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  1. 1. Chemical Weapons Worldwide Instructor- Mary Villani Classes: SBF6-01, SBF6-02, SBF6-03, SBF6-04
  2. 2. Chemical weaponsutilizethetoxic propertiesof chemical substancesto createphysical effectson an enemy. Advancement in chemical weaponswas predominately adapted in WWI. August 1914: theFrench fired tear-gasgrenades against theGermans.  July 1917: theGermansused mustard shellsfor the first time. Theusageof mustard, phosgene, and similar agents waseventually perfected during World War II. Chemical Weapons: TheProblem
  3. 3. Who HasChemical Weapons? 1,00010,000Others 1,46272,807USA 56,000419,340Russia 4,62760,000Italy 9,000200,000Germany 8,000190,000France 8,109188,706British Empire 3,000100,000Austria-Hungary DEATHTOTAL CASUALTIESCOUNTRY
  4. 4. Causes Thelow cost of chemical weaponseasily makethem aprimary option for terroriststo use Chemical weaponsarealmost impossibleto detect Oneof theproblemswith chemical agentsisthat thereisno easy way to protect oneself. If acity wereto experiencealarge-scaleattack, peoplewould haveto wear an airtight, waterproof suit and gasmask at thetimeof theattack in order to bewell protected. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 $2,000 Conventional weapons Nuclear weapons Chemical weapons $ cost per square kilometer
  5. 5. Causes TheGulf Warsproved that chemical weaponscould beused against themilitary aswell ascivilians Highly populated areasand vital citiesmakechemical weapon attacksmoreeffective Prestige Deterrence Alternativeto conventional weapons Armsracesor responseto other proliferation: Algeria-Libya-Morocco Egypt-Israel-Syria Iran-Iraq-Southern Gulf North Korea India-Pakistan Compensation for military weakness State, proxy, or privateterrorism No safeguards- scaleof defenseeffortsagainst major threatsareunknown
  6. 6. Causes Chemical weaponsarecapableof killing massiveamountsof people. A small releasepoint can cover alarger radius. Theweaponsinstillsfear and terror. Therearethreeeffectivemethodsto spread achemical agent: Through theair Through thewater supply Through thefood supply Chemical weaponsarealso easily obtained Power hungry countrieshopeto satisfy their need for tactical weapons
  7. 7. Causes Chemical and biological weaponsmanufacturing information arereadily availableon theinternet along with thenew technologiesfor delivering weaponsby missile, ammunition, and back packs Moremoney isbeing spent in governmentsfor developing, producing and equipping chemical weaponsthan on other important issuessuch aseducation Themajor useof chemical weaponsisin terrorist attacks Chemical weaponsmay not belocated for sometime Theearliest chemical weaponswereairborne
  8. 8. Causes Chemical warfarearosebecauseof unresolved conflictsbetween countries. Theneed to develop better weaponsthat weremoreeffectivefor warfareled to thecreation of chemical weapons Chemical weaponsdelivered harmful chemicalsfast to avast amount of people Chemical weaponsarehard to detect: In 1995 areligiouscult released aform of saran nervegasin Tokyo'ssubway system during morning rush, it wasnot detected for over an hour
  9. 9. Disarmament of Chemical Weapons Organization for theProhibition of Chemical Weapons’ (OPCW) proposed plan for disarmament. Early Efforts at Arms Control Strasbourg Agreement BrusselsDeclaration HagueGasDeclaration GenevaProtocol Chemical WeaponsConvention (CWC) OPCW
  10. 10. Chemical Agents NERVE AGENTS -agents include tuban, sarin and soman -mehtylphophonothioic acid(vx), in fatal doses, causes death within 15 minutes -respiratory doses of sarin kill within 1-10 minutes:doses absorbed through skin kill within 1-2 hours -lungs and eyes are quickest to absorb nerve agents -death is often a result of respiratory arrest BLISTER AGENTS -agents include mustard, nitrogen mustard, lewisite and phosgene -act on the eyes, mucous membranes, skin and blood- forming organs -there is no known treatments for sulfur or mustard gas poisoning -victims often die as a result of airway or bronchial obstruction or bacterial infection CHOKING AGENTS -agents include phosgene, diphosgene, chlorine and chloropicrin -phosgene is the most dangerous and most likely to be used -once a victim survives through first 48 hours, survival is likely -death often occurs within several hours -symptoms include coughing, choking and tightness in the chest
  11. 11. WHATARETHEY? “Sulfur mustardsarevesicantsand alkylating agents, more commonly known asblister agents. They arecolorlesswhen purebut aregenerally ayellow to brown color and haveaslight garlic or mustard odor. Sulfur mustard in vapor and liquid formscan beabsorbed through theeyes, skin and mucous membranes.” HEALTHEFFECTS: •Causesskin, eyeand respiratory tract injury •Causesbonemarrow suppression and neurologic and gastrointestinal toxicity TREATMENT: •No antidotefor sulfur mustard toxicity •Decontamination of all potentially exposed areaswithin minutesafter exposureistheonly effectivemeansof decreasing tissuedamage Sulfur Mustards
