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  • Project MPAC (Molding Pathways to Advanced Careers): A comprehensive Advisement Program for Students Pursuing graduate and Professional Schools Composed By: James E. Raynor, Jr., Ph.D. Department of Natural Sciences Fayetteville State University
  • I. Introduction The information provided in this guide was derived from several Pre-Graduate and Pre-Health Advisory Programs from colleges and universities throughout the United States, that have had outstanding success in gaining admission for their students into graduate and professional health schools. This document will assist students in preparing for and applying to graduate and professional health programs, to include, but not limited to, graduate programs in biology and chemistry, Nursing Programs, and schools of medicine, dentistry, osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, veterinary medicine, optometry and pharmacy. While making an immediate decision on “What Should I Become in Life?” may be a difficult task for you, the sooner you decide, the sooner you can properly prepare yourself for your future career. When making a decision on a career, you should consider your own interests, talents and abilities. Of course, it helps to learn as much as possible about various professions so that you can make well- informed decisions about your future. Fayetteville State University’s Career Placement Center is a good place to start learning about various careers in science. Moreover, the Department of Natural Sciences and the FSU Science Club annually invites representatives from a variety of graduate and professional schools to FSU to discuss programs offered at their respective institutions. This booklet describes a recently developed, pilot advisement program called Project MPAC (Molding Pathways to Advanced Careers), which can serve as a four-year comprehensive guide, to assist the student in selecting a major, academic courses, research experience, science enrichment programs, and preparation for taking admission tests, as well as applications to graduate and professional health programs. This booklet will, invariably, make the application process a less formidable task. One thing you must note and accept from the outset, is that, technically, the application process begins your junior year, but preparation for this process begins your first day classes, during your freshman year! Your acceptance of this fact will make you a more attractive candidate for admission. Please remember this personal quote, and repeat it to yourself during times of weariness, frustration, or quandary: “I am running this race on a road less traveled, but I am not alone. I may become fatigued and befuddled, but I will not falter, for if I keep my head up and continue to strive forward, I will eventually see the finish line.” Good Luck! II. Project MPAC (Molding Pathways towards Advanced Careers) A new pilot advisement program called, Project Molding Pathways towards Advanced Careers (MPAC), has been established in the Department of Natural Sciences, under the auspices of the Science Club, to increase the number of FSU graduates entering graduate and professional schools. The first cohort of students under Project MPAC will enroll during the fall of 2003. Unlike the advisement all FSU students receive, under the MPAC Project, students, who are strong potential candidates for graduate or professional schools, will receive 2
  • academic and career advisement to develop career leading to these tracks, including Masters’ Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy Degrees) and, degrees in medicine, dentistry, nursing, and all areas of Allied Health. The mission of the MPAC Program is to fully utilize FSU resources to design pathways for training and preparing students for graduate and professional schools, while making them more attractive candidates to these schools. The goal of the project is to increase the number of FSU graduates, from underrepresented minority groups, who enter graduate and professional schools. Major initiatives of Project MPAC include academic support (Academic Watch-Care Program), academic/ career advisement, professional and career development, and test preparation for graduate and professional admission exams. Overview of Project MPAC Requirements Students must be interested in pursuing a graduate or professional degree and must meet certain academic requirement to enroll in Project MPAC. Students, who do not meet the requirements for MPAC, may not enroll in program, but are strongly advised to register with a pre-graduate or pre-professional health advisor for academic advisement, and to participate, at their discretion, in as many aspects of the program as possible, in an effort to increase their chances of achieving their career goals. Students who meet the requirements for Project MPAC listed below should register for MPAC at http://faculty.uncfsu.edu/jraynor/MPAC.htm. 1) The student must be a first-time freshman or have freshmen status and is interested in pursuing a pre-graduate or pre-professional health career track. 2) Incoming freshmen must have a SAT score of 1000 or better or an ACT score of 22 or better. Second semester freshmen may be admitted to program with a 3.0 GPA or better, and a “B” or better has been earned in BIOL 150 or CHEM 140 courses, if already taken, which must be completed by the second semester of the freshmen year. 3) The student’s profile score must indicate that he/she will take MATH123 or higher, and BIOL150 if courses have not already taken. 4) The student must agree to the terms and conditions of the MPAC program, maintain satisfactory academic progress, participate in several programs, such as, the Academic Watch-Care Program, Supplemental Instructions Program, research, and participate in intra-and extramural science enrichment activities. 3
