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  • 1. THE 8 th NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Nha Trang, 20-22 August 2009 nuclear energy Applications In viet Nam Prof. Dr. Vuong Huu Tan President Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute
  • 2. contents
    • Radiation Application
    • Research and Development of Nuclear Power
    • Forthcoming Activities
    • Conclusions
  • 3. 1. Radiation Application
    • 1.1. In Medicine
      • Producing radioisotopes at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Every year supply about 150 –200 Ci with more 20 radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals, which are mainly I-131, P-32, Cr-51, and Tc-99m.
      • Recently the Cyclotron Centers of Cho Ray and 108 Hospitals have produced radioisotopes for PET and SPECT.
      • Current demand : about 300-400 Ci. Ir-192 and Co-60 for radiotherapy: completely imported around 1000 Ci/year
    Production of Radioisotopes at Dalat NRR Tc-99m Generator
  • 4. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • Radiotherapy
    • 20 radio-therapy facilities
    • Radio-therapy equipment: 15 Co-60 sources, 11 LINAC, 10 brachytherapy machines, 2 gamma knifes, 1 cyber knife vµ 12 simulators;
    • About 20.000 cancer patients are terated by radiotherapy annually;
    • Manpower in radiotherapy facilities: 2000 people;
    • Screening for early detection of cancers has been premarily applied for cervix, breast cancer in some provinces and cities.
    Maintenance of Co-60 Radiotherapy machine at K Hospital
  • 5. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • Nuclear medicine
    • Totally there are 25 nuclear medicine facilities;
    • Equipment: about 20 machines for diagnosis such as gamma scanners, gamma cameras, SPECT, SPECT/CT. However, only about 10 of them are in operation. 3 PET/CT machines have been recently included;
    • Such equipment and machines have been used for diagnosis of various diseases: cardiovascular, endocrine, neutrological, digestive diseases, cancers etc.;
    • Treatment forThyroid gland cancer;
    • Annually, about 500,000 patients are diagnosed and 50,000 patients are treated by nuclear medicine techniques.
  • 6. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • X-rays
    • The system for X-rays departments have been established from central to district hospitals
    • Challenges:
    • - Lack of equipment, especially Xray machine for intervention treatment. Most of equipment, if availabl, is old. Many provicial hospitals have no Computerised Tomography (CT-scanners, colour untrasound scanners, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines.
    • - Difficulties in manpower training and standardization
    • - The managing system is not performing well due to the lack of a national network of X-rays Facilities from the State-level to regional and hospital level.
    • Localization of products and equipment
    • Localization of products and equipment for promotion of radiation application have been at preleminary stage.
    • Some products and equipment have recently been technologically transfered to Vietnam such as brachytherapy machines, membrance for burn tratment, equipment for diagnosis and treatment using lazer and MRI technology;
    • Radiation Sterilization Technique has not yet been applied for medical products and instruments.
  • 7. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • 1.2. In Bio-agriculture
    • During the past 30 years, 50 new plant species of rice, soybean, peanuts, tomato, chrysanthemum and apple, of which there are 32 new varieties of rice and 10 new varieties of soybeans. Vietnam ranks the 9 th in the world in the field of mutation breeding. VN-95-20 grown on 0.3ha/y is one of 5 main rice variety for exportation. The three main soybean varieties of DT84, DT99, DT96 have been occupied on 50% soybean cultivation area.
    • Application of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been tried in controlling species of fruit flies for safe vegetable production ;
    • Radioisotope Trace Technique has been applied to study optimal use of water and fertilizers.
  • 8. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
      • Radiation measurements of Cs-137, Be-7 vµ Pb-210 have been applied to estimate soil erosion and investigate the raising of the base level of lakes;
      • Some plant growth promoters and plant protectors have been produced by application of radiation technology
      • Irradiation technique has been studied and applied for food preservation and quarantine treatment.
    Nghiªn cøu båi l¾ng t¹i cöa s«ng Using Micro-fertilizer for Green Tea Plants
  • 9. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • 1.3. In industries and others
      • NDT Techniques have been used in in testing and evaluation of projects, equipment systems (pipe, boiler, ship, etc), inspection of goods for ensuring security at the border gates;
      • At present, the application of NDT techniques has become obligatory for certain construction and transportation projects.
    Detecting concrete defects at Mü ThuËn Bridge Construction Site
  • 10. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
      • Automatic Nuclear Control Techniques have been used in controlling production line to measure the level of liquid in the beverage containers, measure the thickness of materials in the plastics, paper, corrugated iron factories etc. Nuclear techniques are also used for quality control in glass, cement factories etc.
      • Nuclear Logging and Nuclear Downhole Tools have been applied to investigate lithology, porosity, natural radioactivity and reservoir fluids for oil exploration and exploitation.
