing begins timing. The door opening begins with the last wing in a reverse order, with the interval of 5s. Each wing navigator commands “No.6 opens the door” as per the stipulated interval, and reports when the door is opened. (b) After entering the airdrop track, the leader gives verbal command of lowering speed 4~5min before the airdrop (airborne), and each aircraft decreases the speed in a reverse sequence from the last wing. (c) Pilot and navigator of the leader search for the airdrop (airborne) field as per the terrain, homming station and smoke screen tank, and correct the heading accurately as per the latitudinal length of deviation. Inform the wing of such correction if more than 10o . (d) The leader gives verbal command of “preparation” 30s before the airdrop (airborne) and follows the stipulated data as required. On receiving such command, each wing begins timming at the moment of the leader (previous aircraft)’s first drop-out. The navigator sends out airdrop (airborne) signal and command as per methods of timming and parachute push.
  • 231. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-146 June 30, 2012 (e) When the leader completed the airdrop (airborne) within 1.5min, it sends out the verbal command of “close the door”. When such command is received by the wing, the navigator commands “No.6 close the door”. (f) After each wing closes the door, the leader commands “increase the speed” and each wing increases their speed separately as per the reverse sequence from back to front. After the wing adjusted their positions in fleet, return to land. Cautions for formation airdrop (airborne) (a) On receiving the verbal command of airdrop (airborne) preparation, each wing should keep his position in the fleet and is not allowed to correct the interval. (b) The fleet should observe current weather condition along the course. (c) The verbal command of leader must be clear and accurate in formation airdrop (airborne) process, and both the leader and the wing should turn on the two ultra-short wave radios simultaneously, and the wing should listen more than call. Airdrop (airborne) at night Features (a) The terrain and landform of airdrop region tends to be less visible in dark light, making it more difficult for drop zone searching. (b) In the drop zone where there are illuminations of oil lamp, firewood or signal flare, etc., the observation range from the center of airdrop is further in distance than at daytime, however, there are fewer landmarks. (c) Airdrop effect checkout is more difficult at night, in case of a further entrance, the data can not be corrected as per the previous deviation in general. Preparation Besides the preparation which is the same as that of the single aircraft during daytime, pay special attention to the following points: (a) Make clear the drop zone features, landmark position of surrounding lights and natural reflective lights. (b) Select an obvious and reliable entering point for airdrop. Landmark of auxiliary light is required before or after entering the starting point if feasible. (c) During the airdrop, label the white rubberized fabric on shielding line of the windshield glass in dark night and the black rubberized fabric in moon night. Meanwhile, the sighting position should also be labeled after obtaining the airdrop data for favor of sighting.
  • 232. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-147 June 30, 2012 (d) In case of accumulative of auxiliary lights along the airway, correct the direction with the aid of its latitudinal distance of deviation, or drop as per the timming method. (e) Lighting signal should be equipped within the cargo to be dropped. Meanwhile, flash the landing light or navigation light to indicate completion of such drop for convenience of ground search and reminding the ground personnel for shielding, thus guarantee their safety. Operation (a) Check before takeoff 1) Get information about any variation of volume, weight, packing of the cargo and performance of parachute. 2) The navigator should cooperate with the electric personnel and airdrop personnel (paratrooper) to make clear the airdrop signal and group release, inform relative personnel of cautions and operation in special circumstances. 3) Get information about weather condition of the airdrop region and the airway, along with direction and speed of wind for airdrop and average wind so as to obtain the airdrop data. 4) Mark the scale on windshield glass and label the rubberized fabric. (b) Operation steps of entering the airdrop route is the same at that of the daytime. Cautions for airdrop at night (a) Familiarize and make clear the air-to-ground signal of communication, and guide the aircraft for entering the drop zone correctly with required flashing lights. Preferable timming of sending out the signal flare is after the entrance of final approach turn. (b) Precise distance of the lighting point is not easy to be obtained at night, pay special attention to avoid misjudge of the landmarks. Prevent the misrecognization of reflection of cockpit light on the windshield glass as the sighting point. (c) As the ambient temperature is low in winter, there might by water vapor and frost on the windshield glass that negatively effect the direction distance sighting. Thus, it is necessary to turn on the electric fan or pressure control/shutoff valve and wipe out the water vapor or frost with dry cloth. (d) Correction of airdrop data during a further airdrop is not allowed until the previous airdrop effect is confirmed, so as to avoid more obvious error. Other safety measures adopted are the same as that for daytime.
  • 233. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-148 June 30, 2012 Airdrop and airborne on the sea Targets of airdrop on the sea are of fixed (i.e. island and the neaped and parking ship) and movable (i.e. floating ship and personnel, etc). With fewer landmarks and available navigation aids, the target is very difficult to be positioned. Lacking of wind information will make the airdrop more difficult than that on land. See Table 4-37 for information of wind force, wave scale and phenomenon of sea level. Features (a) The main targets for airdrop on the sea are island and ship, and the wind information has to be obtained through real-time test and judgement by the crew members in air. (b) Ships or personnel will frequently be stuck during airdrop (airborne) on the sea. Lacking of auxiliary landmarks makes the sight of direction and distance more difficult. As a result, they can not be detected and occupy the preset position timely. (c) It is difficult to select proper airdrop (airborne) field in island where the terrain is rather complicated. Some mountainous islands are up and down, while others are large but with higher standard altitude along the lontitudinal area, which are not fitted for airdrop and airborne. (d) Rescue target search is more difficult. Most airdrop or airbone targeted the trapped ship are performed in bad weather conditions of windy, low-clouds and poor visibility. Under such circumstances, the aircraft is forced to enter at low altitude, bringing more difficulties for target search.
  • 234. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-149 June 30, 2012 Table 4-37a Wind force, wave scale and phenomenon of sea level Wind force Wave scale Wind speed Name of wave scale Average height of wave (ft) Phenomenon ft/s kn 0 0 <3.3 Calm sea As smooth as the mirror, and the wave forms an up-and-down surface of large area which is smooth. However, there is no accumulative pointed wave. 1 1 3.3~ 6.6 1.6~3. 8 Smooth sea 0.328 Tiny wave (ripple) polishes as the scale under sunshine. 2 1 6.6~ 13.1 3.8~8. 1 Smooth sea 0.656 Tiny wave (ripple) like the folded smooth paper. Whenever there is surge, the wave accumulates on the large scaled fluctuant surface. 3 2 13.1 ~19. 7 8.1~1 1.9 Wavelet 1.969 Slight wave with sea-like color, and the wave is recognizable only through careful observation. 4 3 19.7 ~26. 2 11.9~ 15.7 Slight sea 3.28 The wave is not big but obvious with breakage at the peak. Few waves are locally visible like the white-colored flowers far away. 5 4 26.2 ~36 15.7~ 21.6 Moderat e sea 6.562 The waves are shapable and the white-colored spray is seen everywhere like blocks of clouds. 6 5 36~ 45.9 21.6~ 27 Rough sea 9.843 Rough wave with high peak, and the spray deploys along the bevel of wave at leeward slope of the peak. The spray on the peak top is sliced by the wind in filiform. 7 6 45.9 ~55. 8 27~32 .9 Very rough sea 13.123 The sliced spray on the axis-like peak forms the strip-shaped wave of white color along the wave bevel. 8 6 55.8 ~68. 9 32.9~ 41 Very rough sea 18.045 Obvious long wave which is huge, covering the peak, and the white-colored strip of spray can be seen. 9 7 68.9 ~82 41~48 .6 Monster wave 22.966 The spray strip covers the whole bevel of wave, with some spray being at the trough. 10 8 82~ 95.1 48.6~ 56.2 Very high sea 29.526 Dense spray covers fully on the bevel of wave except for somewhere at the wave base. 11 9 95.1 ~10 8.3 56.2~ 64.3 Mountai nous sea 37.730 Dense spray of white color lays on the sea, making the sea to be white in color. 12 9 108. 3~1 21.4 64.3~ 71.8 Mountai nous sea 45.931 The surface of sea is white in color, and the water drop and billow are sprayed everywhere in the air, which sharply decreased the visability.
  • 235. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-150 June 30, 2012 Table 4-37b Wind force, wave scale and phenomenon of sea level Wind force Wave scale Wind speed Name of wave scale Averag e height of wave (m) Phenomenon m/s km/h 0 0 <1 Calm sea As smooth as the mirror, and the wave forms an up-and-down surface of large area which is smooth. However, there is no accumulative pointed wave. 1 1 1~2 3~7 Smooth sea 0.1 Tiny wave (ripple) polishes as the scale under sunshine. 2 1 2~4 7~15 Smooth sea 0.2 Tiny wave (ripple) like the folded smooth paper. Whenever there is surge, the wave accumulates on the large scaled fluctuant surface. 3 2 4~6 15~2 2 Wavelet 0.6 Slight wave with sea-like color, and the wave is recognizable only through careful observation. 4 3 6~8 22~2 9 Slight sea 1 The wave is not big but obvious with breakage at the peak. Few waves are locally visible like the white-colored flowers far away. 5 4 8~1 1 29~4 0 Moderat e sea 2 The waves are shapable and the white-colored spray is seen everywhere like blocks of clouds. 6 5 11~ 14 40~5 0 Rough sea 3 Rough wave with high peak, and the spray deploys along the bevel of wave at leeward slope of the peak. The spray on the peak top is sliced by the wind in filiform. 7 6 14~ 17 50~6 1 Very rough sea 4 The sliced spray on the axis-like peak forms the strip-shaped wave of white color along the wave bevel. 8 6 17~ 21 61~7 6 Very rough sea 5.5 Obvious long wave which is huge, covering the peak, and the white-colored strip of spray can be seen. 9 7 21~ 25 76~9 0 Monster wave 7 The spray strip covers the whole bevel of wave, with some spray being at the trough. 10 8 25~ 29 90~1 04 Very high sea 9 Dense spray covers fully on the bevel of wave except for somewhere at the wave base. 11 9 29~ 33 104~ 119 Mountai nous sea 11.5 Dense spray of white color lays on the sea, making the sea to be white in color. 12 9 33~ 37 119~ 133 Mountai nous sea 14 The surface of sea is white in color, and the water drop and billow are sprayed everywhere in the air, which sharply decreased the visability.
  • 236. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-151 June 30, 2012 (e) Traffic pattern establishment is difficult. It is hard for the aircraft to follow the preset course upon completion of the final leg when the visibility of the sea is low on its surface, or when the drift is not properly corrected when the aircraft enters against the sun with the target being invisible along the down-wind leg direction. Preparation (a) Get detail information of mission property and target position. Study the sea motion, features of island distribution, rules and features of ship movement and signal setup within target region. Make clear the division of work among the crew members on the basis of finalized route and the listed method of target search within the region. (b) Get mission guarantee information, weather forcast and variation and communication rules of the target region. (c) Make clear the method and cautions for rescue equipment airdrop prior to sea rescue. The cargo packing should be waterproof and with colored mark, so that it will not break after touch-down and be floated, which is convenient for observation and salvage. (d) Upon duration calculation, time of search and stay at the target region should be fully considered and enough fuel should be reserved. Work out solutions for special cases. Operation (a) Enter the target region as per the preset air route and search the target correctly at proper altitude. Four methods are adopted in target search, i.e. single air route search, square search, grid search and sector search. Generally, the first method is adopted as per the target position and possible range of float, and attention should be paid to take full advantage of the airborne radar. Proper altitude of research is generally 2625ft~3281ft (800~1000m). The field of view will be narrowed at low altitude, while at an overhigh altitude the target tends to be indetectable. For an object judgement, lower the altitude when the target is detected and fly from the sideway. (b) Upon selection of direction for entrance, area and shape of the target region should be considered and try to avoid entering from the direction of sun. Genreally, the aircraft enters with reference of the island and fixed object on ground and with the aid of navigation station (broadcasting station) and positioning radar near the target region. In case of movable target, enter along the direction paralleling or vertical to the moving target.
  • 237. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-152 June 30, 2012 (c) Obtain the data of average wind. Generally, the wind of short sea is stronger than that of the land area but weaker than that of the open sea. The wind of open sea is featured with stable direction and less variation. Therefore, the data of average wind obtained through radar is relatively accurate. At the low altitude, average wind data can be obtained through the judgement of wind force scale as per the wave. However, the speed of wind is slightly weaker than that in clouds on average, i.e. 1.3 times as that of the sea wind. (d) Airdrop or airborne of small target like ship is generally entered at low altitude against the wind. For less effect of wind and high rate of hit, cargo with parachute is generally dropped at the altitude of 984ft~1312ft (300~400m), and without parachute 656ft (200m). (e) Method: Conduct the initial drop in trail, and then obtain the corrected data for further airdrop as per the deviation. Upon direction and distance sight of the movable target, the lead should be taken into consideration. Correct moving error during traffic pattern establishment process for avoidance of losing the target. (f) Select the sighting point. For convenience of salvage, when targeting the ship for airdrop, the sighting point should slightly exceed the target. For cargo without parachute, deviate one safety distance rather than align directly with the ship for sighting. This is for avoidance of accidental injury. Low-altitude airdrop (below 1312ft (400m)) Features (a) Wind test information is susceptible to the terrain. The wind of drop zone and on the air route are obviously different, thus sighting data calculation can not be counted on the en- routewind data tested too early. (b) Target search being difficult. The flight field of view is narrowed at low altitude and the overall terrain is hard to be observed, and the target search is susceptible to the tarrain. Moreover, the lowered altitude added more difficulties for recognition of the drop zone. (c) Shorter period of time to judge direction and distance of correction. Severe turbulence at low attitude makes it hard to follow current flight data, thus shortened the period of time to judge direction and distance of correction. (d) Higher hit rate and more concentrated dispersion pattern. The drop time tends to be shortened and the airdrop is less susceptible to the wind at low altitude, improving the accuracy of direction and distance sighting with the aid of landmarks. When sighting with the dropping angle, the deviation tends to be smaller with the same error.