  • 5) The student must maintain all scheduled appointments with his/her perspective pre-graduate or pre-health advisor the Director of Project MPAC. Pre-graduate and Pre-professional Health Career Advisors and Committee In addition to having an academic advisor, in the Department of Natural Sciences, under project MPAC, students are linked with a career advisor, who will help guide their paths towards toward the perspective schools. In addition, MPAC students will be provided advisement on professional and career development, by the pre- graduate and pre-professional Health Careers Advisement Committee, comprised of pre-graduate and pre-health advisors. MPAC students who require recommendations letters from the advisement committee must provide the committee with a copy of a resume, list of schools to be sent recommendations, a copy of scores earned on admissions exam, and a personal statement. Additionally, the committee may request that the student completes a mock interview with the committee. To register for a career advisor, please see one of the following advisors below: Graduate School- Dr. Margaret Kanipes , LS126, (910) 672-1304 Medical Schools- Dr. James E. Raynor, Jr., LS 232, (910) 672-1023 Dentistry- Mrs. Minnie Ragland, LS 123, (910) 672-1651 Allied Health- Dr. Sherrice Allen, LS 309, (910) 672-1046 Academic Watch-Care Program and Supplemental Instructions The Academic Watch-Care Program (AWCP) and Supplemental Instructions Program were implemented into Project MPAC, in an effort to improve students’ understanding and retention of information taught. Under the AWCP, selected instructors, who teach biology and chemistry courses, which historically students do not perform well, closely monitored the academic performances of MPAC students. Academic support (Supplemental Instructions) is provided to students, who do not maintain a “B” or better in courses listed under the AWCP. Courses such as BIOL150 (Principles of Biology), ZOOL110 (General Zoology), BIOL200 (Cellular Biology), CHEM140 (General Chemistry I), CHEM160 (General Chemistry II), CHEM221 (Organic Chemistry I) CHEM222, (Organic Chemistry II), PHYS111 (Physics I) and PHYS112 (Physics II) will be the targets of this initiative. The goal of this initiative is to increase students’ knowledge and academic performances in core science courses, which are often required by most graduate and professional health programs, to make them more attractive candidates for these programs. Courses offered under AWCP are taught similar content as regular courses, with the exception that courses, offered under the AWCP, may be supplemented with various activities to help develop and improve students' verbal reasoning, analytical and, problem-solving skills. These measures have been proven to give students “the extra edge” necessary to perform well on standardized tests. Students may learn 4
  • which sections of courses are under the AWCP by visiting the MPAC Website at http://faculty.uncfsu.edu/jraynor/MPAC.htm. Any student, who does not make satisfactory progress in the program, after all options for academic reform have been exhausted, will be removed from the program. The student will, however, be encouraged to continue to visit a pre-graduate or pre-professional health advisor to discuss other options. Participants of Project MPAC are also required to serve in the Supplemental Instructions Program as Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders, each semester, for at least one course, they have taken in the AWCP, beginning as early as their second semester of the freshmen year. The goal of this initiative is to reinforce and strengthen MPAC students’ knowledge of science, while providing academic support to students enrolled in the AWCP. SI leaders must have successfully completed courses, to which they will provide supplemental instructions, with a “B” grade or better. SI leaders are required to attend course lectures for three hours a week and provide students with additional practice with course content through discussion, questions and answers, and review class notes, for at least two hours a week. Participants of AWCP are strongly encouraged to also apply to the University Supplemental Instructions Program, to acquire about receiving payment for serving as SI leaders for courses offered in the Department of Natural Sciences. Professional Development Courses All Project MPAC participants are required to take a Scientific Communications course, which is offered in conjunction with the FSU-RISE Program and a Research and Career Development course for professional development. Both courses are offered as Special Problems (BIOL430) courses in the Course Schedule. The goal of these courses is to improve students’ written, oral, scientific interpretational skills, and preparation for graduate and professional schools, thus making them more attractive candidates for programs. Excellent written and oral communication skills are critical to the successful admissions to, and completion, of graduate and professional schools. Thus, the Scientific Communications course introduces students to a various forms of communications skills to improve their skills in searching the scientific literature, organizing and writing rough drafts, oral communication, and presentations, and comprehension of scientific journal articles. MPAC students should enroll in this Special Problems course (BIOL 430), during the spring semester of their sophomore year. Comprehensive and timely preparation of applications oftentimes plays a key role in gaining acceptance to internships, science enrichment programs or admissions to graduate and professional schools. The Research and Career Development course is designed to help students research various careers, complete the application process, develop their personal statements, and participate in mock interviews to make them better candidates for the desired programs. MPAC 5
