Chemical Weapons Worldwide Instructor- Mary Villani Classes: SBF6-01, SBF6-02, SBF6-03, SBF6-04
Chemical weapons utilize the toxic properties of chemical substances to create physical effects on an enemy.
Advancement in chemical weapons was predominately adapted in WWI.
August 1914: the French fired tear-gas grenades against the Germans.
July 1917: the Germans used mustard shells for the first time.
The usage of mustard, phosgene, and similar agents was eventually perfected during World War II.
Chemical Weapons: The Problem
Who Has Chemical Weapons? 1,000 10,000 Others 1,462 72,807 USA 56,000 419,340 Russia 4,627 60,000 Italy 9,000 200,000 Germany 8,000 190,000 France 8,109 188,706 British Empire 3,000 100,000 Austria-Hungary DEATH TOTAL CASUALTIES COUNTRY
The low cost of chemical weapons easily make them a primary option for terrorists to use
Chemical weapons are almost impossible to detect
One of the problems with chemical agents is that there is no easy way to protect oneself.
If a city were to experience a large-scale attack, people would have to wear an airtight, waterproof suit and gas mask at the time of the attack in order to be well protected .
The Gulf Wars proved that chemical weapons could be used against the military as well as civilians
Highly populated areas and vital cities make chemical weapon attacks more effective
Alternative to conventional weapons
Arms races or response to other proliferation:
Compensation for military weakness
State, proxy, or private terrorism
No safeguards - scale of defense efforts against major threats are unknown
Chemical weapons are capable of killing massive amounts of people.
A small release point can cover a larger radius.
The weapons instills fear and terror.
There are three effective methods to spread a chemical agent:
Through the air
Through the water supply
Through the food supply
Chemical weapons are also easily obtained
Power hungry countries hope to satisfy their need for tactical weapons
Chemical and biological weapons manufacturing information are readily available on the internet along with the new technologies for delivering weapons by missile, ammunition, and back packs
More money is being spent in governments for developing, producing and equipping chemical weapons than on other important issues such as education
The major use of chemical weapons is in terrorist attacks
Chemical weapons may not be located for some time
The earliest chemical weapons were airborne
Chemical warfare arose because of unresolved conflicts between countries.
The need to develop better weapons that were more effective for warfare led to the creation of chemical weapons
Chemical weapons delivered harmful chemicals fast to a vast amount of people
Chemical weapons are hard to detect: In 1995 a religious cult released a form of saran nerve gas in Tokyo's subway system during morning rush, it was not detected for over an hour
Disarmament of Chemical Weapons Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons’ (OPCW) proposed plan for disarmament. Early Efforts at Arms Control
Hague Gas Declaration
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
Chemical Agents NERVE AGENTS -agents include tuban, sarin and soman -mehtylphophonothioic acid(vx), in fatal doses, causes death within 15 minutes -respiratory doses of sarin kill within 1-10 minutes:doses absorbed through skin kill within 1-2 hours -lungs and eyes are quickest to absorb nerve agents -death is often a result of respiratory arrest BLISTER AGENTS -agents include mustard, nitrogen mustard, lewisite and phosgene -act on the eyes, mucous membranes, skin and blood-forming organs -there is no known treatments for sulfur or mustard gas poisoning -victims often die as a result of airway or bronchial obstruction or bacterial infection CHOKING AGENTS -agents include phosgene, diphosgene, chlorine and chloropicrin -phosgene is the most dangerous and most likely to be used -once a victim survives through first 48 hours, survival is likely -death often occurs within several hours -symptoms include coughing, choking and tightness in the chest
WHAT ARE THEY? “Sulfur mustards are vesicants and alkylating agents, more commonly known as blister agents. They are colorless when pure but are generally a yellow to brown color and have a slight garlic or mustard odor. Sulfur mustard in vapor and liquid forms can be absorbed through the eyes, skin and mucous membranes.”
