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  1. 1. THE 8th NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEARSCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY Nha Trang, 20-22 August 2009 nuclearenergy Applications In viet Nam Prof. Dr. Vuong Huu Tan President VietnamAtomic Energy Institute
  2. 2. 2 contents 1. Radiation Application 2. Research and Development of Nuclear Power 3. Forthcoming Activities 4. Conclusions
  3. 3. 3 1. Radiation Application 1.1. In Medicine Producing radioisotopes at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Every year supply about 150 –200 Ci with more 20 radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceuticals, which are mainly I-131, P-32, Cr-51, and Tc- 99m. Recently the Cyclotron Centers of Cho Ray and 108 Hospitals have produced radioisotopes forPET and SPECT. Current demand : about 300-400 Ci. Ir-192 and Co-60 for radiotherapy: completely imported around 1000 Ci/year Production of Radioisotopes at Dalat NRR Tc-99mGe ne rato r
  4. 4. 4 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Radiotherapy  20 radio-therapy facilities  Radio-therapy equipment: 15 Co-60 sources, 11 LINAC, 10 brachytherapy machines, 2 gamma knifes, 1 cyberknife vµ 12 simulators;  About 20.000 cancerpatients are terated by radiotherapy annually;  Manpowerin radiotherapy facilities: 2000 people;  Screening forearly detection of cancers has been premarily applied forcervix, breast cancerin some provinces and cities. Maintenanceof Co-60 Radiotherapymachineat K Hospital
  5. 5. 5 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Nuclearmedicine  Totally there are 25 nuclearmedicine facilities;  Equipment: about 20 machines fordiagnosis such as gamma scanners, gamma cameras, SPECT, SPECT/CT. However, only about 10 of themare in operation. 3 PET/CT machines have been recently included;  Such equipment and machines have been used for diagnosis of various diseases: cardiovascular, endocrine, neutrological, digestive diseases, cancers etc.;  Treatment forThyroid gland cancer;  Annually, about 500,000 patients are diagnosed and 50,000 patients are treated by nuclearmedicine techniques.
  6. 6. 6 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) X-rays  The systemforX-rays departments have been established fromcentral to district hospitals  Challenges: - Lackof equipment, especially Xray machine forintervention treatment. Most of equipment, if availabl, is old. Many provicial hospitals have no Computerised Tomography (CT-scanners, colouruntrasound scanners, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines. - Difficulties in manpowertraining and standardization - The managing systemis not performing well due to the lackof a national networkof X-rays Facilities fromthe State-level to regional and hospital level. Localization of products and equipment  Localization of products and equipment forpromotion of radiation application have been at preleminary stage.  Some products and equipment have recently been technologically transfered to Vietnamsuch as brachytherapy machines, membrance for burn tratment, equipment fordiagnosis and treatment using lazerand MRI technology;  Radiation Sterilization Technique has not yet been applied formedical products and instruments.
  7. 7. 7 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) 1.2. In Bio-agriculture - During the past 30 years, 50 new plant species of rice, soybean, peanuts, tomato, chrysanthemum and apple, of which there are 32 new varieties of rice and 10 new varieties of soybeans. Vietnamranks the 9th in the world in the field of mutation breeding. VN-95-20 grown on 0.3ha/y is one of 5 main rice variety forexportation. The three main soybean varieties of DT84, DT99, DT96 have been occupied on 50% soybean cultivation area. - Application of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been tried in controlling species of fruit flies forsafevegetable production; - Radioisotope Trace Technique has been applied to study optimal use of waterand fertilizers.
  8. 8. 8 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Radiation measurements of Cs-137, Be-7 vµ Pb-210 have been applied to estimate soil erosion and investigate the raising of the base level of lakes; Some plant growth promoters and plant protectors have been produced by application of radiation technology Irradiation technique has been studied and applied for food preservation and quarantine treatment. Nghiªncøubåi l¾ngt¹i cöas«ng Using Micro-fertilizer for Green Tea Plants
  9. 9. 9 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) 1.3. In industries and others NDT Techniques have been used in in testing and evaluation of projects, equipment systems (pipe, boiler, ship, etc), inspection of goods forensuring security at the bordergates; At present, the application of NDT techniques has become obligatory forcertain construction and transportation projects. Detectingconcretedefects at MüThuËnBridge ConstructionSite
  10. 10. 10 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Automatic NuclearControl Techniques have been used in controlling production line to measure the level of liquid in the beverage containers, measure the thickness of materials in the plastics, paper, corrugated iron factories etc. Nucleartechniques are also used for quality control in glass, cement factories etc. NuclearLogging and NuclearDownhole Tools have been applied to investigate lithology, porosity, natural radioactivity and reservoirfluids foroil exploration and exploitation.