  • students should enroll in this Special Problems Course (BIOL 430), during the spring semester of their junior year. Science Enrichment Programs and Research Opportunities MPAC students are required to participate in science enrichment activities, such as intramural and extramural research, Field Trips, and “Careers in Science” Seminars, sponsored by the FSU Science Club and the Department of Natural Sciences, and extramural science enrichment programs, such as Science Enrichment Program (SEP) and Medical Educational Development (MED) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The goal of these initiatives is to broaden students’ knowledge of science and careers in science, while preparing them for, and making them better candidates for graduate and professional schools. MPAC students should participate in intramural science enrichment activities, during their freshmen and sophomore years, and participate in extramural activities, during the summers of their sophomore and junior years. Below is a list of science enrichment programs/activities and research opportunities available to students in the Department of Natural Sciences: Supplemental Instructions The Department of Natural Sciences offers Supplemental Instructions in courses with historically high withdrawal and failure rates, such as freshmen and sophomore biology and chemistry courses, as targeted for academic support. Students, who have proven their competence in the targeted courses and have been approved by the faculty, are assigned as Supplemental Instruction (SI) Leaders. After receiving appropriate training in learning styles and study skills, SI leaders attend meetings of the targeted class and take notes and, working in consultation with the course instructor, conduct supplemental instruction sessions each week. In these sessions, SI leaders review notes, conduct practice quizzes, and carry out additional assignments to reinforce the knowledge and skills required by the class. SI promotes increased student collaboration, higher mean final grades, and increase retention of subject materials. Students may request SI for courses not currently offered by instructors. NC-LSAMP/FSU-CAMP Program The North Carolina Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation/Fayetteville State University-Campus Alliance for Minority Participation (NC-LSAMP/FSU-CAMP) is part of a partnership with seven other institutions within the University of North Carolina system. The chief aim of the Alliance is to substantially increase the number of underrepresented minority students earning B.S. degrees, and subsequently pursuing M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Major initiatives include supplemental 6
  • instruction, career mentoring bridge programs, undergraduate research, and internships. In addition, an annual research conference sponsored by the Alliance showcases faculty-mentored research projects completed by students. Students may apply to participate in the NC-LSAMP/FSU-CAMP Saturday Workshops at any time during their academic careers. These workshops are held each fall. Juniors and seniors may apply to become NC- LSAMP/FSU-CAMP Research Scholars and conduct research projects with faculty mentors. For more information, please contact Dr. Bertha Miller, FSU NC-LSAMP Program Director at (910) 672-1681 or Bmiller@uncfsu.edu FSU-Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) The goal of the Fayetteville State University Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (FSU-RISE) Program is to increase the number of well-prepared Biology and Chemistry FSU graduates from underrepresented minority groups who enter graduate programs in the biomedical sciences. The FSU-RISE Program is a series of phased-in activities designed for each level in the undergraduate student’s training, from the pre-freshman stage, beginning with the “Rising Scholars” pre- freshman summer workshop, through graduation. New students are added each year as continuing RISE Scholars advance in their programs of study. Initiatives include: (1) a scientific communications course, enrichment seminars, academic support, and a GRE course; (2) a biotechniques workshop; and (3) extramural and intramural research, and an interdisciplinary research-based course. For more information contact: Dr. Juliette Bell, FSU-RISE Program Director, (910) 672-1657 or Jbell@uncfsu.edu Special Problems (BIOL430) Special Problems is a semester long, senior-level course designed to expose undergraduate students to faculty-mentored scientific research, field studies, or other special projects. Students must receive approval from the faculty member, in the Department of Natural Sciences, who will serve as their research mentor, and will be responsible for submitting their grades. Upon completion of the course requirements, students will earn three (3) college credit hours. Medical Research at SR-AHEC The Southern Regional Area Health Educational Center (SR-AHEC) offers research for undergraduates in various areas of medicine to expose students to current medical research and help students become more competitive candidates for graduate or professional schools. Students are paired with Resident Doctors and AHEC Physicians, of various specialties, to conduct research with the aim of maintaining or improving the quality of life. Students generally work between two to fifteen hours a week, although research schedules and times are flexible. Research may be conducted on a volunteer basis or receive three (3) credit hours for Special Problems (BIOL 430) course if the student is enrolled in the course and has met all 7
  • course requirements. In addition, students are eligible to receive favorable recommendation letters, for graduate or professional school, from medical faculty and have their work published in a refereed journal. For more information, please contact Dr. James E. Raynor, Jr at (910) 672-1023, Jraynor@uncfsu.edu, or Dr. Tony Brown, Office of Regional Primary Care Education, Southern Regional AHEC At (910) 678-7217 or Ralph.Brown@sr-ahec.org. Rural Summer Team Experience Southern Regional Area Health Educational Center (SR-AHEC) offers student research opportunities through a six-week, community-based learning experience project called Rural Summer Team Experience (STE), collaborative effort with UNC- CH and participating organizations. Participants form teams of interdisciplinary trainees, who will live and work in a rural community for six weeks, while building relationships with community members and developing strategies and priorities for addressing their specific needs. Trainees learn about health-related issues that affect many rural communities, to include: compelling health needs, environmental concerns, limited health care resources, and issues surrounding access to care. In addition, trainees will have opportunities to learn first-hand about cultural diversity, health beliefs, and socio-economic conditions that health providers face in rural communities. Trainees will be provided rent-free