  12. 12. WHATIS IT? “VX isahighly toxic compound in both itsliquid and vapor form that attacksthecentral nervoussystem. It isconsidered at least 100 timesmoretoxic by entry through theskin than thenerve-agent sarin, and twiceastoxic by inhalation. VX can persist for long periodsunder averageweather conditions and for monthsin very cold conditions.” HEALTHEFFECTS: “VX can causedeath minutesafter exposure. It can enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, through theeyesand through theskin. Symptomscan vary but commonly includerunny nose, water eyes, drooling, excessivesweating, difficulty in breathing, dimnessof vision, nauseaand twitching. It killsby attacking thebody'svoluntary muscleand gland "on switch," causing themusclesto tireso they can no longer sustain breathing.” VX TREATMENT: “Immediatetreatment is decontamination by removing clothing and flushing theeyesand skin with water. Hospitalsin many communitiesarestocking the antidotes.”
  13. 13. WHATIS IT? “Sarin isahighly toxic compound in both itsliquid and vapor statethat attacksthecentral nervoussystem.” HEALTHEFFECTS: “Sarin can causedeath minutesafter exposure. It entersthe body by inhalation, ingestion, through theeyesand the skin. Symptomsvary but commonly includearunny nose, watery eyes, drooling and excessivesweating, difficulty in breathing, dimnessof vision, nausea, vomiting, twitching and headache. It killsby attacking thebody'svoluntary muscleand gland "on switch," causing themusclesto tire so they can no longer sustain breathing.” TREATMENT: “Immediatetreatment isdecontamination by removing clothing and flushing eyesand skin with water. Hospitals in many communitiesarestocking theantidotes.” Sarin
  14. 14. WHATIS IT? Chlorineisagreenish-yellow gaswith apungent odor that is heavier than air. It reactsviolently with many organic compounds, creating afireand explosion hazard. HEALTHEFFECTS: Chlorineiscorrosiveto theeyesand theskin and can cause tearing, blurred vision and burns. Inhalation may cause labored breathing and lung edema. Thesymptomsof lung edemaoften do not manifest until afew hoursafter exposure. High exposurelevelsmay result in death. TREATMENT: Fresh air in thecaseof inhalation and rinsing with plenty of water in caseof exposureto skin and eyes Chlorine
  15. 15. WHATIS IT? “Hydrogen cyanideisan extremely flammable, colorlessgas or liquid. It givesoff toxic fumesin afireand ishighly explosive.” HEALTHEFFECTS: “Exposureirritatestheeyes, theskin and therespiratory tract. Symptomsareburning and rednessfor theskin and eyes. Inhalation causesconfusion, drowsinessand shortness of breath, leading to collapse. Thesubstancecan affect the central nervoussystem, resulting in impaired respiratory and circulatory functions. Exposurecan befatal.” TREATMENT: “Fresh air in thecaseof inhalation and rinsing with plenty of water in thecaseof skin or eyeexposure.” Hydrogen Cyanide
  16. 16. WHATIS IT? "Soman isahuman-madechemical warfareagent classified asanerveagent. Nerveagentsarethemost toxic and rapidly acting of theknown chemical warfareagents. They aresimilar to pesticides(insect killers) called organophosphatesin termsof how they work and thekindsof harmful effectsthey cause. Soman isaclear, colorless, tastelessliquid with aslight camphor odor or rotting fruit odor. It can become avapor if heated.” HEALTHEFFECTS: "Peopleexposed to alow or moderatedoseof soman by inhalation, ingestion (swallowing), or skin absorption may experiencesomeor all of thefollowing symptomswithin secondsto hoursof exposure: runny nose,watery eyes, pinpoint pupils, eyepain, blurred vision, drooling and excessivesweating, cough, chest tightness, rapid breathing, diarrhea, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, slow or fast heart rate, abnormally low or high blood pressure.” TREATMENT: "Treatment consistsof removing soman from thebody assoon aspossibleand providing supportive medical carein ahospital setting. Antidotesareavailablefor soman. They aremost useful if given as soon aspossibleafter exposureincluding washing thebody.” Soman
  17. 17. Detecting Chemical Weapons Detection Paper: Detection paper isbased on certain dyesbeing solublein CW agents. Two dyesand apH indicator areused, which aremixed with cellulosefibersin apaper without special coloring (unbleached). When adrop of CW agent isabsorbed by thepaper, it dissolvesoneof thepigments. Mustard agent dissolvesared dyeand nerveagentsa yellow. Detection Tube: Thedetection tubefor mustard agent isaglasstubecontaining silicagel impregnated with asubstrate(DB-3). Air issucked through thetubeusing aspecial pump. Thereaction between themustard agent and substrateissped up by heating thetubewith , e.g., acigarettelighter. A developer isthen added, and theresult can beread Detection Tickets: Theticket consistsof two parts, onewith enzyme-impregnated paper and theother with substrate-impregnated paper. When thepackageisbroken and the enzymepaper wetted, thesubstratepart of theticket isexposed to thetest vapor by means of apump. If theenzymepart of theticket hasturned aweak bluecolor, thenerveagent is not present in theair.
