0
4/4/03 1
Do not adjust your set
4/4/03 2
Radiation Safety
in the Mortuary
John Saunderson
Radiation Protection Adviser
4/4/03 3
Programme
• Introduction
• Radiation basics and hazards
• Radioactive patients
• Any questions?
4/4/03 4
Ionising radiations
• x-rays
• gamma rays (γ-rays)
• beta particles (β)
• electron beams
Not ionising radiations
...
4/4/03 5
Radiation basics and hazards
• Why is it dangerous?
• Radiation in hospitals
4/4/03 6
X-ray passes straight
through cell
⇒
No change to cell
4/4/03 7
X-ray causes a
chemical reaction in
cell, but no damage
done or damage
repaired by cell
⇒
No change to cell
*
4/4/03 8
DNA damaged in a
“fatal” way”
⇒
Cell killed
*
4/4/03 9
DNA damaged,
causing cell to
reproduce
uncontrollably
⇒
Cancer?
*
4/4/03 10
Ionising radiation can cause
chemical reactions in the body’s
cells which may
• do no harm
• kill the cell
• cau...
4/4/03 11
Where very large doses kill
many cells
⇒radiation “burns”
⇒cateract
⇒radiation sickness.
4/4/03 12
Threshold risks
Very large doses only
The bigger the dose, the more severe the effect
5000
3500
3000
2500
2000
5...
13
Cancer risks
It is assumed that any dose of radiation could potentially
cause cancer.
The bigger the dose, the more lik...
4/4/03 14
Radiation in hospitals
• Radioactive substances
– Nuclear medicine
– Pathology
– Radiotherapy
– Contaminated cas...
4/4/03 15
4/4/03 16
X-ray tube
Primary beam
Scattered radiation
Patient
Leakage
4/4/03 17
All doses should be kept
• As
• Low
• As
• Reasonably
• Achievable
The ALARA Principle .
4/4/03 18
Basic Principles
• Time
• Distance
• Shielding
4/4/03 19
Distance
•Double distance = 1
/4 dose
•Triple distance = 1
/9
th
dose.
4/4/03 20
Shielding
4/4/03 21
Shielding
4/4/03 22
Typical Transmission
through Shielding (90 kV)
• 0.25 mm lead rubber apron → 8.5%
• 0.35 mm lead rubber apron → ...
4/4/03 23
“Radioactive Patients”
Patients may be radioactive if
• they’ve been injected with
or swallowed radioactive
phar...
4/4/03 24
Beginning After 1 half life
       
       
       
       
       
  ...
Nuclear Medicine Scan
• Patient injected with or swallows a radioactive
pharmaceutical
• Gamma camera traces where that
ra...
4/4/03 26
4/4/03 27
Body of diagnostic patient
• Dose to patient similar to annual background radiation
• External dose rate to othe...
4/4/03 28
Thyroid treatments with radio-iodine
•Hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis
•overactive thyroid - 400 MBq
•Thyroid ca...
4/4/03 29
Other unsealed source therapies
• Phosphorus-32 for polycythemia (too many red
blood cells)
• Yttrium-90 colloid...
4/4/03 30
Body of unsealed source therapy
patient
• Patient will have letter saying how many days restrictions apply.
If t...
4/4/03 31
Brachytherapy
(radioactive implants)
• Intracavity afterloading
• Iridium wire afterloading
• Iridium pins
• Iod...
4/4/03 32
LDR-Selectron
4/4/03 33
HDR-microSelectron
4/4/03 34
Iridium Implant
4/4/03 35
Iodine-125 seeds in Prostate
4.5 x 0.8 mm “seeds”
4/4/03 36
Body with iodine-125 seeds
• Very short range radiation (HVT = 2 cm tissue)
• External dose rate to others – low...
4/4/03 37
Nuclear Powered Pacemaker
• Contain 114 GBq of plutonium-238
• Not used for past 20 years
• Never used in Hull &...
4/4/03 38
Casualties Contaminated by Low
Level Radioactive Substances
• Life saving treatment will
override all other acti...
4/4/03 39
f i n
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Radiation safety in the Mortuary

425

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
425
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Radiation safety in the Mortuary"