housing, near the rural community in which they will work, along with a stipend based on the educational level of the trainee. Travel support is also provided to students who require assistance. The STE is funded by a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Health Professions. For more information about the Rural Summer Team Experience, please contact Saundra Stanley, RN, MPH, Office of Regional Primary Care Education, Southern Regional AHEC at (910) 678-7316 or Saundra.Stanley@sr-ahec.org, or Rebecca Hunter, MEd.,UNC-CH School of Medicine Program on Aging at (919) 966-6974 ext 267 or rhh@med.unc.edu, or Elizabeth Thomas, UNC-CH School of Medicine Program on Aging at (919) 966-6974 ext 268 or ethomas@med.unc.edu. FSU Science Club The Fayetteville State University Science Club, the Department of Natural Sciences Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP) and the Southern Regional Area Health Education Center (SR-AHEC) have formed a partnership to provide students in the Department of Natural Sciences with a plethora of Science Enrichment Programs and opportunities to learn more about careers in health and sciences. Initiatives include, providing a plethora of guest speakers, preparation of students for graduate and professional schools, internships and employment opportunities, and field trips to various graduate and professional schools. For more information, please 8
  • contact Dr. Pinapaka Murthy, Department of Natural Sciences, Chair and Director of FSU HCOP Program at (910) 672-1691 or mpinapaka@uncfsu.edu, Dr. James Raynor, Science Club Advisor and Project MPAC coordinator at (910) 672-1023 or jraynor@uncfsu.edu or Jraynor405@aol.com, and Ms. Yanci Evans, Director of Health Careers and Workforce Diversity, Southern Regional AHEC at (910) 678-7299 or Yanci.evans@sr-ahec.org. I. Undergraduate Preparation for Advanced Careers Again, preparation for graduate and professional school begins your first day of classes, during your freshmen year and ends the day of graduation. During your undergraduate education, you should focus on the following points for preparing yourself for graduate or professional schools. First, make sure your course selections meet entrance requirements for your desired graduate or professional program. Consult faculty, advisors, and school catalogues early in your undergraduate education to help you make appropriate decisions. Keep in mind that you should also do well, a “B” grade or better, in the courses you select. Remember, you’re your transcript is a permanent record that follows you the rest of your life. Secondly, you should participate in as many enrichment opportunities as your schedule will permit. For example, seminars, public speaking and writing opportunities, literature searches, intra- and extramural research, and science enrichment programs will help make you a better candidate for graduate or professional school. Third, learn, not memorize, as much information as possible, by reading the newspaper, various journals in your field, and involvement in research. After all, you will rely on this knowledge when you take the admissions exam required for your program. Often times, students have difficulty reviewing for admissions exams because they spend a great deal of time reviewing information they should have learned when taking the courses. To ensure that you stay on-task for optimally preparing yourself for graduate or professional schools, please follow the suggested four-year checklist below as closely as possible. 9
  • Four-Year Checklist for Preparing for Graduate or Professional Schools Freshman Year FUnderstand that preparation for graduate and professional school begins the first day of classes during your freshmen year and ends the day of graduation dSelect positive friends who have common goals and will keep you inspired and motivated m isit and register with a Pre-Grad or Pre-Health Advisor V VBegin investigating various science- and health-related careers BDevelop strong study skills D evelop a resume D  Strive for and maintain a G.P.A of 3.25 or better in a challenging science curriculum SJoin and participate in the Fayetteville State University Science Club JBegin extracurricular activities such as volunteer work, research, tutoring (supplemental instructions), or participate in science enrichment programs such as North Carolina Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (NC-LSAMP) and FSU- Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) aRead newspaper, journals, and magazines as much as possible to stay current as well as improve your reading and comprehensive skills w isit your instructors and academic advisors regularly to prevent emerging, V unforeseen problems uReview requirements for graduate, professional and allied health programs to plan your four-year strategy yTalk with creditable upperclassmen, faculty, and professions in your field of interest to get a reality check on your level of dedication and preparation required for your career choice cConsider going to summer school the first summer to get ahead, or catch up if necessary Sophomore Year SVisit your Pre-Grad or Pre-Health Advisor during registration! Discuss course selections, new developments, past academic performance, schools and admission requirements of desired graduate or professional health programs, etc. eJoin and Participate in the FSU Science Club or any other relative campus organization oParticipate in extra-curricular activities and volunteer work to develop and demonstrate maturity, compassion and work ethics dBegin extracurricular activities such as volunteer work, research, tutoring (supplemental instructions), or participate in science enrichment programs such as North Carolina Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (NC-LSAMP) and FSU- Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) aRegister for the Scientific Communications course during the spring semester 10