  11. 11. 11 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Radioisotope Tracer Technique has been used for optimizing technological processes in many factories and manufacturing procedures. Recently, this technique has been effectively applied in oil industry for mine surveys and investigation of water movement to increase oil recovery efficiency by optimizing the exploitation process. Application of TRACER Technique at Bach Ho Oil-well
  12. 12. 12 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) Although the economic scale of radiation technology is 90% in the world, its application in Vietnam is still very limited. There are only 4 irradiation facilities of industrial scale. Equipment manufacture forpromoting applications of radiation technology is almost unavailable.
  13. 13. 13 1. Radiation Application(cont’d) 1.4. In Geology, Hydrology and Environment Survey, Exploration and Evaluation of mineral resources using carota techniques, nuclearanalytical techniques and ®o x¹ hµng kh«ng, .. Evaluation of reserves, ages, origin, pollution, salification of ground waterin Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi and some Southern provinces in Vietnaml­îng bæ cÊp Investigation of the waterpenetration through dams for evaluation the safety of dams; Setting up the radiological environmental monitoring network: 3 national stations to make regularmonitoring of radiation environment; set up the database on natural radiation environment Study on environmental pollution using nuclearanalytical techniques and Tracertechnique.
  14. 14. 14 1. Radiation Application (cont’d) 1.5. Remarks on radiation application in Vietnam Radiation application have been widely developed in various areas; Still at low level and low efficiency, not responding to the potential and the needs; Therefore, on 3rd January 2006, the Prime Minister approved ”The Strategy forPeaceful Utilizations of Atomic Energy up to 2020”, which mentioned the objectives forpromoting, expanding and improving the efficiency of radiation application in service of socio- economic development.
  15. 15. 15 2. Research and Development of NuclearPower(cont’d) 2.1. Main Achievements To confirmthe necessity and feasibility of nuclearpowerdevelopment in Vietnam; To convincingly argue forthe necessity of the introduction of nuclear powerinto Vietnambased on the factors: - primary energy sources do not meet the demands; - difficulities in importing energy; - diversification of energy sources to ensure energy security; - reducing the use of fossil fuels, especially coal forenvironmental protection; -strengthening national capability of nuclearscience and technology.
  16. 16. 16 2. Research and Development of NuclearPower(cont’d) Confirmed that Vietnamhas uraniumresources. Howver, further investigations are required to build the policies forcommercial exploitation of uraniumresources. Established international cooperative relationships in the field of nuclearpower; Regularly and effectively conducted public information activities fornuclearpower; Set up and implemented nucleareducation and training program. Primarily trained some key staffs who can undertake important tasks in the Programfornuclearpowerdevelopment.
  17. 17. 17 2. Research and Development of NuclearPower(cont’d) The results of Pre-FS have shown that the first NPPin Vietnammay be put in operation in 2020, 2025 or2030, depending on the scenarios of electricity demands (high, mediumorbasic scenarior) According to basic scenario, total capacity of nuclearpower in 2025 will be 4,000 MW(4.4% total electricity capacity) and in 2030 will be 10.000 MW(8% total electricity capacity) 1st NPPSite Selection: 2 candidate sites have been selected in Phuoc Dinh and Vinh H¶i, Ninh ThuËn Province with 4 units, 1,000 MWeach; 10 potential sites have primarily been selected forfuture NPPs
  18. 18. 18 May 200918 Some potential sites for NPPs Ky Xuan (Ha Tinh) Hoai My (Binh Dinh) Xuan Phuong (Phu Yen) Binh Tien (Ninh Thuan) Vinh Hai (Ninh Thuan) Phuoc Dinh (Ninh Thuan) Vinh Linh (Quang Tri) Hon Dat (Kien Giang) Duc Chanh (Quang Ngai) Duc Thang (Quang Ngai)
  19. 19. 19 2. Research and Development of NuclearPower(cont’d) 2.2. Project on 1st NPPin Ninh Thuan The Projec Ninh ThuËn 1 (Ph­íc Dinh consists of 2 subprojects: NPPNinh Thuan 1 in Phuoc Dinh and NPPNinh Thuan 2 in Vinh Hai; Total capacity: 4,000 MW; capacity of each unit is 2,000 MW Technology: PWR Investment Report (FS Report) on Ninh Thuan NPPwas approved by the State Council forAppraisal in July 2009; The Government planned to submit to the National Assembly (NA) in its coming meeting in October2009; Afterapproved by the NA, the FS will be implemented in 2-3 years; The ownersubmit application forpermits in 2012-2013. Bidding and signing the EPC Contract (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) in 2013-2014. Start construction in 2015-2016
  20. 20. 20 Ninh Thuan 1 NPP Phuoc Dinh Commune Ninh Phuoc District  Ninh Thuan NPP2 Vinh Hai Commune Ninh Hai District 2. Research and Development of NuclearPower(cont’d) Vinh Hai Phuoc Dinh
  21. 21. 21 3. Forthcoming activities  Based on the following documents: - Strategy forPeaceful Utilization of NuclearEnergy up to 2020 - MasterPlan forImplementation of the Strategy - Atomic Energy Law  Completing legal documents and regulatory framework - Decree on guiding the implementation of the Atomic Energy Law formulated by the MOST will be issued by October2009; - Decree on punishment foradministrative offending formulated by the MOST will be issued in 2009; - Decree on NPPs formulated by MOIT will be issued by October2009
  22. 22. 22 3. Forthcoming activities (cont’d) - The Decision of the Prime Ministeron the Establishment of Atomic Energy Council and NuclearSafety Council, Compensation Fund forNuclear Accidents, Regulations forNuclear Inspection, establishment of National Radiological Environment Monitoring etc.