Causes skin, eye and respiratory tract injury
Causes bone marrow suppression and neurologic and gastrointestinal toxicity
No antidote for sulfur mustard toxicity
Decontamination of all potentially exposed areas within minutes after exposure is the only effective means of decreasing tissue damage
WHAT IS IT? “VX is a highly toxic compound in both its liquid and vapor form that attacks the central nervous system. It is considered at least 100 times more toxic by entry through the skin than the nerve-agent sarin, and twice as toxic by inhalation. VX can persist for long periods under average weather conditions and for months in very cold conditions.” HEALTH EFFECTS: “VX can cause death minutes after exposure. It can enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, through the eyes and through the skin. Symptoms can vary but commonly include runny nose, water eyes, drooling, excessive sweating, difficulty in breathing, dimness of vision, nausea and twitching. It kills by attacking the body's voluntary muscle and gland "on switch," causing the muscles to tire so they can no longer sustain breathing.” VX TREATMENT: “Immediate treatment is decontamination by removing clothing and flushing the eyes and skin with water. Hospitals in many communities are stocking the antidotes.”
WHAT IS IT? “Sarin is a highly toxic compound in both its liquid and vapor state that attacks the central nervous system.” HEALTH EFFECTS: “Sarin can cause death minutes after exposure. It enters the body by inhalation, ingestion, through the eyes and the skin. Symptoms vary but commonly include a runny nose, watery eyes, drooling and excessive sweating, difficulty in breathing, dimness of vision, nausea, vomiting, twitching and headache. It kills by attacking the body's voluntary muscle and gland "on switch," causing the muscles to tire so they can no longer sustain breathing.” TREATMENT: “Immediate treatment is decontamination by removing clothing and flushing eyes and skin with water. Hospitals in many communities are stocking the antidotes.” Sarin
WHAT IS IT? Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent odor that is heavier than air. It reacts violently with many organic compounds, creating a fire and explosion hazard. HEALTH EFFECTS: Chlorine is corrosive to the eyes and the skin and can cause tearing, blurred vision and burns. Inhalation may cause labored breathing and lung edema. The symptoms of lung edema often do not manifest until a few hours after exposure. High exposure levels may result in death. TREATMENT: Fresh air in the case of inhalation and rinsing with plenty of water in case of exposure to skin and eyes Chlorine
WHAT IS IT? “Hydrogen cyanide is an extremely flammable, colorless gas or liquid. It gives off toxic fumes in a fire and is highly explosive.” HEALTH EFFECTS: “Exposure irritates the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. Symptoms are burning and redness for the skin and eyes. Inhalation causes confusion, drowsiness and shortness of breath, leading to collapse. The substance can affect the central nervous system, resulting in impaired respiratory and circulatory functions. Exposure can be fatal.” TREATMENT: “Fresh air in the case of inhalation and rinsing with plenty of water in the case of skin or eye exposure.” Hydrogen Cyanide
WHAT IS IT? "Soman is a human-made chemical warfare agent classified as a nerve agent. Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. They are similar to pesticides (insect killers) called organophosphates in terms of how they work and the kinds of harmful effects they cause. Soman is a clear, colorless, tasteless liquid with a slight camphor odor or rotting fruit odor. It can become a vapor if heated.” HEALTH EFFECTS : "People exposed to a low or moderate dose of soman by inhalation, ingestion (swallowing), or skin absorption may experience some or all of the following symptoms within seconds to hours of exposure: runny nose,watery eyes, pinpoint pupils, eye pain, blurred vision, drooling and excessive sweating, cough, chest tightness, rapid breathing, diarrhea, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, slow or fast heart rate, abnormally low or high blood pressure.” TREATMENT : "Treatment consists of removing soman from the body as soon as possible and providing supportive medical care in a hospital setting. Antidotes are available for soman. They are most useful if given as soon as possible after exposure including washing the body.” Soman
Detecting Chemical Weapons
Detection Paper: Detection paper is based on certain dyes being soluble in CW agents. Two dyes and a pH indicator are used, which are mixed with cellulose fibers in a paper without special coloring (unbleached). When a drop of CW agent is absorbed by the paper, it dissolves one of the pigments. Mustard agent dissolves a red dye and nerve agents a yellow.