  • Devise a plan for preparation of admissions tests such as GRE, MCAT, DAT, VCAT, PCAT, OAT, etc. VRead newspaper, journals, and magazines as much as possible to stay current as well as improve your reading and comprehensive skills w aintain an excellent GPA (3.25 or better) M M heck requirements for desired graduate or professional programs C C omplete an application for summer research by January 31 of the spring semester C and participate in an extramural science enrichment activity during the summer. Junior Year JThis is the year for preparing and taking your admissions test to your graduate or professional program. Check with your career advisor for information on workshops to prepare you for your admissions test. w isit your Pre-Grad or Pre-Health Advisor during registration! Discuss course V selections, new developments, past academic performance, schools and admission requirements of desired graduate or professional health programs, etc. eJoin and Participate in the FSU Science Club or any other relative campus organization oContinue admissions test preparation C aintain the best GPA (3.25 or better) M M anuary-turn in autobiography to Pre-graduate and Pre-Health Committee J - February- Pick up and complete an admissions test registration packet for your desired program. The deadline to register is usually mid-March dMarch-Sign up for a mock interview with the Pre-Graduate/ Pre-Health Committee. Remember, the interview is required if you are using the committee for a letter of recommendation. r May- Take Admissions Exam. MCAT is usually in mid-April - June-Get your application for admission in. Remember that many schools use a rolling admission process, so it is to your advantage to apply as early as possible. pSummer-Begin your search for various types of financial support for your education (i.e. scholarships, fellowships, loans, etc.) and participate in an extramural science enrichment program such as SEP or MED Senior Year SVisit your Pre-Grad or Pre-Health Advisor during registration! Discuss course selections, new developments, past academic performance, schools and admission requirements of desired graduate or professional health programs, etc. eJoin and Participate in the FSU Science Club or any other relative campus organization 11
  • Begin receiving and completing secondary applications or completing documents to complete your application file, PROMPLY! cRequest favorable letters of recommendation from your instructors. Please provide professors a copy of your transcript, resume, your statement of purpose, and a pre-addressed envelope. After you have made a choice on which school you plan to attend, notify instructors who wrote you recommendations by giving them thank-you cards. t Go on interviews, and keep up with your college coursework and grades. G ontact schools to make sure your application files are complete. C C ake decisions about your acceptances or regroup and plan for next year’s M application process. 12
  • Overview of Education Preparation Under Project MPAC YEAR FALL SPRING SUMMER 13
  • Frreshman SRegister with Pre- AEnroll in ZOOL 110, and eBOTN 110 and your choice of Path A (Students with graduate or Pre-health CHEM 160 course at least 1000 SAT Advisor C articipate in P cParticipate in summer research Scores with AEnroll in BIO 150, and Supplemental Instructions with AHEC Competitive CHEM 140 and science and career Proficiency Exam Scores C eet with Pre- M enrichment activities graduate or Pre-health Advisor Freshman SRegister with Pre- oEnroll in BIO 150, or eEnroll in BOTN 110 and CHEM Path B (Students with graduate or Pre-health ZOOL 110 and CHEM 160, and your choice of course at least 800 SAT Advisor 140, or CHEM 160 to meet load requirement Scores with AEnroll in BIO 150 1Participate in t Participate in summer research Competitive or CHEM 140 Supplemental Instructions with AHEC Proficiency Exam and career and science Scores enrichment activities Sophomore SMeet with Pre- aEnroll in CHEM222 and sParticipate in an extramural graduate or Pre-health PHY112, and Sci. summer research or science Advisor Communications enrichment program AEnroll in BIO 200, C articipate in P CHEM221, PHY111 Supplemental Instructions C articipate in P and career and science Supplemental enrichment activities Instructions and career eApply to extramural and science enrichment summer research or activities science enrichment prog. Junior JMeet with Pre- AAdmissions Test FParticipate in an extramural graduate or Pre-health Preparation Workshop summer research or science Advisor PEnroll in Research and enrichment program AAdmissions Test Career Development eComplete Applications for Preparation Workshop course Admissions PParticipate in cParticipate in AContinue searching and Supplemental Supplemental Instructions applying to Financial Aid Instructions and career and career and science Programs and science enrichment enrichment activities activities eApply to extramural aRegister for spring summer research or Admissions Test science enrichment program pTake Admissions Test TSearch and apply to Financial Aid Programs Senior SComplete Applications FComplete Applications PWork, Rest or Travel and for Admissions (Early for Admissions (Early prepare for your journey through Admissions), return Admissions), return graduate or professional school secondary applications secondary applications immediately immediately i Continue searching i Continue searching and and applying to applying to Financial Aid Financial Aid Programs Programs 14
  • 15
  • III. Career Options and Choosing Schools There are a number of options available when choosing a graduate and professional health careers. Some include Masters’ and PhD Degrees in biology, chemistry, engineering, epidemiology, and professional health careers in allopathic medicine, osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, dentistry, nursing, optometry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, medical technology, physician assistant, physical therapy, occupational therapy, nuclear medicine, health and hospital administration, public health, audiology/speech pathology and biomedical engineering. Although you may have a strong interest in a career, it is always wise to have an alternative career in mind. Not everyone will be accepted to schools to which they apply and, oftentimes, students’ academic interests, personal needs and financial priorities change. Below, are some examples of careers to help you focus on careers that complement your values, interests, talents and abilities. Masters and Ph.D. degrees are offered to those who have an interest in a teaching or research