  • 238. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-153 June 30, 2012 (e) The concussion of touch-down is reduced for cargo without parachute since it has already dropped on ground before the descending speed reaches its limit. Preparation (a) Entering point should have obvious landmarks or navigation equipment for detection in time and accurate passing-through. The distance between the entering point and the drop zone is generally 13.5n mile~21.6n mile (25~40km) and the terrain should be as flat as possible for convenience of search, and the entering direction should be less effected by the sunlight. (b) Work out the method of drop zone research, the terrain nearby, landmark feature and the relations of their positions. Chimney, mountain top and huge constructions which are detectable are ideal landmarks. But attention must be paid to keep the safety altitude so as not to collide with the obstructions. (c) Work out favorable altitude for the airdrop as per mission requirement, terrain and sighting method adopted. Generally, the altitude of airdrop for cargo without parachute is 492ft~984ft (150~300m) so that the airdrop will be more effective and the concussion of touch-down will be weakened. (d) Work out solutions for special cases and troubleshooting of the aircraft. Such solution must be suitable when the drop zone can not be searched out and under complicated weather conditions. Operation (a) Get the wind information. This is done in real-time through the drop zone. When testing the wind in air, smoke, trees and crops on the ground should be observed together with reference of the radar for judgement of direction and speed of wind. (b) Method for searching the drop zone. After flying over the starting point of air route, follow strictly the flight data as stipulated. Check direction and distance as per the obvious landmarks at both sides of the air route for avoidance of any readily diversion or search failure due to excessive deviation. Search in advance as per preset time and position of landmark. Report the dispatcher or raise the altitude in case of any search obstacles. (c) Sighting. Timming with the aid of landmarks or area above the target. Try to stabilize the flight status in case of any turbulence to prevent the mislead signal of “drop” triggered by sighting point jump due to aircraft turbulence.
  • 239. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-154 June 30, 2012 Airdrop with the aid of navigation station It is available in complicated weather conditions and when the ground target is indetectable. Low power rate of movable navigation station, lacking of average wind information, high altitude, indication error difference of the aircraft all decrease the hit rate and enlarged the area of airdrop to some extent. For flight safety, training airdrop is only available for cargo with parachute in general. Preparation (a) Study the air route and work out the method for entering the airdrop route. Generally, for reducing the drop error, the aircraft will enter the drop zone as per upwind direction. Therefore, the route of navigation airdrop varies as per the wind direction. After entered the area above the movable navigation station of the drop zone, establish the route as per the current wind direction. (b) Get clear understanding about the operating features of navigation station and radio compass (ADF), position, frequency, calling signal and performance of the navigation station near the drop zone, indication error of ADF on the aircraft, pointer degree and timming for testing and calibration when flying over the navigation station, as well as the treatment of ADF disturbance. (c) Study the weather condition. Get information of weather focast, types of cloud, direction and speed of wind on ground, threathening of hazard weather and work out feasible solutions. The navigation airdrop is generally conducted amid or above the stable cloud layer rather than in the cumuliform cloud. Operation (a) Sighting of direction. When entered the airdrop route, fly home actively. During the navigation flight, perform the correction timely as per indication of ADF and azimuth finder according to that of final leg correction during instrument landing. (b) Sighting of distance. If the airdrop is above the navigation station, the movable navigation station is required to be located right below the place from where the airdrop signal is sent out. The “drop” signal is sent out when the aircraft is flying over the navigation station. Timming airdrop above the navigation station. Timming at the moment when the aircraft flies over the navigation station. Follow the preset track and drop at the point of sending signal, so that the error of direction can be somewhat corrected.
  • 240. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-155 June 30, 2012 (c) Judgement for the instance of flying over the navigation station. This is the key for seizing the timming of drop. Judge with the aid of indication, and listen carefully. Sometimes the pointer tends to swing in flight when there is radio disturbance or signal from the navigation station. For avoidance of misleading, postion of the aircraft can not be judged being above the navigation station until the pointer made a reversal turn at 60o ~90o leftward and rightward. Airdrop with the lack of landmark, wind information and guidance Features (a) Without landmarks, range and center of the airdrop will not be settled and detected easily, and sight of direction and distance is performed only with the aid of landmarks.Under such circumstance, misjudgement will lead in big error or even drop mistake. (b) Airdrop without wind information. In this case, the crew members have to get the wind in the air for data calculation. Therefore, the calculation error will be boardened which will be affective to the airdrop precision. (c) Airdrop without guidance. When the aircraft enters the final leg of the airdrop route, the error of direction and distance is not likely to be timely guided by the ground dispatcher. Preparation and operation (a) Prepare seriously. Correct the largescale map carefully as per the shooting picture. Since its accuracy is somewhat affective to track maintaining, target search and airdrop precision, thus detailed research and correct calibration is required. (b) The air route should be convenient for track following with obvious and reliable starting point. The proper distance should be 16.2n mile~21.6n mile (30~40km). Reasearch the landmarks at both sides of air route and center of the drop zone in detail, and select 2 to 3 directions and distances as auxiliary point of check and sighting. Make calculation; mark the data of distance and time. (c) Familiarize with features and positions of the terrain and landscape around the drop zone center of the airdrop route. Work out entering direction, distance and method of sighting. (d) Seasonal influence to terrain and landscape. Judge the variation and development of wind as per history information and data obtained through real-time test at the nearby meteorological station. (e) Work out the indication error of radar and its influence for division of labor among the crew mebers when entered the airdrop route.
  • 241. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-156 June 30, 2012 (f) Requirement of drop zone research 1) Follow strictly the flight data along the preset route as per the ground preparation. Take advantage of each navigation equipment for track following and fly over the starting point of the air route timely and accurately. 2) When entered the starting point, calculate sectionally with the aid of landmarks and control pointwise, adjust the speed timely with margin, follow strictly the track and data so as to arrive as per estimated time. 3) The crew members should cooperate closely with each other as per the division of labor. Correct the drift and follow the track according to features and positions of drop zone terrain and landscape, and search the target from close to the distant, from the sideway to the middle part and from line to point. (g) Obtaining the average wind 1) Source of wind information. Obtain the wind data with the aid of rada. Calculate the resultant wind above two flying levels (done by the last wing during formation flight) at the altitude of 656ft~984ft (200~300m) as per the indicated drift and ground speed, and judge with the reference of ground smoke and by means of smoke screen tank release. 2) Obtain the airdrop data based on an integrated analysis of wind information. Generally, the value of wind in clouds is bigger than that of the true value. The correction is 75% in small scale of wind and 100% in large scale of wind. Airdrop right towards the center is available with wind speed of not more than 6.56ft/s (2m/s) and drift of ±1o . 3) Direction and distance correction as per the selected landmarks. Settle the auxiliary point of sighting with timming method and sighting angle as the aid as per the current situation. Cautions (a) Make a tight plan and organize intensively, strictly follow the stipulation in various weather conditions. (b) Sthrengthen the on-site command and test the scale of wind timely. Timely command for ceasing the airdrop in case of over deviation that is threatening to safety of the aircraft. (c) The crew members should cooperate closely with each other and make a clear division of labor, remind each other as required, supervise timely and follow the stipulations for avoidance of target misrecognization.
  • 242. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-157 June 30, 2012 (d) During formation flight airdrop, the deputy leader and wing should correct timely any mis-calculated data of the leader which is obvious. (e) Airdrop at night is featured of no wind information and ground guidance. Rescue (a) The cargo compartment can be equipped with 72 sets of stretchers arranged in three rows (parallel to longtitudinal axis of the aircraft) and six lines (vertical to longtitudinal axis of the aircraft) and four levels, one line of seats to the left of cargo compartment available for 3 medical care personnel and 17 walking injuries, as a result, total number of person carried is 92. Each stretcher and seat is equipped with oxygen device and their working condition is required for serious check after the mounting of stretcher support. Meanwhile, be sure that the masks are well covered. (b) Get each first-aid equipment and sanitary equipment at their positions before flight. The equipment include first-aid medicine, standby oxygen and sewage drainer, etc. The medical equipment should be fixed reliably and with anti-shock protection. (c) The pilot should control the aircraft gently and avoid excessive climbing and descending rate. (d) Check oxygen supply condition of each wounded personnel in flight and increase the supply quantity if necessary. Emergency oxygen supply is available to the severe wounded and personnel with breathing difficulty. Control the oxygen consumption as per the duration period of time and pay attention to application of compartment heating.
  • 243. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-158 June 30, 2012 Low-altitude flight Low-altitude flight refers to the flight at an altitude 328ft~3281ft (100~1000m) above the ground or the water. In this case, the aircraft is able to take full advantage of terrain, ground object and cloud for shielding, which is strategically significant so that the aircraft will not likely to be detected by the foe. Such flight is available for rescue airdrop, forest fire extinguishment and other missions at peace time. Thus mastered flight skill is needed to fulfill the requirement during war and peace times. Features (a) Severe threathening of obstruction and turbulence, and sometimes the flight altitude requires frequent alternation as per the terrain feature. (b) Aircraft and engine troubleshooting is hard to be done. (c) Lower TAS, more consumption of engine fuel, shortened effective distance, smaller range and worse performance of radio and radar equipment. (d) The landmarks are broadened at low altitude so they are easily to be scaled up manually and prolonged visually. With higher speed of relative motion between the aircraft and the ground, the landmark is detected late and in case of terrain fluctuation, the full appearance of landscape and their relations of position are hard to be distinguished, bringing difficulties to landmark detection and recognition. (e) Lower speed and pendulum direction of wind. As affected by the terrain, the wind varies obviously. Generally, the weather at low altitude changes alternatively and the visibility is worse. Preparation (a) The air route should be shielding-effectively, reliable and convenient for maneuvering flight. It should approach the linear landmarks with less cuves and turning points, and especially, the starting point of airdrop route should approach the landmarks of dot shape which are obvious and reliable. Meanwhile, take full advantage of the radio navigation station. (b) Study the air route with large-scale map of the latest version. Make clear and memorize the main check point and features of turning point. These points should be searched and recognized by finding out the max. standard altitude within the range of 25km to the left and right side of the air route, and then work out min. altitude of flight at each section. (c) Work out solutions for special cases and make clear the division of labor.
  • 244. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-159 June 30, 2012 Operation (a) Follow strictly the data of true flight altitude that checked by radio altimeter. Level up the aircraft with elevator tab. The descending altitude can not be excessive and strengthen external observation during the descent process. Keep the IAS not lower than 216kn (400km/h) at low altitude to reserve maneuvering space for special cases or climbing. Adjust the throttle angle accordingly when alternating the flight altitude. Follow strictly the heading. Correct any variation of drift or deviation of track accurately and timely, and follow strictly the corrected heading. Upon turning, fly over the turning point accurately and control strictly the timming of turn. (b) Follow the navigation of ADF and landmarks and refer to the radio and radar if necessary. The landmark should be observed from close to the distant and from the sideways to forward direction, and seize its outstanding features and symptom. (c) Thepilot should pay attention to the overall situation and divide attention reasonably. Frequent external observation is required, keep the flight data as per the indication and avoid long-time work in the cockpit. (d) Make clear the division of labor among each crew member The aircraft commander should pay attention to the overall situation and strengthen the judgement and troubleshooting in special cases. For mitigation of fatigue in flight, pilot and copilot can control the aircraft alternatively with clear handover, so as to prevent the aircraft from control-free status. The pilot controlling the aircraft should be concentrated on maintaining the flight status, and the copilot should focus more on external observation, and check flight data and operating status of the aircraft and the engine as required, assisting the pilot’s operation. Besides flight data calculation, the navigator should pay more attention to external observation so as to get the current position of the aircraft and remind the pilot to follow the flight data.
  • 245. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-160 June 30, 2012 Flight in summer and winter Winter flight Features (a) The engine power rate tends to be increased with lower temperature and thicker air, and the takeoff and running distance of aircraft are shortened, while the Max. speed of level flight and ceiling limit are increased. (b) Strengthen the check of anti-icing and deicing system, and operate the anti-icing and deicing equipment correctly as required. (c) Temperature difference inside and outside the cockpit will cause water vapor and froast at inner wall of the windshield glass which might negatively effect the visual field of pilot. Therefore, they must be wiped out with dry cloth and electric fan before taxiing and during aircraft taking off and running. Clean the water vapor and froast by means of windshield glass heating if necessary. (d) When the ground is covered with heavy snow, the landscape varies that the rivers, lakes and towns become illegible with exception of railway and highway. The runway approaches the snow-covered ground in color, thus search and identify of airport tend to be more difficult. (e) The reflection of light on the snow will cause negative effect to the vision, especially at low altitude. Therefore, excessive external observation is not suggested. When landing on the snow-covered runway, the landmarks are broadened at low altitude so they are easily to be scaled up manually and prolonged visually. (f) The wheel might be slided and out of control when the aircraft is taxiing on the snow or ice-covered ground. Perform the taxiing as per relavent requirement.
  • 246. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-161 June 30, 2012 Features of operation and maintenance (a) Takeoff with froast is strictly prohibited. Clear the ice and froast away before takeoff and check each air vent for ice blockage. Check the sealing system of cockpit for icing after engine run. (b) Check each pipe, duct, tube, conduit and their fittings for oil seepage and icing. Insolate the buffer strut of landing gears for warmup in low temperature to prevent air leakage. (c) It is necessary to drain off the water in fuel system as per localized condition before each flight and after refilling of fuel to prevent icing. (d) Heat the engine before the engine run when the temperature is below -25o C. Warmup after the engine run. Engine heating is allowed by advancing the throttle to 50o only when the oil temperature reaches 20o C above. Generally, the equipment should be preheated for a period of 2min before their service. (e) If the aircraft is parked for a long time (for exemle through the night) at a temperature below -15o C, the battery should be removed for prevention of cold damage. Summer flight Features (a) The engine power rate tends to be decreased with higher temperature and thiner air in summer. When the IAS is settled, TAS is higher than that in winter. The distance of takeoff and running is longer, Max. level flight speed and ceiling limit of the aircraft are both reduced, and engine troubleshooting are hard to be done. (b) In summer, the weather changes alternatively, the convection cloud grows quickly, and the thunderstorms are frequent, with local parts being hard to be forcasted accurately. Therefore, attention must be paid to weather alternation in flight to avoid entering into the thunderstorm regions. (c) Ambient temperature is lower at high altitude which might also leads to icing, so enough attention must be paid. (d) Avoid the application of brake in taxiing to prevent overheat damage. (e) Make reasonable use of the airborne electrical equipment and shut off when they are nolonger used, so as to prevent overheat damage. (f) Relavent personnel should have a good rest in hot summer. (g) It is necessary to check the tyre for normal pressure, and the discharger and bounding jumper for reliable connection. Generally, the fuel should not be over loaded in summer flight.