Detection Tube: The detection tube for mustard agent is a glass tube containing silica gel impregnated with a substrate (DB-3). Air is sucked through the tube using a special pump. The reaction between the mustard agent and substrate is sped up by heating the tube with , e.g., a cigarette lighter. A developer is then added, and the result can be read
Detection Tickets: The ticket consists of two parts, one with enzyme-impregnated paper and the other with substrate-impregnated paper. When the package is broken and the enzyme paper wetted, the substrate part of the ticket is exposed to the test vapor by means of a pump. If the enzyme part of the ticket has turned a weak blue color, the nerve agent is not present in the air.
Detecting Chemical Weapons
"SPLAT”("Sticky Polymer Lethal Agent Tag”) can be used to shoot at dangerous threats at safe distances
The ION Microprobe
Detecting The Invisible: ION Mobility Spectrometry
“ Mobile Munitions Assessment System Advanced Sensors Project”
Effects of Chemical Weapons
Physical Effects – The symptoms of various chemical weapons range from irritation to the skin, damage to organs and nervous systems, to death. Over the course of the 20 th century, chemical weapons have been made much more deadly and designed to kill much more people.
Social Effects – Chemical weapons are used as a tool of terrorists not only because of the carnage it causes, but because it causes terror in the heart of the victims. A population that has chemical weapons are brought into a sense of hysteria. They are frightened and cause the entire society to be unable to function correctly.
Psychological Effects – A person becomes very paranoid with the threat of chemical weapons. Many healthy individuals might become afraid and think they have certain symptoms of a chemical attack even if they don’t. A good example of this stems from the Anthrax scare not so long ago.
Physical Effects of Chemical Weapons
Unexplained runny nose
Tightness in chest or difficulty in breathing
Unexplained sudden headaches
Strange or confused behavior
Severely pinpointed pupils
Tearing, red eyes
Wheezing, dyspnea, and coughing
Mass Spectrometry- Confirmation Tool
The use of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry as a routine self-service molecular weight confirmation tool by synthetic chemists has long been established.
API techniques do not efficiently ionize all organic compounds.
False negatives and positives may arise due to the discriminatory nature of API, leading the chemist to incorrect conclusions about the state of the reaction.
Mass spectrometers are sensitive detectors of isotopes based on their masses. They are used in carbon dating and other radioactive dating processes. The combination of a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph makes a powerful tool for the detection of trace quantities of contaminants or toxins.
Gas chromatography is a chromatographic technique that can be used to separate volatile organic compounds.
A gas chromatograph consists of a flowing mobile phase, an injection port, a separation column containing the stationary phase, and a detector.
The organic compounds are separated due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile gas phase and the stationary phase in the column.
Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography is a chromatographic technique used to separate volatile organic compounds. Gas Chromatography consists of:
A flowing mobile phase
An injection port
A separation column containing the stationary phase
Note: The organic compounds are separated due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile gas phase and the stationary phase in the column.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a chromatographic technique that is useful for separating organic compounds.
It consists of a stationary phase immobilized on a glass or plastic plate and a solvent.
The sample, either liquid or dissolved in a volatile solvent, is deposited as a spot on the stationary phase.
The separated spots are visualized with ultraviolet light or by placing the plate in iodine vapor.
The different components in the mixture move up the plate at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase.
Immunoassay An immunoassay will tell parents of an unborn baby if their child has any deficiencies or abnormalities in their antibodies. It is usually an indication of whether the baby will have anything wrong with his or her body when they are born. It is also a sign for babies with autism and other various diseases.
Determines the cause and manner of death by utilizing the techniques of analytical forensic toxicology.
Employs such techniques as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunoassay, and other sensitive analytical methods, it is possible to see if the use of drugs participated in the death of a person.
Answers are sought in the fluid and tissue samples recovered from the autopsy as well as from other relevant evidence uncovered by our investigation.
Forensic toxicology is a specialty area of analytical chemistry.
Toxicology is the science of adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
A toxicologist detects and identifies foreign chemicals in the body.
A descriptive toxicologist performs toxicity tests to evaluate the risk of exposure to humans.