career at a college or university. Anyone interested in these degrees must take the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) (visit www.ets.org), which graduate schools use as an indication or your preparedness for, and ability to complete their graduate program. While enrolled in these programs, teaching experience is often gained by teaching the laboratories of courses in your area of specialty. Generally, a Master’s Degree is earned after the completion of one to two years of course work, and in most cases, completion of a research defense and thesis. Depending on your progress, one or two years may be required to complete your research. Some Masters’ programs do not require the completion of a thesis, however, you familiarize yourself with career options choosing this degree. The Doctor in Philosophy Degree (PhD) is earned as a terminal degree, after completing a Master’s Degree, although, in some cases, it is not necessarily required in order to obtain the PhD Degree. Individuals interested in research or university teaching generally pursue PhD Degrees. The acquisition of research skills is the central experience of the doctoral experience. The typical PhD program constitutes a two-part experience of great depth and intensity. First, one must successfully complete course work, and, secondly, an intense, original research project, which is included in the defense seminar and dissertation. The dissertation, which demonstrates the student’s ability to execute independent research, is expected to describe, in detail, the student's research and results; the relevance of that research to previous work, and, the importance of the results in extending understanding of the topic. A PhD program is generally completed on an average of four to five years on the Master’s by-pass track. There are a growing number of graduate schools that offer PhDs to those who have not completed Masters’ Degrees, through a direct or Master’s by-pass 16
  • track. One should keep in mind that Masters’ Degrees are not automatically granted to those who have spent two or more years in graduate school, but for some reason, could not complete the PhD degree. What is allopathic medicine, as compared to osteopathic and podiatric medicine? Allopathic medicine, a practice that comes to mind to most people when they hear Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) Degree, involves treatment of disease through drugs and surgery, as well as preventive medicine and public health. Osteopathic medicine, is practiced by someone who has a Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.) Degree. This practice deals with similar treatment as allopathic medicine, plus a unique procedure called manipulative therapy. Manipulative therapy involves moving various parts of the anatomy, that are under stress or distortion, in order to correct musculoskeletal disorders, help restore normal functioning of other body systems and, to relieve pain. Osteopathic physicians are not bone specialists, but neither are they chiropractors. Osteopathic medicine also emphasizes the total body concept in which the patient is viewed as a self-regulating and self-healing person. Progressing through a history and philosophy of osteopathic medicine can be obtained from the Allied Health Pre-Health Advisor or directly from schools of osteopathy at http://www.aacom.org. Both M.D.'s and D.O.'s train for four years in medical school, take an internship for further study, can complete a residency program for specialization, and are state-licensed. Most D.O.'s are general practitioners -87% of all osteopaths, as compared to only 30% of all allopathic physicians. The greatest demand for specialists is definitely in primary care: family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics and obstetrics/gynecology. In addition, there currently is a demand for specialists in preventive medicine, geriatrics, medical genetics, oncology, neonatology, psychiatry and emergency medicine. Physician Assistants are also health care providers who are highly skilled health practitioners who, under the supervision of a physician, take medical histories, perform examinations, order and interpret tests and diagnose and treat illnesses. Training for physician assistants varies with the program, although usually two years of classes and clinical rotations in areas of medical specialties are required. For more information, visit http://www.aapa.org or see the Allied Health Pre-Health Advisor. Podiatric medicine is a specialty, practiced by a podiatrist, with a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) Degree, who is concerned with the care and treatment of the feet. The four years spent in a college of podiatric medicine are similar to other kinds of medical schools, but focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the human foot, using medical, surgical, palliative, bio-mechanical, manipulative and electrical techniques. A podiatrist may specialize in podiatric surgery, orthopedics and biomechanics, podiatric 17
  • medicine, podopediatrics, podegeriatrics, or podiatric sports medicine. There is currently a shortage of podiatrists, and as our population increases its interest in sports and exercising, and, as the number of elderly population increases, the need for podiatrists is predicted to significantly increase. For more information, please visit http://www.aacpm.org and http://www.apma.org Dentistry involves the prevention, diagnosis and correction of disease and injury to the teeth and supporting structures of the mouth. Four years of dental school lead to the Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S) or, less frequently, Doctor of Medical Dentistry (D.M.D) Degree. There are eight specialties within dentistry and all dentists are licensed to prescribe drugs and perform surgery. For more information, please visit www.ada.org and www.aads.jhu.edu or see the Pre- Dental Advisor. Optometry is a career requiring four years of education in a school of optometry, leading to a Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) Degree. Optometrists diagnose and prescribe lenses and other optical aids to correct vision, not be confused with ophthalmologists who are physicians specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases or opticians who make and sell glasses. For more information, please view www.opted.org and www.aaopt.org or see the Allied Health Advisor. ****************************************** The process of choosing the specific schools to which to apply usually begins in the sophomore year, when you are better able to assess your own academic abilities and are able to match them to the requirements of particular schools. You should consult the various handbooks of graduate and professional school requirements to get an idea of the types of students they accept and to get some information about the school’s size, its student support, and, its research opportunities. Another important factor to consider is whether or not a school gives admission preferences to state residents (along with lower tuition). Students who are unable to get into medical schools in the United States often consider foreign medical schools as an option. Along with their lower academic standards, these schools may or may not be accredited to allow training in US clinical programs. The difficulty of living in a foreign culture, studying medicine in a foreign language and attempting to transfer back to the U.S. are enough to suggest that students should take extreme caution in choosing this option. Some information about a few foreign medical schools is available from the Pre-Health Advisor. 18
  • GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS ATTENDED BY FSU GRADUATES IN THE PAST 10 YEARS American Institute of Medicine Barry University- School of Podiatric Medicine Campbell University Clark Atlanta University Duke University East Carolina University Howard University Logan College of of Chiropractic Medicine Meharry Medical College North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University North Carolina Central University North Carolina State University Ohio State University Pennsylvania College of Optometry Temple University Texas A & M University University of Florida University of Houston University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNCCH) University of South Carolina Xavier University at New Orleans, LA Colleges and Universities with Cooperative Programs with FSU Institutional Affiliation Program Website Address North Carolina Central Nursing http://web.nccu.edu/index.ht University ml Logan College of Chiropractic Medicine http://www.logan.edu Chiropractic Medicine Howard University Doctor of Pharmacy- http://www.howard.edu/conta Howard University cts College of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences Xavier University at B.S. Biology and http://www.xula.edu/pharmac New Orleans, LA PharmD y Temple University Doctor of Podiatric http://podiatry.temple.edu School of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M) Medicine *Please consult the FSU Undergraduate Catalog for a more information of programs and eligibility requirements. 19
  • IV. Important Information for Students in the Department of Natural Sciences Faculty Contacts for Departmental Programs and Services Program or Service Contact Person Location and Contact number Department of Natural Dr. Pinapaka Murthy LS 129, (910) 672-1691 Sciences, Chair Teacher Education Dr. Ronald Johnston LS 125, (910) 672-1650 FSU-RISE Dr. Juliette Bell LS 225, (910) 672-1659 Biotechnology Dr. Valeria Fleming LS 119, (910) 672-1688 AHEC Programs & Ms. Yanci Evans SR-AHEC (910) 678-7299 Services AHEC Programs & Dr. Tony Brown SR-AHEC (910) 678-7217 Services Project MPAC/Science Dr. James E. Raynor Jr. LS 232, (910) 672-1023 Club Advisor NC-LASAMP/FSU- Dr. Bertha HTC 105, (910) 672-1681 CAMP Change of Advisor Dr. Jarvis Hudson LS 228, (910) 672-1658 Beta Kappa Chi Dr. Floyd Waddle LS 215, (910) 672-1655 Scientific Honor Society Advisement and Registration All students must be admitted to the university, as a degree-seeking or special- visiting student, and assigned an academic advisor before they are allowed to register for classes at Fayetteville State University. Anyone who has never enrolled at FSU must file an application for admission at the Office of Admissions, Room 1 of the Barber Building in the E.E. Smith Administration Complex at (910) 672-1371 or (800) 222-2594 or admissions@uncfsu.edu for more information. Students who have previously attended FSU, but have not been enrolled for one or more semesters, must apply for readmission at the Office of Admissions before they are allowed to register. No student is permitted to register for classes before consulting with his or her officially assigned advisor. The advisor will provide the student with a registration code required for using the Web for Students (from university homepage, go to Web for Students) or the Telephone Information System, (910) 437-2501. 20
  • Students should see the following for advisement: Classification Advised By Location New Freshmen University College Helen T. Chick, Rm 110 Transfer Students (<30 University College Helen T. Chick, Rm 110 hr) Transfer Students (>30 Faculty Advisor in Major Lyons Science, Rm 129 hr) Readmit Students (<30 University College Helen T. Chick, Rm 110 hr) Readmit Students (>30 Advisement and Career SBE Building, Rm 230 hr) Services Center Special-Visiting University College Helen T. Chick, Rm 110 Undergraduate Students Graduate Students Department of Natural Lyons Science, Rm 129 Sciences Special-Visiting Graduate Department of Natural Lyons Science, Rm 129 Students Sciences Continuing Students Advisor in Major Department of Natural Sciences Important advisement note: Transfer students, who transfer in fewer than 30 hours are required to complete a University Studies (UNIV 110) course. Transfer students, who transfer in fewer than 60 hr are required to complete Critical Thinking (PHIL 110). If you have served or currently serving in the military, you are exempt form the Health/ Physical Education Requirement. Questions? Call (910) 672-1614. Declaration or Change of Major After students have earned at least 30 credit hours, he/she may declare a major. At such time, an academic advisor in the perspective major will be assigned. FSU. Transfer students, who transfer 30 or more credit hours, should declare a major immediately. Students may declare or change their majors officially, by competing the on-line Application, which is accessible under “Administrative Services: by clicking on “Current Students” page form the FSU Home Page. Students who wish to change their academic advisor in the Department of Natural Sciences should see Dr. Jarvis Hudson, located in the Lyons Science Bldg. Room 228, or call (910) 672-1658 for more information. Majors Meeting A Majors Meeting, presided by Dr. Pinapaka Murthy, Chair of the Department of Natural Sciences, is held each semester on a Tuesday or Thursday, during the first full week of classes. All students, who a science majors or intended to major in 21