  • 247. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION IV NORMAL PROCEDURES 4-162 June 30, 2012 Features of operation and maintenance (a) The aircraft is likely to be rusted at its metal parts with more rain and high humidity. For the sake of insolation, the tyres and plastics are likely to be aged and cracked and the windshield glass discolored and deformed. Therefore, ventilate the aircraft after the rain and cover the cloth daily. (b) Drain off the water before each flight and after refilling of fuel for prevention of air obstruction due to overheat of the system. (c) To avoid harm of the thunder storm, put the wheel chock and the tail support at required position, cover the cloth and position the bounding jumper as required after each flight. (d) The engine start is more difficult at high temperature. The time for engine start should be controlled strictly to prevent overheat and excessive of operation period on ground. After engine run, it is allowed to turn on the oil ejection cooler, but remember to turn it off before takeoff. (e) Generally, the cockpit temperature ragulator is positioned at 16o C. Power on the vent switch before pressurization, and turn on the turbine cooler after pressurization. After the turbine cooler is turned on, the air temperature inside the tube can be lowered by about 30o C~50o C.
  • 248. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-1 June 30, 2012 PERFORMANCE GENERAL In comparison with the prototype aircraft, it has no difference in aerodynamic characteristic when the doors are in closing condition, and the characteristic of the power plant slightly decreases since the air conditioning system increases the amount of air introduced: the capibility to achieve climb and level fight slightly weakens; yet the capibility to take off is about the same as that of prototype. AIRCRAFT FLIGHT PERFORMANCE CALCULATION AND CONVERSION CURVE Aerodynamic correction value Aerodynamic correction value is shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2. Temperature difference curve Temperature difference curve is shown in Figure 5-3. Correction of wind speed and direction Correction of wind speed and direction is shown in Figure 5-4. Airport elevation and atmosphere conversion Airport elevation and atmosphere conversion is shown in Figure 5-5. Temperature gauge correction Temperature gauge correction is shown in Figure 5-6.
  • 249. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-2 June 30, 2012 Vb(km/h) Vz(km/h) 550 500 400 300 300 400 500 Figure 5-1a Aerodynamic correction curve of indicated airspeed H(m) -250 -50 -100 -150 -200 300 400 500 Vb(km/h) Figure 5-1b Aerodynamic correction curve of indicated airspeed
  • 250. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-3 June 30, 2012 H(ft) -820 -164 -328 -492 -656 162 216 270 Vb(km/h) Figure 5-2a Aerodynamic correction curve of altitude 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 H(m) -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 t(℃) -5 5 -15 15 -25 25 -35 35 -45 45 -55 -65 -75 -85 Figure 5-2b Aerodynamic correction curve of altitude
  • 251. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-4 June 30, 2012 -85 -75 -65 -55 -45 -35 -25 -15 -5 5 15 25 35 45 difference value( o C) 32808 29528 26247 22966 19685 16404 13123 9843 6562 3281 0 H(ft) -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Figure 5-3a The difference between standard atmosphere temperature and non-standard temperature m/s m/s 50 50 50 40 40 40 30 30 30 20 20 20 10 10 10 0 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 100° 110° 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° 170° 180° m /s Forecasted w indspeed m /s Forecasted windspeed m/sWind speed crosswind component Wind speed headwind component Wind speed tailwind component Figure 5-4a Wind speed and heading correction curve during takeoff and landing
  • 252. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-5 June 30, 2012 (ft/s) (ft/s) 164 164 5098 131 13198 989866 66 6633 33 330 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 100° 110° 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° 170° 180° (ft/s) Forecasted w indspeed (ft/s) Forecasted windspeed (ft/s)Wind speed crosswind component Wind speed headwind component Wind speed tailwind component 39 Figure 5-4b Wind speed and heading correction curve during takeoff and landing Altitude(ftm) Pressure(psi) 8.70 10.15 11.60 13.05 14.50 9843 0 1640 3281 4921 6562 8202 11483 13123 14764 Figure 5-5a Airport elevation and atmospheric pressure conversion curve
  • 253. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-6 June 30, 2012 (m) (mmHg) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 500 600 700 800 Airport elevation Atmospheric pressure Figure 5-5b Airport elevation and atmospheric pressure conversion curve Indicated temperatureo C Atmospheric temperature o C Figure 5-6 Indicated value of temperature gauge corrected to atmospheric static temperature curve
  • 254. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-7 June 30, 2012 MAIN PERFORMANCE OF FOUR ENGINES Takeoff and landing performance Data of takeoff and landing performance During takeoff and landing, flap deviation angle are 25o and 35o respectively. Takeoff and landing performance of difference weight on concrete runway at sea level in ISA is shown in Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-7. Figure 5-1a Takeoff and landing performance Takeoff weight (t) 45 49 52 56 61 Liftoff speed(km/h) 102 107 111 119 129 Takeoff taxiing distance(m) 1890 2635 2762 3100 4167 Rolling distance (m) 2736 3192 3645 4337 5256 Landing weight (t) 40 46 50 52 58 Touchdown speed (km/h) 103 111 116 119 130 Landing roll distance (m) 2116 2569 2956 3117 3445 Total landing distance (m) 3563 4183 4429 4659 5466 Note f) Runway friction factor during takeoff is set as 0.035, liftoff AOA is 8o . g) Safe takeoff altitude is taken as 49.2ft. h) Brake friction factor is taken as 0.2. i) Landing gliding altitude is taken as 49.2ft. Gliding angle is 3o . flare section g-load increaseΔny is 0.15, flare starting altitude h is 32.8ft. Figure 5-1b Takeoff and landing performance Takeoff weight (t) 45 49 52 56 61 Liftoff speed(km/h) 188 198 206 220 238 Takeoff taxiing distance(m) 576 721 842 945 1270 Rolling distance (m) 834 973 1111 1322 1602 Landing weight (t) 40 46 50 52 58 Touchdown speed (km/h) 191 205 215 220 240 Landing roll distance (m) 645 783 901 950 1050 Total landing distance (m) 1086 1275 1350 1420 1666
  • 255. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-8 June 30, 2012 Note a) Runway friction factor during takeoff is set as 0.035, liftoff AOA is 8o . b) Safe takeoff altitude is taken as 15m. c) Brake friction factor is taken as 0.2. d) Landing gliding altitude is taken as 15m. Gliding angle is 3o . flare section g-load increaseΔny is 0.15, flare starting altitude h is 10m. Takeoff and landing curve During normal operation of four engines and at standard atmosphere condition, takeoff and landing curve is shown in Figure 5-7. Climbing performance During normal operation of four engines, the main climbing performance data is shown in Figure 5-2. For detailed data, please see Table 5-9. The climbing performance curve is shown in Figure 5-8. 10m。V(km/h) L(m) 250 3500 2500200 1500150 100 500 40 45 50 55 60 G(t) Vjd Vld Lzl Lqfh Lqf Lzjh Figure 5-7a Takeoff and landing performance curve
  • 256. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-9 June 30, 2012 H(km) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Vy(m/s) Vks(km/h) L(km) 75 150 225 300 375 100 200 300 400 500 Gqf=51t 54t 61t 56t 61t 51t Vy Vks54t 61t Figure 5-7b Takeoff and landing performance curve H(ft) 32808 26247 19685 13123 6562 0 6.56 13.12 19.69 26.25 32.81 39.37 Vy(tt/s) Vks(kn) L(n mile) 40 81 121 162 202 54 108 162 216 270 Gqf=51t 54t 61t 56t 61t 51t Vy Vks54t 61t Figure 5-8a Climbing curve of four engines at rated status
  • 257. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-10 June 30, 2012 H(km) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Vy(m/s) Vks(km/h) L(km) 75 150 225 300 375 100 200 300 400 500 Gqf=51t 54t 61t 56t 61t 51t Vy Vks54t 61t Figure 5-8b Climbing curve of four engines at rated status Table 5-2a Main climbing performance data of four engines Takeoff weight(t) Parameter 49 51 54 56 61 Service ceiling(ft) 34104 32972 31250 29774 27313 Climb time(min) 39.5 36.47 43.47 46.55 49.9 Climb distance(n mile) 163 151 181 196 211 Table 5-2b Main climbing performance data of four engines Takeoff weight(t) Parameter 49 51 54 56 61 Service ceiling(m) 10395 10050 9525 9075 8325 Climb time(min) 39.5 36.47 43.47 46.55 49.9 Climb distance(km) 301 279 336 363 390 Note Climb at the rated regime of four engines.
  • 258. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-11 June 30, 2012 Level flight performance When four engines work at the maximum regime and rated regime and flight weight is 49t, the maximum level flight speed at different altitude is shown in Table 5-3. Table 5-3a Max. level flight speed(G=49t) Flight altitude(ft) Engine regime 0 6562 13123 19685 26247 32808 Max. regime 302 319 335 342 344 340 Rated regime 281 301 316 332 328 313 Table 5-3b Max. level flight speed(G=49t) Flight altitude(m) Engine regime 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Max. regime 560 590 621 633 637 630 Rated regime 520 557 586 615 608 580 Range and duration Duration performance data Cruising altitude is 8000m, reserve fuel is 1.6t, the range and duration of aircraft is shown in Table 5-4. Table 5-4a Duration performance Takeoff weight (t) Loading capacity(t) Fuel quantity (t) Range (n mile) Duration(h) 49 0 12.867 1596 6.07 51 0 14.867 1896 7.55 53.353 0 17.22 2214 8.39 58.353 5 17.22 2113 8.02 61 8 16.867 2008 7.48 61 10 14.867 1699 6.36 61 15 9.867 950 3.6 61 20 4.867 240 0.85
  • 259. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-12 June 30, 2012 Table 5-4b Duration performance Takeoff weight (t) Loading capacity(t) Fuel quantity (t) Range (km) Duration(h) 49 0 12.867 2955 6.07 51 0 14.867 3512 7.55 53.353 0 17.22 4100 8.39 58.353 5 17.22 3913 8.02 61 8 16.867 3719 7.48 61 10 14.867 3146 6.36 61 15 9.867 1759 3.6 61 20 4.867 444 0.85 Relative kilometer fuel consumption curve The relationship between relative kilometer fuel consumption Ce and flight Mach number is shown in Figure 5-9. Ce kg(km·t) 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 M 60 68 77 88 100 116 134 Ghs=155 Figure 5-9 Curve for relation between relative kilometer fule consumption Ce and conversion weight and Mach number
  • 260. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-13 June 30, 2012 Conversion formula Ghs= flightG• PH Po Relative kilometer fuel consumption formula: Ce= flightG q In the formula: Po-standard atmosphere pressure at sea level, PH- Atmosphere pressure at actual flight altitude, q- Fuel consumption per kilometer. Stalling speed during level flight Under standard atmosphere condition, stalling speed during level flight with a flap angle 0o is shown in Figure 5-5, stalling speed during level flight with a flap angle 25o is shown in Figure 5-6, and stalling speed during level flight with a flap angle 35o is shown in Figure 5-7. Table 5-5a Stalling speed during level flight at flap 0o (Indicated speed, unit: kn) Flight weight(t) Altitude(ft) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 113 116 118 120 123 125 127 130 132 3281 113 116 118 120 123 125 128 131 133 6562 113 116 118 121 124 127 130 133 136 9843 114 117 120 123 126 129 132 135 138 13123 116 119 122 125 129 132 134 138 141 19685 120 124 127 131 134 138 141 144 147 22966 123 127 130 134 138 141 145 148 151 26247 126 130 134 138 141 145 148 152 156 Table 5-5b Stalling speed during level flight at flap 0o (Indicated speed, unit: km/h) Flight weight(t) Altitude(m) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 209 214 218 223 227 231 236 240 244 1000 209 214 218 223 227 231 237 242 247 2000 209 214 219 224 230 235 240 246 251 3000 211 216 222 228 233 239 245 250 256 4000 214 220 226 232 238 244 249 255 261 6000 223 229 236 242 248 255 261 267 273 7000 228 235 241 248 255 261 268 274 280 8000 234 241 248 255 261 268 275 282 288
  • 261. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-14 June 30, 2012 Table 5-6a Stalling speed during level flight at flap 25o (Indicated speed, unit: kn) Flight weight(t) Altitude(m) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 98 100 188 102 106 108 110 112 113 3281 98 100 188 102 106 108 110 112 113 6562 98 100 188 102 106 108 110 112 113 9843 98 100 188 102 106 108 110 112 114 13123 98 100 188 102 106 109 111 113 115 Table 5-6b Stalling speed during level flight at flap 25o (Indicated speed, unit: km/h) Flight weight(t) Altitude(m) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 181 185 188 192 196 200 203 207 210 1000 181 185 188 192 196 200 203 207 210 2000 181 185 188 192 196 200 203 207 210 3000 181 185 188 192 196 200 203 207 211 4000 181 185 188 192 197 201 205 209 213 Table 5-7a Stalling speed during level flight at flap 35o (Indicated speed, unit: km/h) Flight weight(t) Altitude(m) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 90 92 95 96 98 100 102 103 105 3281 90 92 95 96 98 100 102 103 105 6562 90 92 95 96 98 100 102 103 105 9843 90 92 95 96 98 100 102 103 105 13123 90 92 95 96 98 100 102 103 106 Table 5-7b Stalling speed during level flight at flap 35o (Indicated speed, unit: km/h) Flight weight(t) Altitude(m) 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 0 167 171 175 178 181 185 188 191 195 1000 167 171 175 178 181 185 188 191 195 2000 167 171 175 178 181 185 188 191 195 3000 167 171 175 178 181 185 188 191 195 4000 167 171 175 178 181 185 188 192 196
  • 262. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-15 June 30, 2012 MAIN PERFORMANCE OF THREE ENGINES Takeoff performance of three engines Three-engine takeoff theoretical calculation and trial flight result is shown in Table 5-8. Table 5-8a Three engine takeoff performance Takeoff weight(t) Parameter 49 51 54 56 58 61 Nose liftoff speed (kn) 110 110 115 118 121 126 Liftoff speed(kn) 114 117 121 124 127 131 Safety speed(kn) 119 122 127 128 130 133 Decision speed (kn) 85 90 97 103 107 114 Balanced field length (ft) 4288 4701 5856 6014 6644 7746 Table 5-8b Three engine takeoff performance Takeoff weight(t) Parameter 49 51 54 56 58 61 Nose liftoff speed (km/h) 204 204 219 224 233 Liftoff speed(km/h) 212 217 214 230 235 242 Safety speed(km/h) 221 226 236 237 241 247 Decision speed (km/h) 158 167 180 190 198 211 Balanced field length (m) 1307 1433 1785 1833 2025 2361 Note The value of 54t is test flight value, the rest are calculation value.