  • 11. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
      • Radioisotope Tracer Technique has been used for optimizing technological processes in many factories and manufacturing procedures.
      • Recently, this technique has been effectively applied in oil industry for mine surveys and investigation of water movement to increase oil recovery efficiency by optimizing the exploitation process.
    Application of TRACER Technique at Bach Ho Oil-well
  • 12. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
      • Although the economic scale of radiation technology is 90% in the world, its application in Vietnam is still very limited. There are only 4 irradiation facilities of industrial scale.
      • Equipment manufacture for promoting applications of radiation technology is almost unavailable.
  • 13. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • 1.4. In Geology, Hydrology and Environment
      • Survey, Exploration and Evaluation of mineral resources using carota techniques, nuclear analytical techniques and ®o x¹ hµng kh«ng, ..
      • Evaluation of reserves, ages, origin, pollution, salification of ground water in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi and some Southern provinces in Vietnam l ­îng bæ cÊp
      • Investigation of the water penetration through dams for evaluation the safety of dams;
      • Setting up the radiological environmental monitoring network: 3 national stations to make regular monitoring of radiation environment; set up the database on natural radiation environment
      • Study on environmental pollution using nuclear analytical techniques and Tracer technique.
  • 14. 1. Radiation Application ( cont’d)
    • 1.5. Remarks on radiation application in Vietnam
      • Radiation application have been widely developed in various areas;
      • Still at low level and low efficiency, not responding to the potential and the needs;
      • Therefore, on 3rd January 2006, the Prime Minister approved ”The Strategy for Peaceful Utilizations of Atomic Energy up to 2020”, which mentioned the objectives for promoting, expanding and improving the efficiency of radiation application in service of socio-economic development.
  • 15. 2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power ( cont’d)
    • 2.1. Main Achievements
      • To confirm the necessity and feasibility of nuclear power development in Vietnam;
      • To convincingly argue for the necessity of the introduction of nuclear power into Vietnam based on the factors:
      • - prim ary energy sources do not meet the demands;
      • - difficulities in importing energy;
      • - diversification of energy sources to ensure energy security;
      • - reducing the use of fossil fuels, especially coal for environmental protection;
      • -strengthening national capability of nuclear science and technology .
  • 16. 2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power (cont’d)
      • Confirmed that Vietnam has uranium resources. Howver, further investigations are required to build the policies for commercial exploitation of uranium resources.
      • Established international cooperative relationships in the field of nuclear power;
      • Regularly and effectively conducted public information activities for nuclear power;
      • Set up and implemented nuclear education and training program. Primarily trained some key staffs who can undertake important tasks in the Program for nuclear power development.
  • 17. 2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power ( cont’d)
      • The results of Pre-FS have shown that the first NPP in Vietnam may be put in operation in 2020, 2025 or 2030, depending on the scenarios of electricity demands (high, medium or basic scenarior)
      • According to basic scenario, total capacity of nuclear power in 2025 will be 4,000 MW (4.4% total electricity capacity) and in 2030 will be 10.000 MW (8% total electricity capacity)
      • 1 st NPP Site Selection: 2 candidate sites have been selected in Phuoc Dinh and Vinh H¶i, Ninh ThuËn Province with 4 units, 1,000 MW each;
      • 10 potential sites have primarily been selected for future NPPs
  • 18.
    • Some potential sites for NPPs
    May 2009 Ky Xuan (Ha Tinh) Hoai My (Binh Dinh) Xuan Phuong (Phu Yen) Binh Tien (Ninh Thuan) Vinh Hai (Ninh Thuan) Phuoc Dinh (Ninh Thuan) Vinh Linh (Quang Tri) Hon Dat (Kien Giang) Duc Chanh (Quang Ngai) Duc Thang (Quang Ngai)
  • 19. 2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power ( cont’d)
    • 2.2. Project on 1 st NPP in Ninh Thuan
      • The Projec Ninh ThuËn 1 (Ph­íc Dinh consists of 2 subprojects: NPP Ninh Thuan 1 in Phuoc Dinh and NPP Ninh Thuan 2 in Vinh Hai; Total capacity: 4,000 MW; capacity of each unit is 2,000 MW
      • Technology: PWR
      • Investment Report (FS Report) on Ninh Thuan NPP was approved by the State Council for Appraisal in July 2009;
      • The Government planned to submit to the National Assembly (NA) in its coming meeting in October 2009;
      • After approved by the NA, the FS will be implemented in 2-3 years;
      • The owner submit application for permits in 2012-2013.
      • Bidding and signing the EPC Contract (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) in 2013-2014.
      • Start construction in 2015-2016
  • 20.