  • science, are expected to attend. The department chair highlights topics such as introduction of faculty and students, discusses important updates and changes in major requirements, curriculum and course offerings in the department, as well as various programs and a service offered by the department, provides answers to students for questions they have regarding their majors or the department and introduces students to the FSU Science Club. For more information, contact Dr. Pinapaka Murthy, located in Lyons Science, room 129 or call (910) 672-1691. Student Organizations The Department of Natural Sciences houses two student organizations, the FSU Science Club, to which Dr. James E. Raynor, Jr., serves as advisor, and Beta Kappa Chi Scientific Honor Society, to which Dr. Floyd Waddle serve as advisor. The Fayetteville State University Science Club, although primarily comprised of biology and chemistry majors, promotes an open enrollment policy to all students. Since its inception at FSU over three decades ago, the Science Club promotes academic excellence in sciences, scientific awareness, and strong leadership. Beginning the fall of 2003, a pilot advisement program for pre-graduate and pre- professional health students called MPAC (Molding Pathways to Advanced Careers) will be implemented in the Department of Natural Sciences, under the auspices of the Science Club. The overall goal of the advisement program is to increase the number of biology and chemistry FSU graduates attending graduate and professional schools, by placing them on paths towards, and preparing them for these areas. With an average annual membership of more than 60 students, the Science Club sponsors many campus-wide, as well as community-based programs. As members of the Science Club, students enjoy a plethora of career development programs and fun activities, ranging from pre-graduate and pre-health profession seminars and field trips to graduate and professional schools, not to the exclusion of enjoying social events, such as pizza and skating parties, as well as going to the movies, to make the college experience of students meaningful and rewarding. For more information about the Science Club, visit the Science Club Website at http://faculty.uncfsu.edu/jraynor/scienceclub.htm or contact Dr. James E. Raynor, Jr., located in the Lyons Science Building, room 232 or call (910) 672-1023. The Beta Kappa Chi Scientific Honor Society was originally establishment by an African-American student scientific fellowship association took root in the minds of undergraduates at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. In 1960, Beta Kappa Chi qualified for membership in the Association of College Honor Societies and became known as Beta Kappa Chi National Honor Society. In 1965, nearly all Historically Black colleges and Universities (HBCUs) had campus chapters. Today, BKX is composed of over sixty chapters with over fifteen thousand initiates. The BKX bulletin is published three times a year. Having "Science holds the golden key to the royal palace of knowledge" as its motto, the essential reason for its existence is the 22
  • promotion of high scholarship in pure and applied sciences. Its ultimate purpose is the stimulation and motivation of intellectual growth and nurturing of quality leadership in the pursuit of scientific advancement. Membership is open to graduate and undergraduates majoring in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, computer science and clinical psychology. Undergraduate membership requirements are 60 hours of completed college work; a 3.0 cumulative grade point average; a 3.0 average in one of the areas recognized by the society; and there must be a minimum of 17 hours in the qualifying area. For more information, contact Dr. Floyd Waddle, located in Lyons Science Building room 215 or (910) 672-1655. To help students become familiar with important forms used in the department of Natural Sciences, the chart below has been designed. Important Forms used in the Department of Natural Sciences Name of Form Purpose of Form Form Completed Returned To Location By Advisement Pre-registration course Course Student One copy to Worksheet* worksheet Schedule Advisor and Publication student retains a copy Course Appeal an Instructors Department/ Student Instructor Withdrawal decision to withdraw Instructor Appeal* from course due to non- attendance Course To replace grade of Registrar Student Registrar Repeat* previously earned in a course with new grade earned Course Withdraw from a course Registrar Student Registrar Withdrawal* Course Substitution of a Department/ Advisor Department Waivers/ required course with a Advisor Substitutions course approved by advisor Course Pursuit of approval to Department/ Advisor Department Approval at take a course at another Advisor another institution Institution “I” Grade Student is unable to Department/ Instructor Department Justification* complete course Instructor Grade Change Change of grade on Department/ Instructor Department record Instructor Final Grade Change of “I” grade to a Department/ Instructor Department Report final grade Instructor 23
  • Request for Request for University Department/ Instructor Department Campus Leave approval for campus Instructor or leave Advisor Facility Request for use of Department Student/ Department Request campus facilities Advisor Advisor’s Advisor’s agreement be Student Student/ Student Affairs Certification present at an activity of Affairs Advisor Statement a campus organization Fund-Raising Request for approval of Student Student/ Student Affairs Application fund-raiser Affairs Advisor *Requires signature of student. See Appendix to view a copy of each form. 24