  • 263. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-16 June 30, 2012 Three-engine climbing performance If one engine stops, aircraft still has enough residual thrust if three engine work at rated regime. Aircraft can climb to 7800m on the condition that takeoff weight is 51t. The climbing performance of three engine is shown Table 5-9. Table 5-9a Climbing performance of three engine Altitude (ft) Takeoff weight 51t Takeoff weight 61t Fastclimbing speed (kn) Climbrate (ft/s) Climbtime (min) Climbdistance (nmile) Climbfuel consumption (kg) Fastclimbrate (kn) Climbrate (ft/s) Climbtime (min) Climbdistance (nmile) Climbfuel consumption (kg) 0 170 20.8 0 0 0 186 14.4 0 0 0 6562 188 17.6 5.6 16.7 244 202 10.9 8.38 26.8 365 13123 205 14.8 12.22 37.4 514 225 7.2 19.83 67.1 831 19685 228 8.9 20.97 68.6 834 247 1.6 42.42 168.4 1751 22591 251 1.6 40.9 148.4 1443 Table 5-9b Climbing performance of three engine Altitude (m) Takeoff weight 51t Takeoff weight 61t Fastclimbing speed (km/h) Climbrate (m/s) Climbtime (min) Climbdistance (km) Climbfuel consumption (kg) Fastclimbrate (km/h) Climbrate (m/s) Climbtime (min) Climbdistance (km) Climbfuel consumption (kg) 0 314 6.33 0 0 0 344 4.38 0 0 0 2000 349 5.35 5.6 30.9 244 375 3.32 8.38 49.7 365 4000 379 4.52 12.22 69.3 514 416 2.2 19.83 124.3 831 6000 422 2.7 20.97 127.1 834 458 0.5 42.42 311.8 1751 7800 464 0.5 40.9 274.8 1443
  • 264. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-17 June 30, 2012 Three-engine level flight performance When one engine stops and three engine work at rated regime, the character of level flight speed at different flight weight and different flight altitude is shown in Table 5-10. Table 5-10a Max. level speed of three engine (Unit: kn) Flight weight (kg) Flight altitude(ft) 49000 51000 54000 56000 61000 0 254 470 468 464 461 6562 266 490 488 482 480 13123 280 515 510 504 492 19685 288 530 522 402 22591 278 Table 5-10b Max. level speed of three engine (Unit: km/h) Flight weight (kg) Flight altitude(m) 49000 51000 54000 56000 61000 0 471 470 468 464 461 2000 492 490 488 482 480 4000 518 515 510 504 492 6000 534 530 522 402 8000 514 TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE IN NON-STANDARD CONDITION The main factors affecting takeoff and taxiing distance includes takeoff landing weight, atmosphere temperature, airport elevation, wind direction and wind speed, runway smoothness, and runway gradient, etc. these factors should be taken into consideration when calculating takeoff and landing roll distance. Calculation method of takeoff run distance Under different takeoff condition, the distance from starting taxiing to lifting off from ground is shown in Figure 5-10. The curve is composed of four charts, from the left to left, representing the scale of air temperature, airport elevation, takeoff weight, runway gradient corresponding that affect the takeoff roll distance. Vertical coordinates is takeoff roll distance. The following sample shows method how to use Figure 5-10 to check takeoff run distance.
  • 265. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-18 June 30, 2012 (Example) The known condition: air temperature is 27oC, airport elevation is 1640ft(500m), takeoff weight is 58t, airport gradient -1%, head wind 16.4ft/s(5m/s), question:the takeoff run distance. See the route indicated by the dotted line in Figure 5-10, from the point where air temperature is 27o C (Pinot A in the figure), draw a perpendicular which crosses the curve of airport elevation 1640ft (500m) at Point B. From Point B, draw a horizontal rightward which crosses the reference line representing aircraft weight at Point C, view the top right from the oblique line passing through Point C, this oblique line crosses perpendicular representing weight of 58t at Point D, draw rightward a horizontal which crosses the reference line representing gradient at Point E, view the right lower side from the oblique line passing through Point E, this line crossed a perpendicular with gradient of -1% at Point F. draw a level from Point F to the right side which crosses the reference line representing wind direction and wind speed at Point R. draw an oblique line to the left lower side and cross the perpendicular representing head wind 5m/s at Point S, finally, draw a horizontal to the right from point and crosses vertical coordinates at Point K, the data at this point 3871ft(1180m) is the takeoff roll distance that this example seeks. The calculation method for landing run distance The landing run distance is the distance that aircraft passes through from touchdown to taxiing fully stop.
  • 266. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-19 June 30, 2012 13123 11483 9843 8202 6562 4921 3281 1010 0 L(ft) 8202 6562 4921 K 3281 1640 2010110203050 A t℃58G(t)20265.652.539.426.213.10-13.1-26.2 %ft/s B C DE F S R t Standard +40 o t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Reference line Reference line Reference line UpslopeDownslope Gradient HeadwindTailwind Rolling 14764 Airportelevation (m ) Figure 5-10a Takeoff run distance (concrete runway, δj=25o ) in different condition
  • 267. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-20 June 30, 2012 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 L(m) 2500 2000 1500 K 1000 500 2010110203050 A t℃58G(t)202201612840-4-8 %m/s B C DE F S R t Standard +40 o t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Reference line Reference line Reference line UpslopeDownslope Gradient HeadwindTailwind Rolling 4500 Airportelevation (m ) Figure 5-10b Takeoff run distance (concrete runway,  j=25o ) in different condition
  • 268. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-21 June 30, 2012 Figure 5-11 shows how different factors affect landing run distance. Pilot can use this diagram as per the current practical condition. From the left to the right are the scale for airport elevation and air temperature affecting landing run distance, scales for landing weight, runway gradient and wind direction and speed. There are reference line on each scale diagram, vertical coordinates is the landing run distance. Below is an example illustrating the method for reference of Figure 5-11. (Example) The known condition: airport elevation 1640ft(500m), air temperature 25o C, runway gradient +1%(up slope), head wind 5m/s, landing weight 58t, question: landing roll distance. (Answer) See route indicated by dotted line in Figure 5-11. Find Point A representing air temperature, draw upward a perpendicular and crosses the curve representing airport elevation 1640ft(500m) at Point B. From the Point B, draw rightward a horizontal line and crosses weight reference line at Point C. a slant line through Point C goes up and to the right side and cross the perpendicular representing weight 58t at Point D. From Point D, draw a horizontal line and crossed gradient reference line at Point E. A slant line through Point E goes to the lower right side and crosses the perpendicular representing gradient +1% at Point F. in the same way, get Point S representing head wind 5m/s, at last, from Point S, draw rightward a horizontal line and crosses vertical coordinates at Point K, whose value 3543ft (1080m) is the takeoff run distance we seek. Note: In emergency case, to effectively shorten the landing run distance, can retard throttle level and release the limit in the rear section of postflare float. But correction should be made in time to avoid deflection caused by uneven negative thrust on two side which results from unsynchronized throttle releasing or the non-coordination caused by throttle delay
  • 269. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-22 June 30, 2012 Takeoff decision speed and takeoff limit weight (a) The method to determine the takeoff decision speed and takeoff limit speed (b) Figure 5-12 is used for airport with good clearway. For these airport with poor clearway, first compute limit weight respectively as per Figure 5-12 and Figure 5-13, then select the smaller one as takeoff limit weight. (Example) Airport runway length: 6234ft(1900m), clear zone length: 1969ft(600m), airport elevation: 2165ft(660m), runway gradient: -1%, headwind: 16.4ft/s(5m/s), air temperature:22o C, airport has good clearway, find takeoff limit weight and decision speed (V1). (Answer) Use Figure 5-12, which is composed of four figures, (A), (B), (C) and (D). 1) First, determine refusal useable distance and takeoff useable distance. Refusal useable distance is equal to runway length plus clearway length, then deduct 328ft(100m). In this case, it is7874ft(2400m), (Point B in Figure 5-12(B)). Takeoff useable run distance is equal to runway length minus 328ft(100m), in this case, it is 5906ft(1800m) (Point A in Figure 5-12(A). 2) Convert the given air temperature into standard air temperature which can be used by this curve. The standard air temperature at elevation of 2165ft(660m) is 11o C, therefore, when air temperature is 22o C, it can be written in form of standard air temperature: 22o C=11o C+11o C=tStandard+11o In the formula, t standard is the standard temperature at this elevation. (c) View Figure 5-12(A). From Point A, draw a horizontal line to the right side and crosses gradient reference line at Point C, from Point C, draw a slant line to upper right side and crosses the perpendicular representing gradient -1% at Point D. by the same method, find Point F representing head wind 5m/s, from F, draw horizontal line rightward.
  • 270. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-23 June 30, 2012 13123 9813 6562 3281 0 6562 4921 K 3281 1640 65.2103050At℃ G(t) 202200032.832.8 ft/s BC DE F S 6040-10-20 L(ft) % t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Reference line Reference line Reference line UpslopeDownslope Gradient HeadwindTailwind Rolling Airportelevation(ft) Figure 5-11a Landing run distance at different condition (concrete runway,δj=35o )
  • 271. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-24 June 30, 2012 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2000 1500 K 1000 500 2010103050At℃ G(t) 2022000-10 m/s BC DE F S 6040-10-20 L(m) % t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Reference line Reference line Reference line UpslopeDownslope Gradient HeadwindTailwind Rolling Airportelevation(m) Figure 5-11b Landing run distance at different condition (concrete runway,δj=35o )
  • 272. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-25 June 30, 2012 m/s (A) (B) (C) (D) % t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Gradient %Gradient Upslope Down slope Head wind Tail wind UpslopeDown slope HeadTail Airport elevation (ft) Referenceline Reference line Referenceline Reference line Referenceline Takeoffuseabledistance(m) Refusal useable distance (ft) 13123 131239843 9843 6562 65623281 13123984365623281 3281 2 1 0 -1 -2 66 33 0 -33 20-2-266330-33 windwind VI(Kn) 97 108 119 130 Figure 5-12a At different condition, the relationship between refusal useable distance, takeoff useable run distance and takeoff limit weight, takeoff decision speed (δj=25o , dry concrete surface)
  • 273. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-26 June 30, 2012 m/s (A) (B) (C) (D) % t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Gradient %Gradient Upslope Down slope Head wind Tail wind UpslopeDown slope Head wind Tail wind Airport elevation (m) Referenceline Reference line Referenceline Reference line Referenceline Takeoffuseabledistance(m) Refusal useable distance (m) Figure 5-12b At different condition, the relationship between refusal useable distance, takeoff useable run distance and takeoff limit weight, takeoff decision speed (δj=25o , dry concrete surface)
  • 274. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-27 June 30, 2012 (A) (B) (C) (D) m/s% t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Gradient Upslope Down slope Head wind Tail wind UpslopeDown slope HeadTail Airport elevation (ft) Referenceline Reference line Reference line Takeoffuseabledistance(ft) Refusal useable distance (ft) 13123 9843 6562 3281 2 1 0 -1 -2 66 33 0 -33 20-2-266330-33 windwind 13123984365623281 97 108 119 VI(Kn) Referenceline Figure 5-13a At different condition, the relationship between refusal useable distance, takeoff useable run distance and takeoff limit weight, takeoff decision speed (δj=25o , dry concrete surface)
  • 275. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-28 June 30, 2012 基准线 (A) (B) (C) (D) m/s% t Standard +30 o t Standard +20 o t Standard +10 o t Standard Gradient Upslope Down slope Head wind Tail wind UpslopeDown slope Head wind Tail wind Airport elevation (m) Referenceline Reference line Reference line Takeoffuseabledistance(m) Refusal useable distance (m) Figure 5-13b At different condition, the relationship between refusal useable distance, takeoff useable run distance and takeoff limit weight, takeoff decision speed (δj=25o , dry concrete surface)
  • 276. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-29 June 30, 2012 (d) See Figure 5-12 (B). as per the above-mentioned method, the available distance for takeoff abortion is 7874ft(2400m), the runway slope is -1% and the speed of upwind is 16.4ft/s(5m/s). Draw an vertical line upward from point B and intersect it with the level from F at point H when passing the characteristic point of slope and up wind. The value of R and ratio of decesive speed (V1) and liftoff speed of the nose wheel (VR) can be obtained as per the position of point H. i.e. H=2900, V1/VR=0.94. (e) See Figure 5-12 (D). The longtitudinal coordinate is R, and the latitudinal coordinate is standard altitude of the airport. If R=2900, then point K can be found out. Draw a level leftward from point K and intersect it with the vertical line whose standard altitude is 2165ft (660m) at point M. Seeing towards bottom left from the oblique line of point M, this line intersects the reference line at point N. Draw a level leftward from point N and intersect it with an oblique line (t) whose standard temperature is +11o at point O. Then draw a vertical line passing point O and intersect it with the latitudinal coordinate in Figure 5-12 (C) at point P. The weight (59t) corresponded is the limited value of weight. Draw one vertical line downward from point P and intersect it with the oblique line V1/VR=0.94 at point S, then draw a level rightward from point S and intersect it with the longitudinal coordinate at point T. The speed value of 118kn(218km/h) corresponded with T is the decesive speed. Caution a) During the initial phase of climbing, the tangent of climb angle should be more than 0.03, and speed should not be lower than the safety speed of takeoff, regardless of the obstruction condition of the airport, so that the aircraft is able to fly over the obstacles successfully and the flight safety can be guaranteed. b) When taking off at the airport with higher standard altitude, with higher ambient temperature, the power rate of engine will see obvious decline. Given the possibility of engine (1 set) shutdown during takeoff which may further decrease its power rate, and that the residual pull and climbing angle will be smaller, the aircraft is likely to fly for a rather long distance at a too low altitude after liftoff, the safety speed can not be reached for long. In this case, reduce the Max. takeoff weight properly.
