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Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh
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Status of Radiation Protection in Bangladesh

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  • 1. Status of Radiation ProtectionStatus of Radiation Protection in Bangladeshin Bangladesh Mahfuza Begum Head and Chief Scientific Officer Health Physics Division Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Bangladesh
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. Ionizing radiation may cause harms like cancer and genetic effects to the exposed persons. Effective law and rules are essential for the safety of the people and for the protection of environment.
  • 3. Bangladesh has enacted necessary Act (No. 21 of 1993) and notified Rules (SRO No. 205- Law/97), 1997. The rules have incorporated the recommendations of the IAEA. WHO, ILO, FAO endorsed International Basic Safety Standards [IAA-SS-No. 115, 1996]. The NSRC Act and NSRC Rulesrequires a license for any person desiring to engage in any practice using radioactive materials or a ionizing radiation source.
  • 4. General Requirement of NSRCGeneral Requirement of NSRC rules (10.1) for a licenseerules (10.1) for a licensee The Licensee of the Nuclear Facility Shall: – comply with the requirements that the practice is justified on the basis of benefit against radiation detriment – ensure that the proposed equipment, facility or practice is technically safe and provide adequate radiological protection – have adequate financial resource for the safety and protection throughout the life of the practice, equipment or facility
  • 5. – have qualified and trained personnel adequate to discharge the licensed responsibilities for the entire life of the practice, equipment or facility; and – comply with all the requirements of the rules as applicable, and the specific limits and conditions mentioned in the license until he is relieved of the responsibilities of the licence by the commission.
  • 6. BAEC is the Competent authority to enforce the law in the country.The Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Division (NSRCD) is assisting the BAEC in implementing the Law and Rules.
  • 7. Radiation Facilities inRadiation Facilities in BangladeshBangladesh  3MW TRIGA MARK-II Research Reactor  Gamma Irradiator  Radio-Isotope Production  Nuclear Medicine Centre  Radio therapy Facilities  Diagnostic Radiology Centres  Industrial Radiography  Nucleonic Gauges Practices  Radiation Polymerization & Sterilization  3 MeV Van De Graaff Accelerator  Central Radioactive Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF)  Research and Education.
  • 8. Control of OccupationalControl of Occupational Radiation ExposureRadiation Exposure Individual Monitoring for External Radiation Calibration of Monitoring Equipment for External Radiation Individual Monitoring and Assessment of Intakes of Radionuclides Workplace Monitoring Exposure to Sources of Natural Radiation Central Dose Record Keeping
  • 9. Individual Monitoring for ExternalIndividual Monitoring for External RadiationRadiation  Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the only organization for providing Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) throughout Bangladesh. According to the recent inventory it is estimated that the total number of radiation workers in different facilities is about 6000. Out of 6000 workers about 5000 workers are working in diagnostic radiology. The monitoring programme covers 60% of those 5000. The rest of the workers (covering all other applications) are included in the monitoring programme.
  • 10. Calibration of Monitoring EquipmentCalibration of Monitoring Equipment for External Radiationfor External Radiation A national Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is available in the Country. The SSDL covers all potential users. The laboratory is traceable to Primary Standard (NPL, UK). It covers all required radiation type and qualities for external dosimetry. Calibration of equipment are carried out according to the IAEA-SS (Safety Reports Series No-16).
  • 11. Individual Monitoring for andIndividual Monitoring for and Assessment of Intakes of RadionuclidesAssessment of Intakes of Radionuclides Internal dose Monitoring is required by the NSRC Rule 1997 (Chapter IX, section 58.3) but the needed service does not exists. Action plans are being taking to develop internal monitoring system.
  • 12. Workplace MonitoringWorkplace Monitoring Workplace Monitoring programme, exposure assessment, quality assurance programme, calibration of monitoring equipment are required by the NSRC Rule 1997 (Chapter ix). Regulatory authority verifies these as a condition for issuing licenses.
  • 13. Exposures to Sources of NaturalExposures to Sources of Natural RadiationRadiation Appropriate investigations have been conducted by the authority and identified the areas where exposures to natural sources of radiation have to be considered as occupational.
  • 14. Central Dose Record Keeping forCentral Dose Record Keeping for external and internal Exposureexternal and internal Exposure BAEC has established a central dose record keeping system for keeping records of workers exposed to external radiation as per requirement of NSRC Rules 1997 (Chapter IX, section 59.2).
  • 15. Table.1. Percentage of Radiation WorkersTable.1. Percentage of Radiation Workers MonitoredMonitored Practice No. of Facilities No. of Radiation Workers (Estimated) No. of Radiation Workers Monitored Percentage of No. of Workers Monitored Radiodiagnostic 3500 5000 3491 69.82% Radiotherapy (Tele therapy & Brachytherapy) 11 186 186 100% Nuclear Medicine 18 327 327 100% Industrial & Research Irradiator 3 35 35 100%
  • 16. Continued…Continued… Practice No. of Facilities No. of Radiation Workers (Estimated) No. of Radiation Workers Monitored Percentage of No. of Workers Monitored Industrial Radiography 14 100 92 92 % Nucleonic Gauge & Well Logging 29 130 98 75.38 % Neutron Generator 1 16 16 100% Accelerator 2 28 28 100% Production of Isotopes 1 34 34 100% Radioactive Waste Storage 1 18 18 100% Research Reactor 1 45 45 100% Research & Others 18 219 219 100%
  • 17. Table-2. Annual average dose of radiationTable-2. Annual average dose of radiation workers in different disciplines.workers in different disciplines. Name of the Discipline Annual average personal dose equivalent in mSv 2003 2004 2005 2006 Diagnostic Radiology 0.295 0.168 0.317 0.144 Nuclear Medicine 0.541 0.405 0.397 0.192 Radiotherapy 0.261 0.110 0.096 0.138 Industrial Radiography 1.604 0.552 1.480 0.287
  • 18. Medical Exposure ControlMedical Exposure Control NSRC Rule 1997, Chapter VI, Rule No. 23-35 applied for Medical Exposure Control. These Rules include the responsibilities of a licensee.to be performed to control Medical Exposure of patients, occupational workers, public and environment.
