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WHAT IS RADIATION?

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WHAT IS RADIATION? WHAT IS RADIATION? Presentation Transcript

  • WHAT IS RADIATION? Radiation is the transmission of energy by means of: Waves Particles William Hill American Nuclear Society
  • ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF HELIUM Mass Number: the total number of protons and neutrons 4 Atomic Number: 2 He the total number of protons
  • Proton, Neutron, Electrons • Protons: large mass, positive charge. The number of protons identifies an element • Neutrons: large mass, approx. equal to proton mass. No charge • Electrons: small mass, negative charge. Electrons travel outside of nucleus.
  • Classification of RADIATION Non-Ionizing Ionizing Visible Light High energy UV Microwaves X-rays Radio Waves Energetic Atoms
  • WHAT IS IONIZATION Removes Electrons + + Ionizing Radiation In the form of particles and waves
  • Types of Ionizing Radiation +n Alpha Particles α n + Beta Particles β e- Gamma rays γ
  • Ionizing Radiation α β γ Paper Aluminum Foil Lead
  • What is RADIOACTIVITY? Energy Release Emits radiation in the form of particles and waves
  • Units of “Activity” • Activity - RATE - number of emissions (of radiation) per unit time • dps - disintegrations per second • Bequerel = 1 dps • Curie = 37,000,000,000 dps • picocurie = 0.037 dps
  • HALF-LIFE 100 90 Initial Activity 80 70 60 50 40 Decrease in Amount of 30 Radiation with Time 20 % of Radioactivity 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Number of Half Lives
  • Source and Doses of Radiation 3% Rocks and Soil 15% (228 mrem) Cosmic (27) 11% Body (40) 63% Medical (53) 8% Consumer (10)
  • Personal Radiation Dose • Elevation – Up to 1000 ft Add 2 mrem – 2-3000 ft Add 9 mrem – 4-5000 ft Add 21 mrem – 6-7000 ft Add 40 mrem – 8-9000 ft Add 70 mrem
  • Personal Radiation Dose • Cosmic Radiation 26 mrem • Food and Water 40 mrem • Radon 200 mrem • Elevation xxxx • TOTAL ~350 mrem
  • Geiger Counter
  • Geiger Counters • Detects Ionizing Radiation • Check Batteries • 0-0.5 mr/hr (x 1 scale) • 0-5 mr/hr (x10 scale) • 0-50 mr/hr (x100scale) • Beta Shield
  • Nuclear Power Worldwide • US 103 • France 75% • France 59 • Lithuania 73% • Japan 53 • Belgium 57% • UK 35 • Bulgaria 47% • Russia 29 • Slovak 47% • Germany 20 • Sweden 47% • Ukraine 16 • Ukraine 44% • Canada 14 • South Korea 43%
  • Nuclear Medicine • An estimated 10-12 million nuclear medicine imaging and thearpeutic procedures are performed each year in the US • Nuclear medicine is safe and cost- effective and Saves Lives
  • Nuclear Medicine • There are 100 different nuclear medicine procedures available • The amount of radiation received is comparable to that received during a diagnostic x-ray • Painless
  • Nuclear Medicine • Neurological – Diagnose stroke, Alzheimer’s Disease • Oncology – Tumor Location, metastatic sites, response to therapy • Orthopedics – Identify occult bone trauma, evaluate arthritis changes and extent
  • Nuclear Medicine • Cardiac – Corornary artery disease, identify shunts, diagnose and localize acute heart attacks before enzyme changes • Pulmonary – Quantify lung ventilation and profusion