A toxin is any material exerting a life threatening effect upon a living organism.
A mechanistic toxicologist determines how substances exert harmful effects on living organisms.
A regulatory toxicologist judges whether or not a substance has low enough risk to justify making it available to the public.
Eye protection must be worn at all times in the laboratory.
Students should wear durable clothing that covers the arms, legs, torso and feet.
An open flame may be ignited only when no flammable solvents are in the vicinity.
In case of a fire or imminently dangerous situation, notify everyone who may be affected immediately.
Eating, drinking and smoking are prohibited in the laboratory at all times.
Never carry out unauthorized experiments.
Never pipette using mouth suction.
Never force glass tubing through a rubber stopper.
Decontamination : Personal and equipment decontamination
Laboratories contain a greater number of hazardous materials in comparison to other environments and therefore certain safety practices must be implemented in order to avoid the risk of injury to workers.
Safety equipment available to protect workers: fire extinguishers, safety showers, eyewash fountains, explosion-proof refrigerators, chemical fume hoods, and safety shields.
Any chemical spill is classified as an emergency, no matter what the size. In case of a chemical spill the Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Unit must be notified.
The spill must be isolated.
Contaminated clothing must be removed and skin and eyes washed with soap and rinsed with water.
Control the spread and volume of the spill if possible by blocking the spread with equipment or absorbents.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS: EMERGENCY PROCEDURES:
Report a crime
Check criminal records databases
See lists of fugitives, missing persons, and sex offenders
File an accident report
License a handgun
Watch safety training videos
View crime and safety statistics
Learn about state and national homeland security efforts
Departments of public safety includes: State Bureau of Investigations, Crime Labs, Division of Fire Safety, commercial carrier inspection, weight load management office, Office of Narcotics Enforcement, or State Public Safety Telecommunications Network
In the event of a chemical
Civilians should seek
protection in shelters
with air filters.
Adults should utilize a simple civilian protection mask.
Younger children should use a protective jacket.
Children less than a year old should be carried in a “carry-cot.”
The federal government is spending seven billion dollars annually to deal with the threat of weapons of mass destruction, including chemical weapons.
The Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 1996 provides for training of fire, police, and emergency medical technicians in 120 of the largest cities in the country. Each city receives $300,000 from the Department of Defense for personal protection, decontamination, and detection equipment.
The Public Health Service will also set up Metropolitan Medical Strike Teams in each of the 120 cites, as well, with each city receiving $350,000 of equipment and pharmaceuticals.
Crime Scene Safety
Hand Protection Selected on the basis of the type of material being handled and the hazard(s) associated with the material
Eye Protection Safety glasses and goggles, should be worn when handling biological, chemical, and radioactive materials
Foot Protection Shoes that completely cover and protect the foot are essential
Head Protection In certain crime scenes where structural damage has or can occur, protective helmets should be worn.
Respiratory Protection Certain crime scenes, such as bombings and clandestine laboratories, can produce noxious fumes and other airborne contaminants in which responders must use respiratory protection
Crime Scene Safety
Approach upwind from the incident.
Wear a full PPE suit and SCBA equipment.
Avoid contact with liquids.
Be cautions of secondary devices.
Consider that the perpetrator may still be close by.
Personal Protective Equipment
In all crime scenes, the selection of personal protective equipment must be done in coordination with a hazard-risk assessment completed by trained and qualified personnel.
The hazard-risk assessment should identify the possible contaminants as well as the hazards associated with each product.
Crime Scene Safety
Chemical Weapon Safety
Gas Masks/Protective Gear: Very limiting and problematic due to the pressure they put on the face and difficulty breathing. No food or drink can be ingested. In order to protect against agents which can be absorbed through the skin, protective gear such as that shown at left must be worn.
Internal Room Filter:
An internal room filter pressurizes the air in a room and filters chemical agents out of the room.
An underground shelter provides a chemical-free environment in which one can live for extended periods of time.
(1) Foreign Assistance . No assistance shall be provided to that country under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 or the Arms Export Control Act other than assistance that is intended to benefit the people of that country directly and that is not channeled through governmental agencies or entities of that country.
