WHAT IS RADIATION?

1,182 views
1,097 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,182
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
79
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

WHAT IS RADIATION?

  1. 1. WHAT IS RADIATION? Radiation is the transmission of energy by means of: Waves Particles William Hill American Nuclear Society
  2. 2. ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF HELIUM He Mass Number: the total number of protons and neutrons Atomic Number: the total number of protons 4 2
  3. 3. Proton, Neutron, Electrons • Protons: large mass, positive charge. The number of protons identifies an element • Neutrons: large mass, approx. equal to proton mass. No charge • Electrons: small mass, negative charge. Electrons travel outside of nucleus.
  4. 4. Classification of RADIATION Non-Ionizing Visible Light Microwaves Radio Waves Ionizing High energy UV X-rays Energetic Atoms
  5. 5. WHAT IS IONIZATION + + Removes Electrons Ionizing Radiation In the form of particles and waves
  6. 6. Types of Ionizing Radiation Alpha Particles α Gamma rays γ Beta Particles β + + e- n n
  7. 7. Ionizing Radiation α β γ Paper Aluminum Foil Lead
  8. 8. What is RADIOACTIVITY? Energy Release Emits radiation in the form of particles and waves
  9. 9. Units of “Activity” • Activity - RATE - number of emissions (of radiation) per unit time • dps - disintegrations per second • Bequerel = 1 dps • Curie = 37,000,000,000 dps • picocurie = 0.037 dps
  10. 10. HALF-LIFE Number of Half Lives 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 %ofRadioactivity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial Activity Decrease in Amount of Radiation with Time
  11. 11. Source and Doses of Radiation 3% 15% 11% 8% 63% Rocks and Soil (228 mrem) Cosmic (27) Body (40) Medical (53) Consumer (10)
  12. 12. Personal Radiation Dose • Elevation –Up to 1000 ft Add 2 mrem –2-3000 ft Add 9 mrem –4-5000 ft Add 21 mrem –6-7000 ft Add 40 mrem –8-9000 ft Add 70 mrem
  13. 13. Personal Radiation Dose • Cosmic Radiation 26 mrem • Food and Water 40 mrem • Radon 200 mrem • Elevation xxxx • TOTAL ~350 mrem
  14. 14. Geiger Counter
  15. 15. Geiger Counters • Detects Ionizing Radiation • Check Batteries • 0-0.5 mr/hr (x 1 scale) • 0-5 mr/hr (x10 scale) • 0-50 mr/hr (x100scale) • Beta Shield
  16. 16. Nuclear Power Worldwide • US 103 • France 59 • Japan 53 • UK 35 • Russia 29 • Germany 20 • Ukraine 16 • Canada 14 • France 75% • Lithuania 73% • Belgium 57% • Bulgaria 47% • Slovak 47% • Sweden 47% • Ukraine 44% • South Korea 43%
  17. 17. Nuclear Medicine • An estimated 10-12 million nuclear medicine imaging and thearpeutic procedures are performed each year in the US • Nuclear medicine is safe and cost- effective and Saves Lives
  18. 18. Nuclear Medicine • There are 100 different nuclear medicine procedures available • The amount of radiation received is comparable to that received during a diagnostic x-ray • Painless
  19. 19. Nuclear Medicine • Neurological –Diagnose stroke, Alzheimer’s Disease • Oncology –Tumor Location, metastatic sites, response to therapy • Orthopedics –Identify occult bone trauma, evaluate arthritis changes and extent
  20. 20. Nuclear Medicine • Cardiac –Corornary artery disease, identify shunts, diagnose and localize acute heart attacks before enzyme changes • Pulmonary –Quantify lung ventilation and profusion

×