    • Ninh Thuan 1 NPP
      • Phuoc Dinh Commune
      • Ninh Phuoc District
    • Ninh Thuan NPP 2
      • Vinh Hai Commune
      • Ninh Hai District
    2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power ( cont’d) Vinh Hai Phuoc Dinh
  • 21. 3. Forthcoming activities
      • Based on the following documents:
      • Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy up to 2020
      • Master Plan for Implementation of the Strategy
      • Atomic Energy Law
      • Completing legal documents and regulatory framework
      • Decree on guiding the implementation of the Atomic Energy Law formulated by the MOST will be issued by October 2009;
      • Decree on punishment for administrative offending formulated by the MOST will be issued in 2009;
      • Decree on NPPs formulated by MOIT will be issued by October 2009
  • 22. 3. Forthcoming activities (cont’d )
      • The Decision of the Prime Minister on the Establishment of Atomic Energy Council and Nuclear Safety Council, Compensation Fund for Nuclear Accidents, Regulations for Nuclear Inspection, establishment of National Radiological Environment Monitoring etc.
  • 23. 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d )
      • Implementation of the Strategy
        • Setting up the Master Plans for development of nuclear energy application up to 2020 to submit to the Prime Minister for approval by October 2009;
        • Setting up the Detailed Plan, including Plan for NPPs to submit to the Prime Minister for approval by October 2009
  • 24. 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d )
      • Detailed Plannings consist of:
        • Plan for development of radiation applications in medicine;
        • Plan for development of radiation applications in agriculture;
        • Plan for development of radiation applications in industry;
        • Plan for development of radiation applications in natural resources and environment
        • Plan for development of nuclear power.
  • 25. 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d )
      • Detailed Projects and Programs
        • 6. Project on perfecting legal system, organisational system, strengthening capability of research and development and technical support, ensuring nuclear safety, security and safeguard;
        • 7. Nuclear Human Resource Development Program
      • Programs/Projects under formulation
        • Program on Scientific Research and Technology Development;
        • Project on Development of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute;
        • Project on Strengthening Capability of Technical Support.
  • 26. 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d )
    • Programs/Projects under formulation
      • 4. Project on strengthening the organization of state management for development of nuclear energy applications;
      • 5. Project on strengthening national capability of ensuring radiation protection, security for radioactive sources and radioactive materials;
      • 6. Project on strengthening national capability of ensuring nuclear safety;
      • 7. Project on strengthening the organization of State Regulatory Body for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and Control;
      • 8. Project on formulating and perfecting legal and regulatory documents;
  • 27. 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d )
    • Programs/Projects under formulation
      • 9. Project on preparations for joining international treaties;
      • 10. Project on survey, evaluation and exploration of uranium resources;
      • 11. Project on deployment of security measures in the field of nuclear energy;
      • 12. Project on building capability of emergency preparedness and response to nuclear and radioactive incidents and accidents
      • 13. Project on planning and investment for big construction companies;
      • 14. Project on building National Military Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radio-therapy at 108 Hospital.
  • 28. 4. Conclusions
      • In the history of atomic energy development we have never had such advantageous conditions and opportunity for development like at present
      • The Atomic Energy Law was approved by the 12th National Assembly on the 3rd June 2008 and came into force in 1 January 2009, creating the legal basis for the consolidation and development of nuclear energy in Vietnam
      • The Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy up to 2020 approved by the Prime Minister in 2006 and the Master Plan for Implementation of the Strategy approved in 2007 have determined decisive policies for the research, development and application of atomic energy in Vietnam
  • 29. 4. Conclusions ( cont’d )
      • The development of nuclear power has shifted to pre-investment stage and gained more and more attention and direction from the state top level leaders. In 2009 the National Assembly will consider and approve the Project on Ninh Thuan NPP;
      • However, we have to encounter with a lot of challenges in terms of legal framework, human resources, potential of science and technology and management
  • 30. 4. Conclusions ( cont’d )
      • Therefore, great efforts have to be made by all concerned ministries and institutions and the whole society, especially by nuclear scientists, most of whom are present at this Conference;
      • International Cooperation has been playing a very important role in the development of nuclear energy in general, and in the developmentt of nuclear power in particular. With the policies of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, Vietnam will receive valuable and effective assistance and support from the world nuclear community, particularly the international scientists who are attending this Conference, in order to consolidate and sustainably develop nuclear energy in Vietnam.
  • 31. 4. Conclusions ( cont’d )
      • We do hope and believe that under the leadership of the Vietnam Communist Party and the Government of Vietnam, with the strong determination and willingness of the nuclear community, the valuable support and assistance of international colleagues and friends from all over the world, we will certainly be successfull in the implementation of the Strategy for Peaceful Utilizations of Nuclear Energy in Vietnam.
  • 32.
      • Thank you for your attention!