(2) Multilateral Development Bank Assistance . The United States shall oppose any financial or technical assistance to that country by international financial institutions in accordance with section 701 of the International Financial Institutions Act (22 U.S.C. 262d).
(3) Denial of Credit or Other Financial Assistance . The United States shall deny any financial assistance by any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.
(4) Prohibition on Arms Sales . The United States Government shall not, under the Arms Export Control Act, sell any defense articles or services or issue any license for the export of items on the United States Munitions List.
(5) Exports of National Security-Sensitive Goods and Technology . No exports shall be permitted of any goods or technologies controlled for national security reasons under Export Administration Regulations.
(6) Further Export Restrictions . The Secretary of Commerce shall prohibit or substantially restrict exports to that country of goods, technology, and services (excluding agricultural commodities and products otherwise subject to control).
(7) Import Restrictions . Restrictions shall be imposed on the importation into the United States of specific articles.
(8) Landing Rights . At the earliest possible date, the Secretary of State shall terminate in a manner consistent with international law, the authority of any air carrier that is controlled by the government of that country to engage in air transportation.
The Arms Control and Disarmament Act Agency deals with the reduction and control of chemical weapons, their main goal is to disarm the world of chemical weapons. They will reinforce America’s national security by applying their strategies of chemical weapon control.
Over ten years ago Bush Sr. signed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction
There are still eight chemical weapons stockpiles in the United States, although according to federal law they must be destroyed, and should have been destroyed long ago.
The United States and other superpowers allied and conceded to create "a cooperative international nonproliferation policy" in attempts to prevent chemical weapons amongst other weapons from falling into the hands of weaker and more volatile countries. This policy, obviously, has not been too successful.
Canada’s Policy on Chemical Weapons
Enhancing intelligence capabilities
Creation of the Integrated Threat Assessment Center
The creation of Health Emergency Response Teams made up of health professionals from across the country, increasing Canada's ability to respond to health emergencies
Increase marine security along with US
A permanent forum on emergencies which allow strategic discussion of emergency management issue
Egypt’s Policy on Chemical Weapons
Egypt was the first country in the Middle East to obtain chemical weapons training, indoctrination, and material.
Chemical weapons are part of the Egyptian army's standard issue.
As of 1990 the Defense Intelligence Agency study "Offensive Chemical Warfare Programs in the Middle East" concluded that Egypt was continuing to conduct research related to chemical agents.
For several years prior to the 1991 Gulf War, Egypt was believed to have been working with Iraq on the production and stockpiling of chemical weapons.
“ In December 1998 the Republic of China's Ministry of National Defense denied that the island is developing chemical weapons.”
“ A MND spokesman stressed it has always been the ROC's policy to adhere to the Chemical Weapons Convention, which went into effect on April 29, 1997.”
“ According to the director of the Fourth Institute, the strategy of Taiwan's armed forces calls for strong defense [operations] - for which Taiwan need not consider at all the production of offensive chemical war agents.”
“ There are persistent public reports that Taiwan has a chemical weapons program, which may have been under way since 1989, for the high-priority development of offensive and defensive chemical weapons.”
Taiwan’s Policy on Chemical Weapons
New York State Policy
Centers for disease control and prevention are prepared with procedures to handle cases of chemical harm
the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has guidelines that are available to follow in the event of a chemical attack
The Agency for Toxic Substances and disease registry allows individuals to access the toxicological profiles of hundreds of chemicals
New York State Policy
New York has a particularly strong chemical weapons policy:
Disseminates detailed information it its citizens regarding possible threats and courses of action.
Trains employees to handle possible chemical weapon attacks.
Has a government which is extremely concerned regarding possible attacks in water, subways, trains, and city environments
The United States Customs Service and the Office of Public Security gave radiation detectors to New York cops. This allows them to detect if there is any chemical materials in the air.
Governor Pataki released the first Counter Terrorism Network for the law enforcement. The network broadcasts to law enforcement staff when there is a terrorism alert. This network has been given to law enforcement’s all over New York state.
