Eu and uk institutions [1]
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PPT Presentation By LDr Liza Gorman for PS 5 Law Manchester University ULC 2012

PPT Presentation By LDr Liza Gorman for PS 5 Law Manchester University ULC 2012

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Eu and uk institutions [1] Presentation Transcript

  • 1. European and UK Legal Institutions5 September 2012Dr Liza Lovdahl GormsenLiza.lovdahlgormsen@manchester.ac.uk 1
  • 2. Members of the EU• The Union has 27 ‘Member States’; six that formed the Community and the rest that joined according to the following time line:• 1957: France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg;• 1973: United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark (Greenland left in 1985);• 1981: Greece;• 1986: Spain and Portugal;• 1995: Sweden, Finland, and Austria;• 2004: Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus;• 2007: Bulgaria and Romania. 2
  • 3. Institutions I1) The Commission2) The Council of Ministers of Europe3) The Parliament4) The Court of Justice/the General Court5) The European Council6) The European Central Bank7) The Court of Auditors 3
  • 4. Institutions II• Economic and Social Committee• Committee of the Regions• Committee of Permanent Representatives of the MS• European Investment Bank• Agencies• Ombudsman 4
  • 5. The European Commission• The central institution within the EU system.• Commissioners appointed by MS for 5 years period.• 1 Commissioner per MS (possibility of reappointment).• From 2014 onwards: rotation of 2/3 of MS.• Commissioners chosen for competence and act independently.• DG structure / Managing powers belong to President of Commission. 5
  • 6. Functions• Initiate legislation + policies• Supervise abidance to Treaties and EU legislation by MS and national agencies• Execute the budget and decisions, conduct external relations, and implement policies decided by Council.• Investigate and decide in fields of competence• Negotiate agreements later concluded by Council 6
  • 7. Council of Ministers of Europe• Constituted by MS representatives at ministerial level.• Presidency rotates through MS every six months.• Sets agenda of meetings + can develop policies.• Meets under different configurations, depending on topic. 7
  • 8. Functions• To ensure that the objectives set out in the Treaties are attained the Council: – exercises legislative and budgetary functions; – takes decisions and makes recommendations; – may delegate legislative power to the Commission• Coordinate all EU policies• Decide rules 8
  • 9. The European Parliament•1957: Non-democratic Assembly – Members of national parliaments (dual mandate).•1979: Introduction of direct elections + increased democracy.•2009: 736 MEPs with 5 years mandates.•Functions: From advisory and supervisory to consultative,investigatory and decisional. 9
  • 10. Country MEPs (EU-27)• Belgium 22• Bulgaria 17• Czech Rep 22• Denmark 13• Germany 99• Estonia 6• Ireland 12• Greece 22• Spain 50• France 72• Italy 72• Cyprus 6• Latvia 8• Lithuania 12• Luxembourg 6 10
  • 11. Country MEPs (EU-27)• Hungary 22• Malta 5• Holland 25• Austria 17• Poland 50• Portugal 22• Romania 33• Slovenia 7• Slovakia 13• Finland 13• Sweden 18• UK 72 11
  • 12. The Court of Justice• 1 Judge / MS, assisted by an Advocates-General.• Highly competent and independent.• Six-year terms, possible reappointment.• Plenary (13) or Chambers (3 or 5). 12
  • 13. The General Court• Created in 1988.• General competence with TL.• Appeals to the Court of Justice.• http://curia.europa.eu/.• Provides all the Courts’ cases including pending, recent case law and the Opinions of the Advocate Generals. 13
  • 14. Useful Web Sites• The European Union Official Web Site http://europa.eu./• Council of the European Union http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.ASP?lang=en• European Commission http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm• European Parliament http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/default_en.htm• Court of Justice/General Court http://curia.europa.eu/• Eur-Lex http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/index.htm 14
  • 15. UK Institutions• The UK (England, Wales, Scotland and N. Ireland) does not have a unified judicial system.• There is one system for England and Wales, another for Scotland, and a third for N. Ireland. 15
  • 16. Appeal Courts England and Wales• Magistrates’ Court• Country Courts (220)• High Court - divisional courts • Queen’s bench (appeal of criminal cases from the Magistrates Court) • Chancery divisional court (land, probate, tax, bankruptcy) • Family divisional court• The court of appeal – civil division• Magistrates’ court• Coroners’ courts (1194)• The Crown Court (class 1-4 offences)• The Criminal Court• The court of appeal – criminal division 16
  • 17. The Supreme Court• The highest court is the Supreme Court of the UK created by Act in 2005 and began work in 2009.• It is the highest court in all matters under English law, N. Irish law and Scottish civil law.• It is the court of last resort except for criminal cases in Scotland which remains with the High Court of Justiciary (supreme criminal court of Scotland).• The court consists of 12 judges (Lords). 17
  • 18. Useful Web Sites• The Lords of the Supreme Court: http://www.supremecourt.gov.uk/about/biographies.html• Q & A on the Supreme Courthttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8283967.stm 18