  1. 1. 4/4/03 1 Do not adjust your set
  2. 2. 4/4/03 2 Radiation Safety in the Mortuary John Saunderson Radiation Protection Adviser
  3. 3. 4/4/03 3 Programme • Introduction • Radiation basics and hazards • Radioactive patients • Any questions?
  4. 4. 4/4/03 4 Ionising radiations • x-rays • gamma rays (γ-rays) • beta particles (β) • electron beams Not ionising radiations • lasers • ultraviolet (UV) • infrared (IR) • ultrasound • MRI
  5. 5. 4/4/03 5 Radiation basics and hazards • Why is it dangerous? • Radiation in hospitals
  6. 6. 4/4/03 6 X-ray passes straight through cell ⇒ No change to cell
  7. 7. 4/4/03 7 X-ray causes a chemical reaction in cell, but no damage done or damage repaired by cell ⇒ No change to cell *
  8. 8. 4/4/03 8 DNA damaged in a “fatal” way” ⇒ Cell killed *
  9. 9. 4/4/03 9 DNA damaged, causing cell to reproduce uncontrollably ⇒ Cancer? *
  10. 10. 4/4/03 10 Ionising radiation can cause chemical reactions in the body’s cells which may • do no harm • kill the cell • cause the cell to multiply out of control (cancer) • cause the cell to malfunction in some other way.
  11. 11. 4/4/03 11 Where very large doses kill many cells ⇒radiation “burns” ⇒cateract ⇒radiation sickness.
  12. 12. 4/4/03 12 Threshold risks Very large doses only The bigger the dose, the more severe the effect 5000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 500 150 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Cataracts Perm.male sterility Temp. epilation Female sterility Transient erythema Detectable opacities (lens) Supressionof bonemarrow Temp.male sterility milli-sieverts Staff doses never this big
  13. 13. 13 Cancer risks It is assumed that any dose of radiation could potentially cause cancer. The bigger the dose, the more likely the effect will occur, (but it will probably never occur). i.e. a bit like crossing the road - the more times you cross the more likely you are to be run over, but probably never will. Risk of Fatal Cancer in one year for adult workers 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Classified Worker limit Other staff limit Public limit 1000 uSv Natural cancer risk (all ages) Chanceinamillion
  14. 14. 4/4/03 14 Radiation in hospitals • Radioactive substances – Nuclear medicine – Pathology – Radiotherapy – Contaminated casualties • X-ray sources – Radiology – Radiotherapy – Pathology .
  15. 15. 4/4/03 15
  16. 16. 4/4/03 16 X-ray tube Primary beam Scattered radiation Patient Leakage
  17. 17. 4/4/03 17 All doses should be kept • As • Low • As • Reasonably • Achievable The ALARA Principle .
  18. 18. 4/4/03 18 Basic Principles • Time • Distance • Shielding
  19. 19. 4/4/03 19 Distance •Double distance = 1 /4 dose •Triple distance = 1 /9 th dose.
  20. 20. 4/4/03 20 Shielding
  21. 21. 4/4/03 21 Shielding
  22. 22. 4/4/03 22 Typical Transmission through Shielding (90 kV) • 0.25 mm lead rubber apron → 8.5% • 0.35 mm lead rubber apron → 5% • 2 x 0.25 mm apron → 2.5% • 2 x 0.35 mm apron → 1.0% • Double brick wall → 0.003% • Plasterboard stud wall → 32% • Solid wooden 1” door → 81% • Code 3 lead (1.3 mm) → 0.1%.
  23. 23. 4/4/03 23 “Radioactive Patients” Patients may be radioactive if • they’ve been injected with or swallowed radioactive pharmaceuticals • they have solid radioactive sources surgically implanted • they have been involved in an accident with radioactive materials .
  24. 24. 4/4/03 24 Beginning After 1 half life                                                                                                                                  After 2 half lives  After 3 half lives                                                                                                                                  After 4 half lives  After 5 half lives                                                                                                                  Radioactive Decay - half life
  25. 25. Nuclear Medicine Scan • Patient injected with or swallows a radioactive pharmaceutical • Gamma camera traces where that radiopharmaceutical is concentrated .
  26. 26. 4/4/03 26
  27. 27. 4/4/03 27 Body of diagnostic patient • Dose to patient similar to annual background radiation • External dose rate to others – insignificant • Half life – Technetium-99m, 6 hours – Thallium-201, 73 days • Contamination hazard? – “no extra precautions to those employed when caring out post-protems/embalming” • No restrictions on disposal of body • If in doubt, call Nuclear Medicine Department.
  28. 28. 4/4/03 28 Thyroid treatments with radio-iodine •Hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis •overactive thyroid - 400 MBq •Thyroid cancer •must destroy all tumour - 3000 MBq •c.f. thyroid scan - 0.2 MBq.
  29. 29. 4/4/03 29 Other unsealed source therapies • Phosphorus-32 for polycythemia (too many red blood cells) • Yttrium-90 colloid for arthritic conditions • Strontium-90 for bone metastases.
  30. 30. 4/4/03 30 Body of unsealed source therapy patient • Patient will have letter saying how many days restrictions apply. If they still apply – Seek advice of Medical Physics Expert (MPE) from Nuclear Medicine Department • External dose rate to others – low • Half life, iodine-131, 8 days • Contamination hazard? – assume yes – Avoid spread of contamination • Consult MPE on disposal of body – Thyrotoxicosis – OK – Thyroid cancer – OK after 23 day max..
  31. 31. 4/4/03 31 Brachytherapy (radioactive implants) • Intracavity afterloading • Iridium wire afterloading • Iridium pins • Iodine-125 seeds .
  32. 32. 4/4/03 32 LDR-Selectron
  33. 33. 4/4/03 33 HDR-microSelectron
  34. 34. 4/4/03 34 Iridium Implant
  35. 35. 4/4/03 35 Iodine-125 seeds in Prostate 4.5 x 0.8 mm “seeds”
  36. 36. 4/4/03 36 Body with iodine-125 seeds • Very short range radiation (HVT = 2 cm tissue) • External dose rate to others – low – Patients advised to avoid close contact (<10 cm) with children and pregnant women for 2 months • Half life = 60 day • Avoid cremation before one year (or consider removing sources) • Post-mortem? – risk assessment – call the Radiotherapy Department.
  37. 37. 4/4/03 37 Nuclear Powered Pacemaker • Contain 114 GBq of plutonium-238 • Not used for past 20 years • Never used in Hull & E. Yorks. • No longer fitted (NiCd batteries replaced nuclear batteries) • Patients wear a labelled bracelet • Should always be removed before buriel/cremation (although designed to withstand 850o C) • Annual dose limit exceeded if held for over 1600 hours.
  38. 38. 4/4/03 38 Casualties Contaminated by Low Level Radioactive Substances • Life saving treatment will override all other action • Seek expert advice from radiation physicist a.s.a.p. • Avoid spread of contamination • Collect everything that comes into contact with radioactive substances (e.g. clothes, swabs, fluids, etc.).
  39. 39. 4/4/03 39 f i n
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×