  • 277. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-30 June 30, 2012 CLIMB AND DESCENT AT DIFFERENT WEIGHT AND ALTITUDE Climb performance The climb performance data of four engines at rated regime is shown in Table 5-11.
  • 278. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-31 June 30, 2012 Table 5-11a Climb performance at different weigth and altitude Weight (t) Altitude (ft) Indicated climb speed(kn) Climb true speed (kn) Climb rate (ft/s) Climb time (min) Climb distance (n mile) Climb fuel consumption (kg) 49 0 175 175 35.40 0 0.00 0 6562 166 184 33.50 3.05 10.21 174 13123 165 202 29.95 6.50 19.98 365 19685 165 225 22.67 10.74 35.10 555 26247 164 251 13.35 17.25 61.0 816 34104 154 272 1.64 39.50 162.5 1517 51 0 178 179 32.91 0 0.0 0 6562 170 188 31.14 3.27 9.7 186 13123 169 207 27.66 7.0 22.1 382 19685 168 229 20.64 11.62 38.9 600 26247 167 256 11.48 19.04 68.6 898 32972 161 279 1.64 36.47 150.5 1598 54 0 182 182 29.86 0 0.0 0 6562 174 192 27.92 3.63 11.3 207 13123 173 212 24.48 7.82 25.4 427 19685 174 237 17.78 13.12 45.4 677 26247 172 262 8.86 22.38 83.7 1050 31250 168 284 1.64 43.47 191.7 1751 56 0 184 184 28.22 0 0.0 0 6562 177 195 25.92 3.89 12.4 222 13123 177 217 22.51 8.43 28.1 460 19685 177 241 16.01 14.27 50.2 736 26247 174 267 7.25 25.24 96.1 1179 29773 173 286 1.64 46.55 195.5 1900 58 0 180 180 26.25 0 0.0 0 6562 181 200 24.05 4.18 13.0 239 13123 180 220 20.67 9.10 30.2 497 19685 179 245 14.34 15.56 55.6 801 26247 178 272 5.97 28.52 111.2 1326 28871 187 305 1.64 48.72 206.3 2029 61 0 186 186 23.95 0 0.0 0 6562 185 204 21.39 4.67 15.1 266 13123 185 226 18.04 10.25 35.1 559 19685 185 251 12.01 17.83 65.3 918 26247 182 278 3.94 43.3 146.9 1667 27313 197 312 1.64 49.9 205.2 2153
  • 279. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-32 June 30, 2012 Table 5-11b Climb performance at different weigth and altitude Weight (t) Altitude (m) Indicated climb speed(km/h) Climb true speed (km/h) Climb rate (m/s) Climb time (min) Climb distance (km) Climb fuel consumption (kg) 49 0 324 325 10.79 0 0 0 2000 308 340 10.21 3.05 18.9 174 4000 305 374 9.13 6.5 37 365 6000 306 417 6.91 10.74 65 555 8000 304 465 4.07 17.25 113 816 10395 285 504 0.5 39.5 301 1517 51 0 330 331 10.03 0 0 0 2000 315 348 9.49 3.27 18 186 4000 313 383 8.43 7 41 382 6000 312 425 6.29 11.62 72 600 8000 310 474 3.5 19.04 127 898 10050 298 517 0.5 36.47 278.7 1598 54 0 337 337 9.1 0 0 0 2000 322 356 8.51 3.63 21 207 4000 321 393 7.46 7.82 47 427 6000 322 438 5.42 13.12 84 677 8000 318 486 2.7 22.38 155 1050 9525 311 526 0.5 43.47 355 1751 56 0 340 340 8.6 0 0 0 2000 328 362 7.9 3.89 23 222 4000 328 402 6.86 8.43 52 460 6000 327 446 4.88 14.27 93 736 8000 323 494 2.21 25.24 178 1179 9075 320 530 0.5 46.55 362 1900 58 0 334 334 8 0 0 0 2000 335 370 7.33 4.18 24 239 4000 334 408 6.3 9.1 56 497 6000 332 453 4.37 15.56 103 801 8000 330 504 1.82 28.52 206 1326 8800 347 565 0.5 48.72 382 2029 61 0 344 344 7.3 0 0 0 2000 343 378 6.52 4.67 28 266 4000 342 418 5.5 10.25 65 559 6000 342 465 3.66 17.83 121 918 8000 337 515 1.2 43.3 272 1667 8325 365 577 0.5 49.9 380 2153
  • 280. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-33 June 30, 2012 In standard condition, aircraft service ceiling at different weight is shown in Table 5-12. Table 5-12a Service ceiling at different weight Takeoff weight(t) 49 51 54 56 58 61 Service ceiling(ft) 34104 32972 31250 29774 28871 27313 Table 5-12b Service ceiling at different weight Takeoff weight(t) 49 51 54 56 58 61 Service ceiling(m) 10395 10050 9525 9075 8800 8325 Descent performance Steady descent When aircraft with a takeoff weight 49t, descend to 1640ft (500m) from different altitude at small throttle level state (throttle position 16o ), its descent performance is shown in Table 5-13. This method is not used unless the fuel quantity is limited. Table 5-13a Steady descent performance Altitude(ft) Descent indicated speed (kn) Descent true speed (kn) Descent rate (ft/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 26247 197 300 32.55 3.62 19.19 428 22966 193 278 28.61 3.50 17.22 377 19685 190 259 25.16 3.30 15.10 321 16404 186 241 22.05 3.11 12.62 259 13123 185 226 18.77 2.82 9.71 191 9843 183 212 16.40 2.63 7.30 136 6562 181 200 13.62 2.31 5.10 76 3281 180 190 12.34 2.21 1.63 20 1640 173 177 11.48 2.20 0.00 0.00
  • 281. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-34 June 30, 2012 Table 5-13b Steady descent performance Altitude(m) Descent indicated speed (km/h) Descent true speed (km/h) Descent rate (m/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 8000 364 556 9.92 3.62 19.19 428 7000 357 514 8.72 3.5 17.22 377 6000 352 479 7.67 3.3 15.1 321 5000 345 446 6.72 3.11 12.62 259 4000 342 418 5.72 2.82 9.71 191 3000 339 393 5 2.63 7.3 136 2000 336 371 4.15 2.31 5.1 76 1000 334 351 3.76 2.21 1.63 20 500 320 328 3.5 2.2 0 0 Fast descent For fast descent, set engine throttle at 62o. Within a certain period, a relative long descent distance can be acquired. The character of fast descent to 1640ft (500m) from different altitude is shown in Table 5-14. Constant-airspeed descent Maintain the favorable descent indicated speed at 243kn (450km/h), and put throttle level at the position of 20o (not lower than 16o ), the character that descend to 500m from different altitude is shown in Table 5-15. This method is used for common descent. Optimum level speed and fuel consumption at different weight hand altitude By flying at indicated speed of 178kn (300km/h), the maximum endurance can be acquired at every altitude, but it is not most optimum speed, generally, it is economic speed. Optimum speed is larger than economic speed, at this speed, generally, the maximum range can be acquired. The optimum level speed (maximum range speed) at different flight height and weight and corresponding fuel consumption per kilometer, fuel consumption per hour are shown in Table 5-16.
  • 282. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-35 June 30, 2012 Table 5-14a Fast descent performance Parameter altitude (m) Descent indicate speed (km/h) Descent true speed (km/h) Descent rate (m/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent distance (km) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 26247 225 343 52.00 5.13 61.0 16.76 443 22966 203 293 46.49 5.03 55.1 15.65 399 19685 195 266 38.25 4.86 49.1 14.33 350 16404 191 246 33.04 4.55 42.1 12.79 299 13123 184 225 27.53 4.14 35.1 10.99 245 9843 178 206 22.87 3.75 27.0 8.81 188 6562 166 183 16.67 3.09 17.3 6.01 121 3281 158 165 12.96 2.66 5.9 2.16 40 1640 157 161 12.37 2.61 0.0 0.00 0.00 Table 5-14b Fast descent performance Parameter altitude (m) Descent indicate speed (km/h) Descent true speed (km/h) Descent rate (m/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent distance (km) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 8000 416 635 15.85 5.13 113 16.76 443 7000 376 543 14.17 5.03 102 15.65 399 6000 362 493 11.66 4.86 91 14.33 350 5000 353 456 10.07 4.55 78 12.79 299 4000 341 417 8.39 4.14 65 10.99 245 3000 329 382 6.97 3.75 50 8.81 188 2000 307 338 5.08 3.09 32 6.01 121 1000 292 306 3.95 2.66 11 2.16 40 500 291 298 3.77 2.61 0.00 0.00 0.00
  • 283. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-36 June 30, 2012 Table 5-15a Constant-airspeed descent (Vb=243kn) Parameter altitude(m) Descent rate (m/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent horizontal distance (km) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 26247 30.05 2.75 77.4 15.5 356.6 22966 29.07 2.82 66.1 13.6 322.6 19685 27.72 2.85 55.2 11.8 285 16404 27.66 3.0 44.4 9.8 241 13123 26.44 3.02 34.1 7.8 195 9843 25.33 3.05 24.1 5.73 145 6562 24.41 3.09 14.1 3.57 90.3 3281 23.46 3.13 5.4 1.33 32.1 Table 5-15b Constant-airspeed descent (Vb=450km/h) Parameter altitude(m) Descent rate (m/s) Descent angle (o ) Descent horizontal distance (km) Descent time (min) Descent fuel consumption (kg) 8000 9.16 2.75 143.3 15.5 356.6 7000 8.86 2.82 122.5 13.6 322.6 6000 8.45 2.85 102.2 11.8 285 5000 8.43 3 82.2 9.8 241 4000 8.06 3.02 63.1 7.8 195 3000 7.72 3.05 44.6 5.73 145 2000 7.44 3.09 26.2 3.57 90.3 1000 7.15 3.13 10 1.33 32.1
  • 284. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-37 June 30, 2012 Table 5-16a Optimum speed and fuel consumption at different weight and altitude Average level flight weight (t) Altitude (m) Indicated speed (km/h) True speed (km/h) Fuel consumption per kilometer (kg/km) Fuel consumption per hour (kg/h) 45 6562 196 216 9.37 2025 9843 194 226 8.78 1981 13123 193 236 8.22 1941 16404 193 249 7.67 1907 19685 196 267 7.06 1883 22966 189 272 6.59 1795 26247 188 287 6.28 1792 47 6562 200 221 9.56 2116 9843 210 244 8.95 2173 13123 199 243 8.41 2042 16404 206 265 7.82 2071 19685 197 269 7.19 1935 22966 191 275 6.78 1867 26247 202 309 6.37 1971 49 6562 221 244 9.50 2319 9843 213 247 8.91 2198 13123 209 255 8.39 2143 16404 207 267 7.82 2088 19685 200 273 7.22 1974 22966 196 282 6.83 1930 26247 203 310 6.41 1982 51 6562 221 244 9.57 2329 9843 214 249 8.95 2230 13123 212 259 8.48 2197 16404 209 269 7.91 2130 19685 203 277 7.35 2036 22966 201 290 6.96 2018 26247 202 309 6.48 2002 54 6562 217 239 9.83 2357 9843 213 248 9.32 2308 13123 217 260 8.85 2344 16404 211 272 8.26 2244
  • 285. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-38 June 30, 2012 Table 5-16a (Continued) Average level flight weight (t) Altitude (m) Indicated speed (km/h) True speed (km/h) Fuel consumption per kilometer (kg/km) Fuel consumption per hour (kg/h) 54 19685 206 280 7.70 2159 22966 214 308 7.20 2225 26247 197 300 6.82 2045 55 6562 219 242 9.70 2351 9843 215 250 9.17 2292 13123 217 266 8.69 2308 16404 212 274 8.13 2227 19685 207 282 7.59 2141 22966 215 309 7.13 2204 26247 199 303 6.70 2029 57 6562 219 242 9.80 2373 9843 217 252 9.28 2338 13123 219 267 8.80 2350 16404 213 275 8.28 2276 19685 230 313 7.72 2417 22966 218 313 7.19 2249 26247 195 299 6.85 2048 59 6562 221 244 9.93 2420 9843 219 254 9.43 2398 13123 220 269 8.91 2400 16404 232 300 8.37 2510 19685 230 313 7.80 2440 22966 213 307 7.30 2238 26247 195 298 7.06 2098
  • 286. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-39 June 30, 2012 Table 5-16b Optimum speed and fuel consumption at different weight and altitude Average level flight weight (t) Altitude (m) Indicated speed (km/h) True speed (km/h) Fuel consumption per kilometer (kg/km) Fuel consumption per hour (kg/h) 45 2000 363 400 5.06 2025 3000 360 418 4.74 1981 4000 357 437 4.44 1941 5000 357 461 4.14 1907 6000 363 495 3.81 1883 7000 350 504 3.56 1795 8000 348 531 3.39 1792 47 2000 371 410 5.16 2116 3000 389 452 4.83 2173 4000 368 450 4.54 2042 5000 381 491 4.22 2071 6000 365 498 3.88 1935 7000 354 510 3.66 1867 8000 374 572 3.44 1971 49 2000 410 452 5.13 2319 3000 394 457 4.81 2198 4000 387 473 4.53 2143 5000 384 495 4.22 2088 6000 371 506 3.9 1974 7000 363 523 3.69 1930 8000 376 574 3.46 1982 51 2000 409 451 5.17 2329 3000 397 461 4.83 2230 4000 393 480 4.58 2197 5000 387 499 4.27 2130 6000 376 513 3.97 2036 7000 373 537 3.76 2018 8000 375 573 3.5 2002 54 2000 401 443 5.31 2357 3000 395 459 5.03 2308 4000 402 481 4.78 2344 5000 390 503 4.46 2244
  • 287. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION V PERFORMANCE 5-40 June 30, 2012 Table 5-16b (Continued) Average level flight weight (t) Altitude (m) Indicated speed (km/h) True speed (km/h) Fuel consumption per kilometer (kg/km) Fuel consumption per hour (kg/h) 54 6000 381 519 4.16 2159 7000 396 571 3.89 2225 8000 364 556 3.68 2045 55 2000 406 448 5.24 2351 3000 399 463 4.95 2292 4000 402 492 4.69 2308 5000 393 507 4.39 2227 6000 383 522 4.1 2141 7000 398 573 3.85 2204 8000 368 561 3.62 2029 57 2000 406 448 5.29 2373 3000 401 466 5.01 2338 4000 405 495 4.75 2350 5000 395 510 4.47 2276 6000 426 580 4.17 2417 7000 403 580 3.88 2249 8000 362 553 3.7 2048 59 2000 409 451 5.36 2420 3000 406 471 5.09 2398 4000 408 499 4.81 2400 5000 430 555 4.52 2510 6000 426 580 4.21 2440 7000 394 568 3.94 2238 8000 361 551 3.81 2098
  • 288. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-1 June 30, 2012 AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT POWER PLANT General WJ-6 consists of closed differential planetary decelerator (with torque measuring mechanism), air inlet casing, 10th stage axial flow type compressor, combined combustion chamber, third stage axial-flow reaction turbine and fixed-area nozzle, etc. Under the standard atmosphere on the ground, air flows into compressor by engine air inlet and be compressed gradually to outlet of compressor with the pressure of P2=106.7psi (0.736MPa) and temperature of 482o F (250o C). Compressed air enters into combustion chamber and mixes with high-pressure fuel ejected by fuel injector, and is burnt continually, becoming combustion gas. The temperature of combustion chamber center is about 2200K. Combustion gas burnt mixes with other flow of compressed air in combustion chamber with the temperature of T* 3=1436o F (780o C) before it entering into turbine. High-temperature and high-pressure gas expands in turbine to drive the turbine to operate. Power of turbine is transmitted into compressor and propeller. The pressure and temperature of expanded gas in turbine reduce. But its speed increases. After entering into tail pipe, its pressure reduces to 14.7psi (101.3kPa) (one atmospheric pressure), but the speed increases to 447kn (230m/s). The combustion gas from nozzle outlet is ejected at the speed of 349.92kn (180m/s), producing thrust of about 848.7 lb(3776N) (H=0, V=0). The operating process of engine is shown in Figure 6-1. 0-Inlet of air inlet 1-Inlet of compressor 2-Outlet of compressor 3-Outlet of combustion chamber 4-Outlet of turbine 5-Outlet of exhaust section 0 1 2 3 4 5 C C P P T T m/s K Figure 6-1 Schematic diagram of engine operating