The Department of Health has created the Health Alert Network which is a network between different hospitals. It allows them to share data on diseases that people have, which can lead to knowing if the diseases were caused by chemical weapons. If the disease is caused by a chemical weapon the Department of Health can then contact the appropriate authorities.
New York State Policy
Eliminate nuclear weapons
Prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction
Lower the deployment of Missile Defense by the Bush administration
Stop international arms trade
Promote global peace
New York State Policy The Peace Action of New York State (PANYS) is affiliated with Peace Action and currently has eleven locations in New York. This organization strives to:
New York State Policy
Be on the look out for:
An unusual increase in the number of people seeking care, especially with respiratory,
neurological, gastrointestinal or dermatological symptoms
Any clustering of symptoms or unusual age distribution (e.g. chemical exposure in children)
Any unusual clustering of patients in time or location (e.g. persons who attended the same public event)
California State Policy
The California Emergency Medical Services Authority provides resources and information for dealing with chemical and biological attacks and exposure
The EMSA has response systems to deal with any kind of attacks by providing the public with information and instructions
The EMSA has guide books available o the public in order to keep it informed about what to do in the event of any health emergency
Massachusetts State Policy
1998 :Medical Response to Biological Warfare and Terrorism Satellite Broadcast - 3 day course. 118 attendees representing personnel from: fire departments, state health department, local boards of health, MEMA, Hazmat teams, EMT teams, emergency rooms and HMOs.
2000 : MA Veterinary Medical Association contacted to provide emergency contact information on all MA veterinary practitioners for the purpose of follow-up in a zoonotic BT emergency.
Presentation on clinical aspects of anthrax vaccine given to all Air Force National Guard in MA.
2001 : Enhanced active surveillance activities at all MA laboratories initiated to assist in the early detection of BT and other disease causing organisms.
New Jersey State Policy New Jersey is extremely aware of its precarious position—close to New York and filled with several major highways and shopping malls. Similar to New York, a large concern of New Jersey’s is to be prepared in dealing with a chemical attack of any sort. They require trained officials and proper equipment. They also determine how much hospital space is required and if they are meeting the requirements.
Peace Action, which includes New Jersey Peace Action, is
America’s largest grass roots organization. Their goals are to:
Abolish nuclear war
Stop weapon trading
Promote a more peaceful economy
Encourage passive solutions to international problems
Peace Action undertakes these goals by:
Urging policy changes in Congress, The United Nations and towns everywhere
Educating the public by printing fact sheets, holding public meetings, and using the media
Persuading the public to vote for candidates who support peace
Promote conflict resolution programs in New Jersey Schools
New Jersey State Policy
Pennsylvania State Policy
Pennsylvania, especially Philadelphia, has been aggressive over chemical weapons preparedness:
Disseminates detailed information to its citizens regarding possible threats and courses of action.
Stays in tune with the Tri-State area in terms of policy precedents.
Trains employees to handle possible chemical weapon threats.
Has a government which is extremely concerned regarding possible chemical attacks in water, sewage, subways, and trains.
New York City Policy
To prepare for a chemical weapons attack on New York City…
Deals have been worked out with regional hospitals for emergency health care.
Negotiations have been made with at least one drug company in an effort to make medicine, such as antibiotics, quickly in an emergency.
Over $1 million has been spent to buy a dozen mobile emergency trailers filled with containment vessels to isolate chemicals
Plans are being made to build a $15 million crisis center near Ground Zero.
Department of Education Policy
If a student is found either possessing or using a chemical weapon upon school premises, possible disciplinary reactions include:
A Regional Superintendent’s suspension for a fixed period of 6-30 school days or 30-90 school days.
A Regional Superintendent’s suspension for one year with the possibility of early reinstatement after 90 school days.
A Regional Superintendent’s suspension for one year and an assignment to a Second Opportunity School without the opportunity for early reinstatement.
Expulsion for students who turned 17 prior to the beginning of the school year.
Department of Education Policy
The Department of Education has a solid list of rules, regulations and procedures for all schools to follow in the event of a chemical attack. These regulations are given to ensure order, cooperation, and to ensure the safety of students and staff.