  • 19. Continued..Continued..  In meeting the legal requirements of the rules to keep the risks within the required limits and to keep ALARA, there are three Regulatory Guides on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic X-ray, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine.  The guides, specifies the responsibilities of the different personnel such as licensee, Radiation Control Officer (RCO), Radiation Worker and manufacturer and provides radiation protection activities. By following these guides medical exposures are being controlled accordingly.
  • 20. Control of Public ExposureControl of Public Exposure Control of Environmental Radiation Levels Control of Foodstuffs and selected commodities Storage of Radioactive Waste Control of Consumer Products Control of Chronic Exposure Control of Radioactivity in Materials for Recycling
  • 21. Control of Environmental RadiationControl of Environmental Radiation levelslevels For the control of environmental radiation levels an environmental monitoring programme is exist, which is supported by the Bangladesh Gazette, Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Rules – 1997, Chapter VII, para 40, a-h, which follows BSS 115, 1996.
  • 22. Control of Foodstuffs and SelectedControl of Foodstuffs and Selected CommoditiesCommodities A national food monitoring system exists for controlling the levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs and selected commodities. Food monitoring policy of the Govt. is controlled by the NSRC Rule-1997, Chapter VII, Section 41.1-4 and 42 (page 37-40) and the Rule follows the BSS 115.
  • 23. Storage of RadioactiveStorage of Radioactive WasteWaste A Central Radioactive Waste processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) is available in the country. Safety management in CWPSF is being carried out to fulfill the requirement of NSRC Rule 1997, Chapter X, section 87, for the protection of occupational worker, public and environment.
  • 24. Control of ConsumerControl of Consumer ProductsProducts NSRC Rule-1997 covers the public exposure control vide the Chapter VIII, para 42, The exemption criteria or control of public exposure due to consumer products, viz. Smoke detector, Exit signs, Mantle, Watches, etc., is refurbished in Schedule-I of NSRC Rule-1997.
  • 25. Control of Chronic ExposureControl of Chronic Exposure  To determine the level of radionuclides, heavy sands of Cox’s Bazar, such as, illmenite, Zircon, Rutile, Monazite were analyzed. Sludge and water samples of Sangu gas field and some other gas fields, were analyzed.  The draft of the amendment for NSRC Rule 1997, which included the policy for import of NORM/TENORM, importer has to obtain a permit from Regulatory Authority for clearance of NORM/TENORM.
  • 26. Control of Radioactivity inControl of Radioactivity in Materials for RecyclingMaterials for Recycling The above mentioned draft also included the exemption criteria regarding the radioactive contamination and radiation level of scrap materials.
  • 27. Emergency Response PlanEmergency Response Plan Basic Responsibilities Establishing emergency management and operations  Managing the medical response Requirement for infrastructure
  • 28. Basic ResponsibilitiesBasic Responsibilities According to the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) Act 1993 (Act No. 21), Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is empowered to act as a Govt. Body and is the competent authority for implementation of NSRC Rules – 1997. The NSRC Rule 1997, Chapter VIII provides the responsibility of licensee for emergency response.
  • 29. Establishing emergencyEstablishing emergency management and operationsmanagement and operations  A draft version 1.0 on “National Radiological Emergency Response Plan (NRER)” has already been prepared (under the NSRC Rule 1997) and it is under process of approval.  A committee entitled “Radiation Emergency Management Committee” has been formed by the BAEC. Three sub-committees, viz. (i) Radiation Emergency Management Committee, (ii) Radiation Emergency Medical Sub- committee and (iii) AERE, Savar local Radiation Emergency Committee under the previous committee were formed for emergency management and operations.
  • 30. Managing the medicalManaging the medical responseresponse  Four hospitals, viz. Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound (CNM&U) of Bogra, Chittagong, Sylhet and AERE Clinic have been designated as emergency hospital/centre to manage the victims of radiological accident.  On the other hand, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound (CNM&U), Dhaka at the premises of Dhaka Medical College Hospital campus has been designated as a regional Radiological Emergency Centre.
  • 31. Requirement for infrastructureRequirement for infrastructure Coordination with the national participating organizations (such as, Ministry of Science, Health and other relevant organs) and authorities (such as, Acts relating to Food, police, Fire service, Road transport, civil defense, Environment, etc.) for radiological emergency are included in the draft of NRER Plan.
  • 32. ConclusionConclusion The practices using ionizing radiation cause radiation exposure to the occupational workers, patients and the members of the general public. The occupational workers involved in the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation sources are at risk. The NSRC Act-1993 and NSRC Rules 1997 impose legal requirements to keep the risks within acceptable limits and to keep ALARA. According to the requirement of above Act and Rule, Radiation Protection programmes of the facilities using ionizing radiation are concerned with the prevention/limitation of possible harmful effects of radiation exposure of patients, occupational workers as well as members of the public and environment.

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