  • 289. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-2 June 30, 2012 Propeller, decelerator, compressor and turbine of engine WJ-6 are connected with the same shaft, which is called high altitude turboprop engine with single shaft. Besides owning the advantages of simple structure, small size and light weight of turbojet engine, the propeller engine also has the advantages of high efficiency of propeller, great economics, and large thrust with middle-low speeds. But it also has disadvantages, that is, rotary inertia of propeller and rotor is large to hardly start the engine, speeding up characteristic is a little bit weak, and the negative thrust by propeller is larger more several times than that of reciprocating engine, when shutting down the engine, the propeller failing to feather with windmill state. Power produced by turbine is more than 9856.6hp (7350kW) (about more than 104 horsepower) when engine operates in take-off status. The consumed power by compressor and its accessories are more than 6900hp (5145kW) (about more than seven thousand horsepower), and the power to propeller is 2868.4kW (3900 horsepower). The thrust produced by jet flow is 848.7 lb (3776N) Thus, the equivalent power in taking off Nequivalent power=2868.4+0.91х385х 0.735=3126kW (Nequivalent power=3900+0.91 х385 =4250 horsepower) (0.91 is the horsepower coefficient changed from thrust). Regulation of engine WJ-6 Regulating law Rotating speed, equivalent power, and turbine-inlet temperature of engine WJ-6 are chose as regulated parameters. The variations of these parameters reflect the constant speed regulating, constant equivalent power regulating and constant turbine-inlet temperature regulating. Constant rotating speed regulation is implemented in the following way: The engine rotating speed regulator's centrifugal mechanism senses the engine rotating speed, and automatically controls the propeller to change the blade angle, that is, changes the propeller-required power to adapt to the engine output power, ensuring constant engine rotating speed. Constant equivalent power regulating is operated in the height range from ground to 3.1 mile (5km) altitude, which is called power restricted area or constant equivalent power area. Turbine-inlet temperature (T* 3) reduces gradually from the maximum allowable value in this area to ensure the equivalent power do not change approximately.
  • 290. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-3 June 30, 2012 Constant turbine-inlet temperature regulating is operated in the altitude of 3.1~6.8mile (5~11km). Turbine-inlet temperature always is at its allowable maximum value (different maximum values in different operating state). Correction mechanism on fuel governor senses static pressure PH, total temperature tH * , and total inlet pressure of compressor P* 1 of the outside air temperature, to control the axial movement amount of throttle valve automatically to change pump delivery for the engine operating, regulating the constant equivalent power and constant turbine-inlet temperature. Equivalent power Nequivalent power, According to the regulating law, turbine-inlet temperature T* 3, and pump delivery GGsupply of engine WJ-6 vary with the flight altitude H and flight speed. The variation is shown in Figure 6-2. V1 V1 V1 V2 V2 H2H1 V2 V NNequivalent power GGsupply 3T* Figure 6-2 Curve for variation of Nequivalent power, T* 3, GGsupply with H, V
  • 291. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-4 June 30, 2012 When the air inlet temperature of engine increases above 77o F (25o C), booster ratio of compressor and air mass density will decrease with the increasing temperature. Thus, the airflow of the engine will reduce as well. If keeping the pump delivery same, T* 3 will increase. In order to avoid the overheat of turbine and its parts, reduce oil supply necessarily at the temperature t* H above 77o F (25o C) to keep T* 3 unchangeable generally. At that time, temperature sensing probe of temperature correction mechanism senses the total temperature of airflow in air inlet to regulate the oil supply. When the air temperature is above 77o F (25o C), oil supply may reduce 13.9 lb/h (6.29kg/h) by increasing every 1.8o F (1o C). Main adjusting screw of fuel governor and its function (a) 1A screw: Change oil supply in proportion according to all characteristic curves of oil supply, only in temperature restriction zone. Rotating one circle changes 10%~11% of oil supply. Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, reduce oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise or counter clockwise one circle from the initial manufactory position. After adjusting 1A screw, oil supply in power restriction zone is affected, thus, adjusting 36# screw with the amount of 5~6 times that of 1A screw in the opposite direction to 1A screw. (b) 36# screw: Regulate the oil supply in power restriction zone (including the ground). Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, reduce oil quantity. Rotating every one circle changes the 1.5% oil supply of all the characteristic curves. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise or counter clockwise 5 circles from the initial manufactory position. (c) 46# screw: Change oil supply in taking off state. Rotating every one circle changes the oil supply 88 lb/h(40kg/h) for taking off. Rotate clockwise to decrease oil quantity; counter clockwise, increase oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise one circle or counter clockwise 1/2 circle (6 grids) from the initial manufactory position. (d) 16# screw: Change the initial oil supply when taking off. Rotate one grid (1/2) circle to change oil supply 22lb/h (10kg/h), Rotate clockwise to decrease oil quantity; counter clockwise, increase oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise or counter clockwise 1/3 circle (4 grids) from the initial manufactory position. (e) 14# screw: Regulate the allowable maximum rotating speed. Rotate every one circle to change the rotating speed of 300r/min (about 2.3%). Rotate clockwise to decrease oil quantity; counter clockwise, increase oil quantity.
  • 292. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-5 June 30, 2012 (f) 15# screw: Regulate the idling rotating speed of engine. Change rotating speed of teeth for 75r/min (0.6%). Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, decrease oil quantity. (g) 17# screw: Change the time of the engine entering into idling stare, that is, change oil supply in starting and accelerating process. Rotate every grid (1/12 circle), changing the oil supply of 6.61~8.82Ib/h (3~4kg/h) in the range of 4500~9500r/min. Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, decrease oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise 6 grids and counter clockwise 12 grids (1 circle) from the initial manufactory position. (h) 20# screw: Change the closing rotating speed of bleed-off valve of 8th grade. Rotate every circle changing 600r/min (4.5%). Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, decrease oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise or counter clockwise one circle from the initial manufactory position. (i) 21# screw: Change the closing rotating speed of bleed-off valve of 5th grade. Rotate every circle changing 600r/min (4.5%). Rotate clockwise to increase oil quantity; counter clockwise, decrease oil quantity. It is allowed to rotate it clockwise or counter clockwise1 circle from the initial manufactory position. Operation of propeller and speed regulator Function Propeller and speed regulator operate together to keep the constant rotating speed of engine automatically by changing blade angle (BA) of propeller. And they can also complete the following missions: propeller feathering, unfeathering, mid pitch stop and releasing mid pitch stop, etc. The balance between output power of engine and the needed power of propeller is damaged when the ambient atmospheric condition, state of flight and operating state of engine change. The rotating speed of engine will increase or decrease. Meanwhile with the change of rotating speed, centrifugal regulator on speed regulator may send out signals. Enlarge or reduce blade angle (BA) to make the needed power of propeller and output power of engine equal. Thus, keep the constant rotating speed of engine (12300r/min) unchanged. At that time, new power balance state occurs.
  • 293. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-6 June 30, 2012 Function and operation of all constant pitch of propeller When the operating state and flight state of engine are uncoordinated and trouble happens in engine or its accessories, propeller blade is at the negative angle of attack position to produce negative thrust or overrun. Only in aircraft is in landing run and emergency descent, the negative thrust produced by propeller can operate to brake well. In other conditions, excess negative thrust can bring great difficulty to operate the engine. Overrun can cause the damage to engine and moving parts of propeller. Thus, mid pitch stop, mechanical pitch control, hydraulic pitch control, centrifugal pitch control and other safety devices are installed in propeller hub. Automatic torque feathering, negative thrust auto-feathering, manual feathering, emergency hydraulic feathering and manual unfeathering systems are set to keep the aircraft safety and the smallest resistance for propeller in flight direction. Function of constant pitch safety device Hydraulic pitch control: The propeller reverse pitch is fixed automatically, that is, set the blade angle (BA) of propeller at the angle of operation without reducing to prevent the propeller from overrun. Mechanical pitch control: Mechanical pitch control and hydraulic pitch control can operate together when the blade angle is at the range of 0o ~45o . Meanwhile, the reliability of pitch control is increased. When the hydraulic pitch control is inoperative, the mechanical pitch control can ensure the pitch control of propeller. Centrifugal pitch control: When the rotating speed of propeller exceeds (1105+15 ) r/min, centrifugal pitch control mechanism can control the pitch automatically to avoid the propeller rotating speed increasing, no matter how much the oil pressure in all oil pipes of propeller is. Function of mid pitch stop Mid pitch stop mechanism can ensure that when blade angle reduces to fine pitch stop12o , the propeller blade can be restricted to that place. Thus, avoid large negative thrust and overrun in rapid deceleration of the engine or trouble occurring in engine. It can also ensure the propeller to be returned with necessary blade angle quickly when opening the throttle in the second flight. Release the mid pitch stop when the plane is in landing run. Reduce the blade angle from 12o to 0o position, producing large negative thrust. Thus, landing run distance is shortened largely.
  • 294. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-7 June 30, 2012 Function of feathering and unfeathering mechanism (a) Automatic torque feathering: When the throttle-control lever is above 56o with the torque pressure decreasing to 142psi (980kPa), feather the propeller automatically by signals sent by automatic torque feathering sensor. (b) Negative thrust auto-feathering: When the throttle-control lever is above 40o with the negative thrust produced by propeller shaft exceeding 2645.5lb (11768N), feather the propeller automatically by negative thrust feathering sensor. (c) Manual feathering: The engine can feather manually if necessary. Press Manual feathering button, the propeller turns to feathering position. (d) Emergency hydraulic feathering: If feathering is needed in emergency with the electric system of automatic or manual feathering inoperative, pull downward and rotate 90o the emergency hydraulic feathering switch to force the propeller to be at feathering position. This method is done by speed governor self supplying oil to feather, and the time for supplying oil is short. Therefore, feathering cannot be done completely. But the blade angle is not less than 40o generally. (e) Part feathering: Part feathering can be operated to check the operation of the part feathering system in engine operating state and shutdown state. (f) Unfeathering: Place the propeller electric switch to Stop releasing button position, to make the lade angle back to 0o position on ground. When starting the feathered engine in air, manual unfeathering should be made to reduce the needed blade angle. At that time, the propeller drives the engine to rotate in frontal airflow. The method for unfeathering is as follows: pull up the unfeathering button and keep it at its original position (pulling time is not more than 2.5s), and the blade returns to its starting angle from feathering position.