Specific regulations include:
This ordained emergency group would go over the designated plan given by the Department of Education and choose a leader for their operations.
All members in the group will be trained for any type of safety drill; in case the leader is unavailable, any member will be able to take charge of the situation.
After becoming knowledgeable in all types of safety drills the group would have to inspect the external surroundings of the school to make sure that it is safe to go outdoors, or where specifically to go in case there is an attack.
Bronx Science Policy
The Bronx High School of Science has taken measures to ensure that everyone inside the building can be safe in case there is a chemical emergency:
When there is a chemical attack the gongs inside the building will ring and the teachers will prepare the students to exit.
Each room is assigned a specific route to take while exiting the premises in order to prevent any panic or crowding. When all are outdoors, the students and faculty are to get as far from the building in an orderly fashion until told to stop.
If there is a chemical attack inside the school then the school will be evacuated and each classroom would exit from its designated exit. If there is a chemical attack outside the school then the school close the doors and keep all students and faculty inside the school until it is safe to exit.
Everyone must be informed of the following procedures in case of a chemical attack:
Look for nearest exit
Seek higher ground/Go to an open space
Move as far away from the contaminated area as possible
Seek medical attention
Contact the authorities
Have a working radio on hand so as to keep up with emergency broadcasts
Stay away from contaminated people
Do not try to treat wounds yourself
In the event of a chemical attack, police, fire fighters, and paramedics should:
Keep out the media until the proper authorities are present
Determine and isolate the area of contamination
Decontaminate the infected
Place the city on high alert
Thoroughly investigate the crime scene
Decontaminate the scene
Pamphlets concerning safety and chemical weapons should be available to families.
All buildings should have emergency guidelines in case of a chemical attack occurs (including a map of the premises).
Local officials should be trained to deal with terrorist and/or chemical attacks and develop an immediate defense strategy.
A standard safety drill should be set in cases of chemical weapon emergencies.
Cities should build mobile emergency units and have them ready 24/7.
The Most Effective Feasible Policy
A trained force should be ready and present to keep order during a chemical attack.
Hospitals should be prepared to handle an attack and respond efficiently in emergencies.
Doctors should be present to help with both physical and psychological effects of chemical attacks.
Drug companies should be ready to make antidotes or medicines quickly, stockpile medication.
Ventilation systems should be installed in crisis centers and emergency bunkers.
Quarantine and treatment centers will be opened with the capacity for at least 25% of the population.
Chemical weapons should only be tested in secluded areas far from humans.
Transportation Bureau should working closely with the MTA and the Port Authority to ensure war-related precautions are in place.
The National Guard assists in patrolling the subway system.
Deploying critical response vans to events or major locations such as landmarks or tourist attractions.
Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Office of Public Health Preparedness to:
Coordinate a unified national response to national health emergencies
Coordinate with state and local authorities on public health issues
Work with HHS agencies for deployment of emergency health personnel and infectious disease surveillance.
The Most Effective Feasible Policy
Dept of Homeland Security’s four divisions:
Border and Transportation Security (ie. U.S. Coast Guard, Customs Service, etc)
Emergency Preparedness and Response (firefighters, police, and emergency medical technicians)
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures
Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection
Run a background checks on those who purchase chemicals in mass quantities.
Violations of policies can result in imprisonment.
Integration of classroom lessons on chemical weapons and emergency procedures.
Increase detection of chemical attacks by providing more funds to support research and development.
Federal government should provide safety kits that will provide protection against chemical attacks.
Kits should include various safety materials such as gas masks, protective clothing, air filters, etc, at a reasonable price.
Always have first aid kits and respirator kits around public areas.
International policies should be agreed upon to limit the production, testing, and use of chemical weapons.
All countries that wish to test chemical weapons must sign a treaty to establish that:
All facilities must have the highest security system
A country cannot use a chemical weapon on another country or it’s own people.
The Most Effective Feasible Policy
The Most Effective Feasible Policy
An annual check for chemical weapons must be made to every county within the United Nations.