  23. 23. 23 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d)  Implementation of the Strategy - Setting up the Master Plans for development of nuclear energy application up to 2020 to submit to the Prime Minister for approval by October 2009; - Setting up the Detailed Plan, including Plan for NPPs to submit to the Prime Minister for approval by October 2009
  24. 24. 24 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d)  Detailed Plannings consist of: 1. Plan for development of radiation applications in medicine; 2. Plan for development of radiation applications in agriculture; 3. Plan for development of radiation applications in industry; 4. Plan for development of radiation applications in natural resources and environment 5. Plan for development of nuclear power.
  25. 25. 25 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d)  Detailed Projects and Programs 6. Project on perfecting legal system, organisational system, strengthening capability of research and development and technical support, ensuring nuclear safety, security and safeguard; 7. NuclearHuman Resource Development Program  Programs/Projects underformulation 1. Programon Scientific Research and Technology Development; 2. Project on Development of the VietnamAtomic Energy Institute; 3. Project on Strengthening Capability of Technical Support.
  26. 26. 26 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d)  Programs/Projects underformulationPrograms/Projects underformulation 4. Project on strengthening the organization of state management for development of nuclear energy applications; 5. Project on strengthening national capability of ensuring radiation protection, security for radioactive sources and radioactive materials; 6. Project on strengthening national capability of ensuring nuclear safety; 7. Project on strengthening the organization of State Regulatory Body for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and Control; 8. Project on formulating and perfecting legal and regulatory documents;
  27. 27. 27 3. Forthcoming Activities (cont’d)  Programs/Projects underformulationPrograms/Projects underformulation 9. Project on preparations forjoining international treaties; 10. Project on survey, evaluation and exploration of uranium resources; 11. Project on deployment of security measures in the field of nuclearenergy; 12. Project on building capability of emergency preparedness and response to nuclearand radioactive incidents and accidents 13. Project on planning and investment forbig construction companies; 14. Project on building National Military CenterforNuclear Medicine and Radio-therapy at 108 Hospital.
  28. 28. 28 4. Conclusions In the history of atomic energy development we have never had such advantageous conditions and opportunity for development like at present The Atomic Energy Law was approved by the 12th National Assembly on the 3rd June 2008 and came into force in 1 January 2009, creating the legal basis for the consolidation and development of nuclear energy in Vietnam The Strategy for Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy up to 2020 approved by the Prime Minister in 2006 and the Master Plan for Implementation of the Strategy approved in 2007 have determined decisive policies for the research, development and application of atomic energy in Vietnam
  29. 29. 29 4. Conclusions (cont’d) The development of nuclear power has shifted to pre- investment stage and gained more and more attention and direction from the state top level leaders. In 2009 the National Assembly will consider and approve the Project on Ninh Thuan NPP; However, we have to encounter with a lot of challenges in terms of legal framework, human resources, potential of science and technology and management
  30. 30. 30 4. Conclusions (cont’d) Therefore, great efforts have to be made by all concerned ministries and institutions and the whole society, especially by nuclear scientists, most of whom are present at this Conference; International Cooperation has been playing a very important role in the development of nuclear energy in general, and in the developmentt of nuclear power in particular. With the policies of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, Vietnam will receive valuable and effective assistance and support from the world nuclear community, particularly the international scientists who are attending this Conference, in order to consolidate and sustainably develop nuclear energy in Vietnam.
  31. 31. 31 4. Conclusions (cont’d) We do hope and believe that underthe leadership of the VietnamCommunist Party and the Government of Vietnam, with the strong determination and willingness of the nuclearcommunity, the valuable support and assistance of international colleagues and friends fromall overthe world, we will certainly be successfull in the implementation of the Strategy forPeaceful Utilizations of NuclearEnergy in Vietnam.
  32. 32. 32 Thankyouforyourattention!