  • 295. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-8 June 30, 2012 Propeller thrust (a) The propeller thrust varied with the flight speed V, flight altitude H and air temperature t. The thrust depends on the flight speed, rotating speed of propeller, flight altitude and blade angle. The opening of blade angle depends on the throttle, and the rotating speed is a constant. Thus, the thrust can be calculated, as long as the V, H and Npropeller of throttle is known. The procedure of producing the thrust is shown in Figure 6-3. The total thrust of one engine in different altitude, speed, throttle and air temperature is shown in Figure 6-4 and 6-5. Figure 6-3 Propeller thrust (b) Propeller Operation in negative thrust The power consumption of turbine propeller engine is large and the blade angle can change to very small angle. Thus, negative thrust can reach above 11023 lb(49000N) in small blade angle windmill state with the tH=-60o C. Besides, when the throttle is opened small, negative thrust may be produced.
  • 296. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-9 June 30, 2012 Figure 6-4 Total thrust of one engine in H=0mile (0km) Figure 6-5 Total thrust of one engine in H=4.97mile (8km)
  • 297. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-10 June 30, 2012 (1) Windmill state of propeller When the angle of attack of blade element α<-8, the large negative thrust may be produced. Meanwhile, the rotating of propeller does not need to be powered by engine, and can supply power to engine in frontal airflow. In windmill state, the negative thrust can reach to its maximum, which exceeds the maximum positive thrust of power plant. Also in this state, the power that propeller supplied to engine is the windmill power (Nwindmill). The windmill power of propeller depends on the power coefficient β, air density ρ and the rotating speed of propeller n. And β depends on corresponding feed pitch λ and blade angle φ. Thus, when the altitude keeps unchangeable with the n is a constant (1075r/min), the propeller windmill power is relevant to flight speed V and blade angle φ. The relation curve of windmill power Nwindmill and V, φ. N (0.735km) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 10 20 30 40 Windmill power without oil supply 300 350 400 450 500 V=550km /h φ (o ) Figure 6-6 The relation curve of windmill power Nwindmill and V,φ (H=0, t=59o F(15o C), n=1075r/min)
  • 298. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-11 June 30, 2012 (2) The thrust varied with the speed in small throttle both in air and on ground: The throttle without producing negative and positive thrust is called zero thrust throttle. Small throttle in air is zero thrust throttle. But, thrust is affected greatly by air temperature. Thus, small throttle in air changes with the air temperature. When throttle is at 16o , the thrust changes with the air temperature and flight speed. Variation of thrust when throttle is at 16o is shown in Figure 6-7. P (9.81N) 0 1000 2500 2000 60 60 30 300200 Vb (km/h) t=15°C Figure 6-7 Variation of thrust with throttle at 16o Release the inboard propeller stop and then the outboard. And each engine can
  • 299. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-12 June 30, 2012 produce 3307~3527lb (14700~15680N) negative thrust. Negative thrust decreases with the running speed reducing. When the V=70~81kn (130~150km/h), the blade angle changes to be positive, and the thrust changes to not big positive value. The variation of thrust in landing and running process are shown in Figure 6-8. P (9.81N) 0 1000 2000 500 120 200 4 3 5 1 280 Vb(km/h) 2 1-2, The variation of thrust when the throttle lever is at 16o 2-3, The throttle lever is at 0o 4-5, Propeller releasing the mid pitch stop Figure 6-8 The variation of thrust in landing and running process
  • 300. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-13 June 30, 2012 (3) The following measures should be taken when the engine is out of oil supply and cannot be feathered: a) The negative thrust is at its maximum when Vactual=227~238kn (420~440km/h), and it is larger in low altitude than in high altitude. Method should be made to reach this speed in high altitude. The detailed step is: reduce the indicated airspeed to allowable speed 162kn(300km/h) in 5000m and keep that speed to slide. b) Observe the rotating speed carefully when the speed reduced inVactual>227~238kn (420~440km/h). When rotating speed cannot be kept and it reduces (about Vactual 227~238kn (420~440km/h)), release the stop at once. Note 1) Do not release the stop too early, otherwise, the blade angle will be less than 12o in the process of propeller changing into small moment by speed governor. At that time, as the negative coefficient (-CP) increasing rapidly, the negative thrust can exceed -22031 lb (-98000N). 2) Do not appear wave-off when the propeller is at windmill state and enters into landing. The negative thrust can increase gradually in increasing speed. Other point is that, when the throttle is at 0o position with  =0o in increasing speed, negative thrust is larger than that of in oil supply cutoff. When the V increases to 194kn (360km/h), P=-12337 lb (-54880N) [p=-6609 lb (-29400N) without oil supply], engine must be shut down, because of the engine cannot be feathered. (c) Negative thrust produced by engine air start When unfeathering in engine air start, large negative angle of attack on propeller blade is produced. Thus, produce great negative thrust. Negative thrust becomes larger when the speed increases in high altitude. Moreover, the instant started negative thrust reached to its maximum value. The starting method has a great effect on the negative thrust. With unfeathering fast, the blade can enter into fine pitch stop quickly. Because the blade keeps at this angle for a longer time, the negative thrust increases. Thus, in engine air start, unfeather in time (n=15%~20%) and supply feathering to avoid the rotating speed increasing fast, largely reducing the negative thrust. The variation of negative thrust in engine air start is shown in Figure 6-9.
  • 301. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-14 June 30, 2012 n(r/min) 11000 9000 7000 5000 3000 1000 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 25 4400 3400 2400 1400 P(9.81N) t(s) Figure 6-9 The variation curve of negative thrust in engine air start
  • 302. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-15 June 30, 2012 Precautions in power plant operation Release the stop of propeller in taxing When the engine is started by turboprop airplane, the propeller can be at the minimum blade angle (starting angle) position. At that time, propeller torque is small to facilitate engine starting. Even operate 0o throttle, the four engines may produce 1764~2204 lb(7840 ~9800N) thrust. Thus, pay attention to lifting parking brake. The rotating speed is 10400r/min at 0o throttle. Rotating speed increases gradually to its operation speed when the throttle is enlarged from 0o to 16o ~22o step by step. In that process, blade angle keeps the same, rotating speed increases, and thrust keeps constant generally (increasing slightly, strictly speaking), which is the so called Zero Throttle. Increasing the throttle to 16o ~22o , the blade angle is enlarged by propeller governor. Meanwhile, the rotating speed is constant and thrust is increased largely. If the fuel regulations of left and right engine are inconsistent, rotating speed of left and right is usually different in Zero Throttle. However, the thrusts on left and right differ indistinctly and have a small effect on the taxiing. When the throttle is above 16o ~22o , the enlarged propeller moments on left and right are inconsistent. And the thrusts on both sides differ greatly. Thus, there is deviation and shaking head in taxing. In taxing, the propeller should be at Stop releasing button position. In order to acquire a certain taxing speed in large head wind, upslope, and load, the throttle should be above 30o , and the blade angle is larger than limiting angle (12o ). Once stop sliding and throttle is at 0o , blade should stop at the 12o limiting position if unreleasing the stop. At that time, the thrust cannot be reduced quickly and great rotating moment may occur as well. In that situation, in order to keep the throttle at 0o and corresponding rotating speed, fuel control unit tends to supply more fuel to increase the combustion gas temperature, produce sonic boom, and even burn out turbine impeller (in fact, there is surge when the rotating speed reducing to 93%).
  • 303. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-16 June 30, 2012 Propeller must be stopped in taking off Keep the throttle to 100o to take-off run, at this time, the blade angle is 24o ~26o . The blade angle may increase with the increasing take-off run speed. Thus, as long as the engine operates normally, whether the propeller is stopped or not will have no effect on engine operation characteristics. But, when one or several engines shut down with the feathering position full of troubles, and the speed at that time is less than 227~238kn (420~440km/h), propeller can supply a certain power to drive the compressor in windmill state. But the power is limited to maintain the operation speed, and the propeller changes to its minimum moment (releasing the stop, 0o ; unreleased, 12o ). The rotating speed does not be reduced in the shutdown moment. If the propeller is at its original Releasing stop position, negative angle of attack is great as well as the negative thrust at that time. The excess negative thrust can produce large yawing torque. If feeding rudder a little late, the aircraft may deviate from the runway. Thus, when taking off, the propeller must be stopped. It is forbidden to take off when the propeller switch is at Release Stop position. The propeller switch should be at Stop position even engine is in normal operation When the flight speed is less than 227~238kn (420~440km/h), engine shuts down, and the propeller is in windmilling, whether the propeller is stopped or not affect the negative thrust largely, because the speed is low and the propeller windmill power is limited to maintain the operation speed. Propeller changes to its maximum moment at once by propeller governor. If the propeller is at Release Stop position before the engine shutdown, the blade angle reduces to 0o at once. At the time when the rotating speed does not be reduced in shutdown moment, propeller negative thrust at Release Stop position is much larger than that at Stop position. Propeller switch should be at Stop position to avoid excess negative thrust in shutdown moment in flight. If the engine is shut down with the speed at the range of 227~238kn (420~440km/h), Release the stop in time after the windmilling speed is stable. Because of releasing the stop, the rotating speed reduces further and the negative thrust reduce as well. But at initial the moment of releasing the stop (3s~4s), negative thrust increases slightly. Therefore, pay attention to the balance of the aircraft.
  • 304. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-17 June 30, 2012 Throttle in air cannot be less than allowable degree According to turboprop engine characteristics, close the throttle to 0o (over locking pin) only in rear section of landing float. In other situations, it is forbidden to close the throttle over locking pin. Otherwise, great negative thrust is produced [about 3307~4409lb (14.7~19.6kN)] to affect the flight security seriously. The degree of small throttle depends on temperature, pressure and regulating situation of engine. No matter the temperature is lower or higher than 15o C, the small throttle increases in air. The variation is shown in Table 6-1. Table 6-1 Air temperature o F (o C) -55 (-67) -55~-30 (-67~-22) -31.01~-24.56 (-23.8~-12.2) -10~0 (14~32) 0~15 (32~59) 20~25 (68~77) 30 (86) 35 (95) 40 (104) Small throttle degree in air (°) 36~32 32~28 26~22 22~20 20 22~24 25~26 27 28 When the pressure is lower than sea level standard air pressure 101.3kPa (760mmHg), small air throttle increases. When the pressure reduces every 1.16psi (7.997kPa), small air throttle increases 1.5o ~2o . In the same throttle, if fuel governor supplies much less fuel, small air throttle will increase; otherwise, small air throttle may decrease. All in all, pilot should make clear the airfield level temperature, and pressure, determine the degree of small air throttle and adjust the throttle locking pin position before landing. Do not consider the small air throttle degree is a constant data.
  • 305. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-18 June 30, 2012 Steps should be pay attention to when closing the throttle to pass locking pin and releasing propeller stop One of the characters of power plant of this type, large negative thrust can be acquired when in closing the throttle over locking pin and releasing propeller stop to shorten the landing and landing run distance. Effects are different in different operating time and different orders. The two operation methods of power plant right now are as follows: Method 1: In initial part of floating, after aircraft nose shielding the threshold, close the internal throttle to pass locking pin; close the outboard throttle to pass locking pin when touching ground; after lowering down the nosewheel, release the propeller stop from internal side to outboard side. Method 2: Close the throttle to locking pin in floating, and pass the locking pin after touching the ground; release the propeller stop after lowering down the nosewheel. The advantage of method 1 are as follows: Propeller can produce negative thrust earlier to reduce the landing and landing run distance effectively and with the negative thrust section function, aircraft reduces its speed slowly to facilitate the operation. There are also disadvantages of method 1. When the delayer of internal small throttle of engine operates inharmoniously, and different oil supplies in left and right engines, the negative thrusts of left and right differ from each other to produce yawing torque, which brings great difficulty in keeping flight altitude in floating, especially in the following condition: releasing the propeller stop of left and right sides at different time, or one side being released or two sides being released, etc. Close the throttle to pass locking pin, with large yawing torque and great negative thrust, and the aircraft may lower down quickly by reducing the speed. At that time, the speed is small with low efficiency of control surface, and the deviation cannot be controlled easily by feeding rudder. The lateral side of aircraft touches the ground, and the landing gear may be damaged by much lateral load. When the aircraft lowers down abruptly without holding the stick back immediately, the nosewheel may touch the ground at first. If the above situation occurs, close the throttle at once, and control the direction with rudder. The advantage of method 2 is that slow reducing speed, steady attitude and easy control. Even in small throttle delayer is inharmoniously or restrictor with trouble and other situations, the aircraft can easily be corrected after touching the ground. But, negative thrust is produced late and floating distance and landing run distance are long, thus, it is not suitable to airport with short runway. In emergency, in order to shorten the distance of floating and landing run without away from runway, close the throttle to pass locking pin after grounding state is form in the rear section of floating. Meanwhile, release the stop. Hold the stick back in time to prevent the aircraft from lowering down abruptly with nosewheel contacting the ground.
  • 306. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-19 June 30, 2012 Cut off the engine after ground contact on situations Cut off the engine after ground contact, which is different from releasing the stop after ground contact. In that process, landing run distance cannot be shortened, but be prolonged. The negative thrust after ground contact changes as Figure 6-10. P (9.81N) 5 10 15 20 25 t (s) 500 1000 1500 2000 1 2 3 Curve 1, at 0o throttle, the negative thrust without releasing the stop; Curve 2, at 0o throttle, the negative thrust with releasing the stop Curve 3, Negative pull after engine shutdown Figure 6-10 Variation curve of negative thrust with different time after ground contact In landing run, mean negative thrust is small after cutting off the engine (less than 0o throttle, and releasing the mean negative thrust stopped), thus, the sliding distance is longer. If restrictor has trouble not to release the stop after ground contact, cut off the engine. Large negative thrust shortens the landing run distance effectively.