Implement global classification of all known chemical agents.
Any country that possesses chemical weapons is required to register them with the United Nations.
Any country that is found with undisclosed chemical weapons must disarm those weapons.
The UN has the right to randomly perform inspections on any country to observe it’s chemical weapons status.
Development of new technologies used to locate chemical weapons.
Always have a contingency plan in place in case the first plan fails.
The LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee) develops and coordinates emergency response plans for chemical facilities within the county.
LEPC develops plans to educate, communicate, and protect local communities, in case of a chemical release.
Increase deployments of Harbor, Aviation, and Emergency Service Units.
COBRA (Chemical , Biological, or Radiological Actions) team deployments.
SAMPSON team deployments.
ARCHANGEL teams, composed of Emergency Services Personnel, bomb experts and investigators have been staged strategically in the city.
HAMMER teams, police and fire department experts in hazardous materials, are deployed jointly.
Production Staff Peter Baez Zachary Chen Jerllin Cheng James Chin Nicholas Fazal Emil Fraija Joshua Frost Wenjing Gao Alexandra Kostiw Emily Lin Tom Louie Yasmeen Majoka Christina Masterson Zuleyma Peralta Ryan Santiago John Shin Holly Tsang Alyssa Torres Justin Wang Justin Wong Irene Wu Frank Yang Melissa Yang Hayley Yee
Instructor Mary Villani
Student Coordinator Alyssa Torres
Mich Alvarez Brechtl Samiul Anwar Zachary Appel Neha Arora Peter Baez Corinne Bart Maryam Belly Kristian Berardi Michael Bernaudo Rakim Brooks Cinyeh Cai Chong Si Chang Eunice Chang Kristin Chen Zachary Chen Andrew Cheng Jeffrey Cheng Jerllin Cheng Tiffany Chiang James Chin Joseph Cho David Choi Colin Clancey Kevin Dong Nicholas Fazal Joan Ferreira Perry Flowers Emil Fraija Joshua Frost Wenjing Gao Elizabeth Garcia Jie Lu Geng Rosaly German Elizabeth Ginsberg Seth Giurato Gregory Gouras Denise Guerrero Mohan Harry John Howell Channing Hui Hosub Jason Hwang Mark Iong Anthony Jabbour Eric Jackman Noemi Jorge Janice Kang Allison Kim Daniel Kim Peter Kim Robert Kim Henry Kong Alexandra Kostiw Yanina Krasavtseva Michael Lam Nancy Lan Deneesha Lawrence Elizabeth Lee Jenny Lee Jessica Lee Paul Lee Raymond Lee Maximillion Lerner Emily Lin Lilan Ling Thomas Louie Jeffrey Lucas Grace Luk Clark Ma Ewa Maciukiewics Sidharth Makkar Kimberly Marcelino Christina Masterson Rebekkah Mavarrette Christina Mercado Miller Sayoko Yasmeen Mojoka Amanda Montano Yamin Murshed Cory Ng Karen Nunez Opeyemi Olanrewaju Hector Oritz Christopher Pae David Paik James Pajela Michele Palladino Kenny Pang James Park Paul Won Park Kenneth Parson Zuleyma Peralta Danielle Philip Shaveeta Radhamohan Sunil Ramchandani Christophe Raybon Ronnie Rogers Jr. Naomi Sachar Ryan Ross Santiago Madelyn Santos Stephanie Schneider Matthew Serrano Ezra Serrur Bethany Shields Chong Ho Shin Edward Shin Devekanand Singh Renelle Smith Shazia Sohrawardy Michael Strong Randy Suarez Surrendra Sukhu Neda Tangchakkrachai Alyssa Torres Sara Maeve Torres Christien Toyen Holly Tsang Lynn Tsao Amir Uddin Yeisy Urbaez Justin Wang Erik Whyne Samantha Wolner Andrew Wong Tiphanie Wong Irene Wu Xing Zhou Xu Melissa Yang Yifan Yang Hayley Yee Michael Yeh Candice Yip Su Jin You Siming Zhu Researchers