  • 307. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-20 June 30, 2012 Prevent and correct the deflection when two engines in one side shutdown and land. If the shutdown engine is feathered in flight, the resistance of this engine is not big about 441~441lb (1960 ~2450N). At this moment, the thrust of operating engine produces yawing torque to force the shutdown engine to deviate to one side. The situation is different when closing the throttle to pass locking pin in landing especially after releasing the stop. Large negative thrust is produced by shutdown engine 3307~5511.5 lb (14700~24500N) to form yawing torque, forcing the aircraft to deviate to the side of operating engine. If wrong method is done by pilot, the aircraft may deviate abruptly and even be away from the runway. Closing the throttle and release the stop earlier with less short interval, the negative thrust and its yawing torque are large. Thus, in landing with two engines on one side shutdown, the following points should be paid attention to: (a) Sliding before landing, close the outboard throttle to small air throttle position, and try to use internal throttle to keep specified sliding speed. (b) Place the trim tab of rudder to central position to reduce the force of pushing on rudder of shutdown engine, when closing the throttle to pass the locking pin and releasing the stop. (c) After flareout, close the internal throttle softly to small air throttle position. Close the internal throttle to 0o position and release stop only after lowering down the nosewheel on ground contact with constant direction. Thus, negative thrust produced by operating engine and yawing torque are small in floating to keep the aircraft balance. After lowering down the nosewheel, close the internal throttle to pass the locking pin and release the stop, and the aircraft can deviate to one side of operating engine. Keep the correct direction by rudder control mechanism and use brake if necessary. (d) When rolling speed reduces to about 32.4kn (60km/h), draw out control handle of nosewheel, close outboard throttle to pass to pass the locking pin and release the stop, with correct direction. Because the speed is low, and nosewheel load increases, increasing the direction efficiency; thrust variation and its yawing torque are small after releasing the stop, which facilitates to keep the direction. The reasons for two engines shutdown landing on one side are as follows: on one hand, the negative thrust is small because of the shutdown engine feathering; on the other hand, on the other hand, the closing outboard throttle to pass to pass the locking pin and releasing the stop are late, and the negative thrust is produced late. Thus, mean negative thrust in landing is small, and the landing run distance is short, which should be paid attention to when landing in short runway. The landing run distance of two engines shutdown landing on one side is 4265~4921ft (1300~1500m).
  • 308. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-21 June 30, 2012 FUEL SYSTEM General The fuel system consists of the fuel supply system, vent system, and refueling and fuel drainage system. There are totally seven fuel tank groups 0, I, II, III, IV, V, and VI on aircraft wings, and there is a flexible fuel tank in the fuselage. The fuel supply system supports automatically-and manually-controlled fuel consumption modes. The fuel consumption sequence is as follows: I, fuselage fuel tank, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, 0, VI. When the flight altitude is below 13123.36 ft (4000 m) and the residual fuel in the fuel supply tank is more than half of its capacity, the gravity fuel supply capability is available. Fuel tank group 0 and fuselage fuel tank do not directly supply fuel to engines; instead, fuel in fuel tank group 0 and fuselage fuel tank is delivered to fuel tank groups VI and I, which in turn supply fuel to engines. The tank vent system is an open vent system. Each group of fuel tanks communicates with the air to balance the pressure inside and outside fuel tanks. In this way, vacuity will not be produced inside the fuel tank, ensuring that the fuel tank can supply fuel properly. This can also prevent fuel tanks and fuel compartment from being damaged due to excessively large difference between pressure inside and outside the fuel tank. Fuel tank group 0 has an independent vent system, whereas vent systems of fuel tank groups I~VI and the fuselage fuel tank are communicate with each other. The refueling system supports pressure refueling and gravity refueling. The pressure refueling system can be further divided into automatic and manual pressure refueling systems. The pressure refueling sequence is as follows: fuel tank groups VI, V, IV, III, II, I, and 0. Manual pressure refueling of the fuselage fuel tank is performed independently. The fuel drainage system supports pressure draining and gravity draining.
  • 309. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-22 June 30, 2012 The fuel designation of the fuel system is listed in Table 6-2. Table 6-2 Country Designation Technical Specification Freezing Point China RP-3 GB 6537 -52.6°F(-47o C) RP-2 SY1006 -58°F(-50o C) RP-1 GB438 -76°F(-60o C) U.S.A JP-1 MIL-F-5616 -76°F(-60o C) JP-4 MIL-J-5624D -67°F(-55o C) JP-5 MIL-E-7142 -50.8°F(-46o C) Britain JP-1B DERD-2482 -40°F(-40o C) JP-4B DERD-2486 -40°F(-40o C) JP-5B DERD-2488 -40°F(-40o C) Russia T-1 ГОСТ10227-86 -76°F(-60o C) TC-1 ГОСТ10227-86 -76°F(-60o C) T-2 ГОСТ10227-86 -76°F(-60o C) PT ГОСТ10227-86 -67°F(-55o C) Others ATF-650 AT-150 JETA-1 Note 1) Fuel with the freezing point at -40o F (-40o C) can be used only when the local temperature is not lower than 14o F (-10o C) 2) International principle for fuel substitute: The substitute can be used if main physical and chemical specifications (distillation range, viscosity, and freezing point) are similar.
  • 310. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-23 June 30, 2012 The number, capacity, and refueling quantity of each fuel tank are listed in Table 6-3. Table 6-3 Fuel Tank Group Fuel Tank No. Fuel Tank Capacity Manual Refueling Quantity Pressure Refueling Quantity Unusable Fuel gal(L) lb(kg) gal(L) lb(kg) gal(L) lb(kg) gal(L) lb(kg) Group 0 Structura l fuel tank 2×337.20 (2×1533) 2×2109.69 (2×1188) 2×316.53 2×1439 2×2458.15 2×1115 2×282.65 (2×1285) 2×2195.80 (2×996) 0 0 Group I (left group) 1# and 2# 460.16 (2092) 3573.69 (1621) 441.24 (2006) 3428.18 (1555) 397.69 (1808) 3088.67 (1401) 5.65 -25.7 44.09 -20 Group I (right group) 1# and 2# 494.47 (2248) 3840.45 (1742) 481.06 (2187) 3736.83 (1695) 432.01 (1964) 3355.43 (1522) 9.41 -42.8 72.75 -33 Group II 3# 2×216 (2×982) 2×1677.72 (2×761) 2×209.02 (2×953) 2×1629.21 (2×739) 2×191.81 (2×872) 2×1490.32 (2×676) 2×1.43 (2×6.5) 2×11.02 (2×5) Group III 6# and 7# 2×280.23 (2×1274) 2×2178.16 (2×988) 2×271.87 (2×1236) 2×2112.03 (2×958) 2×243.94 (2×1109) 2×1973.13 (2×859) 2×1.54 (2×7) 2×11.02 (2×5) Group IV 8#, 9#, and 10# 2×332.14 (2×1510) 2×2579.41 (2×1170) 2×323.42 (2×1484) 2×2535.31 (2×1150) 2×296.29 (2×1347) 2×2031.62 (2×1044) 2×21.23 (2×96.5) 2×165.35 (2×75) Group V 11#, 12#, and 13# 2×206.10 (2×937) 2×1600.55 (2×726) 2×204.12 (2×928) 2×1585.12 (2×719) 2×179.05 (2×814) 2×1319.12 (2×631) 2×2.46 (2×11.2) 2×19.84 (2×9) Group VI 4# and 5# 2×351.94 (2×1600) 2×2733.73 (2×1240) 2×341.82 (2×1554) 2×2654.36 (2×1204) 2×311.03 (2×1414) 2×2416.26 (2×1096) 2×20.81 (2×94.6) 2×160.94 (2×73) Fuselage group 16# 692.88 (3150) 5381.48 (2441) 671.98 -3055 5220.54 -2368 624.47 (2839) 4850.16 (2200) 2.2 -10 17.09 -7.75 Total fuel quantity 5094.76 -23162 39572.93 -17950 4935.07 -22436 38333.93 -17388 4463.69 (20293) 33679.98 (15727) 112.18 (510) 870.82 -395 Note 1) In Table 2, the pressure refueling quantity is obtained when aircraft is with an angle of attack of 2.5o . 2) Data in Table 2 is obtained when the fuel specific weight (ρ) is 7.77 lb/gal (0.775 kg/L).
  • 311. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-24 June 30, 2012 The fuel pump operating data is listed Table 6-4 Table 6-4 Fuel pump operating data Item psi (MPa) Allowable seepage of excessive fuel pipe Primary fuel pump (CB-55) Maximum: 1564.56 (10.78) When the safety valve is opened: 1849.03+71.12 0 (12.74+0.49 0 ) When the safety valve is completely opened: 2257.73 (15.68) Not more than one drop per min Auxiliary fuel pump (XB-36H) 35.56+7.11 0 (0.245+0.049 0 ) Not more than 1.83×10-5 gal/min (5cm3 /h) Fuel pump (LB-22) When the fuel supply quantity is 0:Low-pressure state: not higher than 9.67 (0.067), Rated state: not higher than 18.49 (0.127), High-pressure state: not higher than 25.60 (0.177) When the fuel supply quantity is 14.66 gal/min (4000 L/h): Low-pressure state: not higher than 5.69 (0.039), Rated state: not higher than 12.09 (0.083) In the high-pressure state, when the fuel supply quantity is 7.33 gal/min (2000 L/h), the operating pressure is at least 17.79 (0.123). When the operating fluid temperature is higher than -40o F (-40o C): not more than 1.83×10-6 gal/min (0.5cm3 /h). When the operating fluid temperature is lower than -40o F (-40o C): not more than two drops per minute. Under normal temperature or non-operating state: leakage not allowed. Fuel pump (LB-21) When the fuel supply quantity is 14.66 gal/min (4000 L/h), the operating pressure is at least 14.66 gal/min (4000 L/h). When the operating fluid temperature is below -31o F (-35o C): not more than two drops per minute. When the operating fluid temperature is above -31o F (-35o C): not more than 1.83×10-6 gal/min (0.5cm3 /h). Non-operating state: leakage not allowed.
  • 312. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-25 June 30, 2012 Aircraft refueling and fuel drainage Refueling (a) Before refueling, check that (1) The refueling truck has a laboratory sheet and fuel is qualified. (2) The deposit drained out of the refueling truck has no water, ice crystal, and mechanical impurity. (3) The lead sealing on the refueling truck is intact. (4) The doper net filter is clean. (5) Fire extinguishing devices are placed near aircraft. (6) Pipelines are unblocked and clean (Take down blockages at air vents of fuel tanks.) (b) Connect grounding wires for the refueling truck, doper, and aircraft. (c) Perform parking brake and place wheel chocks. (d) Determine the refueling quantity required by a flight task, and specify the fuel tanks that need to be filled up and those that need partial refueling. (e) Manual refueling is implemented as follows: Use the doper to fill fuel into each fuel tank on the upper side of the aircraft wing through the refueling filler on each fuel tank. The refueling sequence is opposite to the fuel consumption sequence. To save time, refueling can also be implemented in the following sequence: left VI, V: right VI, V, IV, III; left IV, III, II, I; right II, I, 0; left group 0; or in the opposite sequence, starting from right. If two refueling trucks are used, left and right wing fuel tanks can be refueled simultaneously. The maximum refueling quantity of fuel that can be filled through the refueling filler on the fuel tank on the upper side of the aircraft wing can reach 97% of the total fuel tank capacity. Fill fuel into the fuselage fuel tank through the manual refueling filler at the tail of the right landing gear nacelle. Note During manual refueling through the refueling filler on the fuel tank on the upper side of the aircraft, note that the fuel expansion space should be left between the fuel level and the refueling edge, preventing fuel from flowing out of the outer surface of the fuel tank.
  • 313. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-26 June 30, 2012 (f) Automatic pressure refueling is implemented by the refueling controller, which implements refueling in the sequence of groups VI, V, IV, III, II, I, and 0. After one group of fuel tanks is filled up, refueling of another group of fuel tank starts. Fuel flows into pipelines on the aircraft through the pressure refueling union from the fuel pump in the refueling truck, and then into the fuel tank through the refueling valve and float valve. When the refueling pressure is higher than 2.13 psi (0.15 kg•f/cm2 ), the green light on the refueling power distribution box (PDB) illuminates, indicating that the refueling pressure is normal. When the refueling pressure is higher than 49.78 psi (3.5 kg•f/cm2 ), the red light on the refueling PDB illuminates, indicating refueling overpressure. In this case, refueling should be stopped immediately. During refueling, when the pressure of fuel tank group 0 is higher than 1.71 psi (0.12 kg•f/cm2 ), the corresponding red light on the refueling PDB illuminates. In this case, refueling should be stopped immediately. (g) If the automatic control system is operating abnormally, aircraft refueling can be implemented by means of manual pressure refueling. During manual refueling, turn off the automatic refueling valve first. Then, use the manual refueling valve to control the opening and closing of the refueling valve. All refueling valves can be turned on simultaneously, or the refueling valve for a fuel tank group can be turned on independently. Refueling must be performed in the specified sequence. During refueling to fuel tank group VI, turn electrical fuel valve RDK-1A first. Then, turn on the pressure refueling valve and fuel supply pump of fuel tank group V. After the fuel tank is filled up, turn off the fuel supply pump of fuel tank group V first, and then turn off the electrical fuel valve. Manual pressure refueling to the fuselage fuel tank is implemented by the refueling PDB on the fuselage fuel tank independently. During refueling, turn on refuel valves on two fuselage fuel tank groups manually (the blue light is off). After fuel tanks are filled up, both the blue and yellow signal lights illuminate. If there is no need to fill up fuel tanks, stop refueling when the required fuel quantity is reached. Turn off the refueling valves (the blue light illuminates). After refueling, drain out fuel in the refueling pipeline of the fuselage fuel tank through the fuel drainage valve on the refueling pipeline. (h) Refueling precautions (1) The refueling sequence is opposite to the fuel consumption sequence. Refueling must be performed in the specified sequence. Fuel quantities in left and right wing fuel tanks should be balanced. (2) During pressure refueling, if the red signal light on the pressure refueling PDB illuminates or fuel cannot be filled in, refueling should be stopped. (3) After refueling, turn off the power switch on the pressure refueling PDB.
  • 314. JZ-Y8F200W-02 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL SECTION VI AIRCRAFT SYSTEM EQUIPMENT 6-27 June 30, 2012 Fuel drainage Before fuel drainage, connect the grounding jumper and take down the vent blockage. Partia