  18. 18. Detecting Chemical Weapons "SPLAT”("Sticky Polymer Lethal Agent Tag”) can beused to shoot at dangerous threatsat safedistances X-rays TheION Microprobe Detecting TheInvisible: ION Mobility Spectrometry “MobileMunitionsAssessment System Advanced SensorsProject”
  19. 19. Effectsof Chemical Weapons Physical Effects– Thesymptomsof variouschemical weaponsrangefrom irritation to theskin, damageto organsand nervoussystems, to death. Over thecourseof the20th century, chemical weaponshavebeen mademuch moredeadly and designed to kill much morepeople. Social Effects– Chemical weaponsareused asatool of terroristsnot only becauseof the carnageit causes, but becauseit causesterror in theheart of thevictims. A population that haschemical weaponsarebrought into asenseof hysteria. They arefrightened and causetheentiresociety to beunableto function correctly. Psychological Effects– A person becomesvery paranoid with thethreat of chemical weapons. Many healthy individualsmight becomeafraid and think they havecertain symptomsof achemical attack even if they don’t. A good exampleof thisstemsfrom theAnthrax scarenot so long ago.
  20. 20. Physical Effectsof Chemical Weapons MILD SYMPTOMS Unexplained runny nose Sudden drooling Difficulty seeing Stomach cramps Nausea Tightnessin chest or difficulty in breathing Unexplained sudden headaches SEVERE SYMPTOMS Strangeor confused behavior Vomiting Severely pinpointed pupils Tearing, red eyes Wheezing, dyspnea, and coughing Respiratory failure Involuntary urination Convulsions Unconsciousness
  21. 21. MassSpectrometry- Confirmation Tool Theuseof atmospheric pressure ionization (API) massspectrometry asa routineself-servicemolecular weight confirmation tool by synthetic chemists haslong been established. API techniquesdo not efficiently ionize all organic compounds. Falsenegativesand positivesmay arise dueto thediscriminatory natureof API, leading thechemist to incorrect conclusionsabout thestateof the reaction.
  22. 22. MassSpectrometry Massspectrometersaresensitive detectorsof isotopesbased on their masses. They areused in carbon dating and other radioactivedating processes. Thecombination of a massspectrometer and agas chromatograph makesapowerful tool for thedetection of trace quantitiesof contaminantsor toxins.
  23. 23. GasChromatography Gaschromatography isachromatographic techniquethat can beused to separatevolatile organic compounds. A gaschromatograph consistsof aflowing mobilephase, an injection port, aseparation column containing thestationary phase, and a detector. Theorganic compoundsareseparated dueto differencesin their partitioning behavior between themobilegasphaseand thestationary phasein thecolumn.
  24. 24. GasChromatography Gaschromatography isachromatographic technique used to separatevolatileorganic compounds. Gas Chromatography consistsof: A flowing mobilephase An injection port A separation column containing thestationary phase A detector Note: Theorganic compoundsareseparated dueto differencesin their partitioning behavior between themobilegasphase and thestationary phasein thecolumn.
  25. 25. Thin Layer Chromatography Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) isa chromatographic techniquethat isuseful for separating organic compounds. It consistsof astationary phase immobilized on aglassor plastic plateand a solvent. Thesample, either liquid or dissolved in a volatilesolvent, isdeposited asaspot on the stationary phase. Theseparated spotsarevisualized with ultraviolet light or by placing theplatein iodinevapor. Thedifferent componentsin themixture moveup theplateat different ratesdueto differencesin their partitioning behavior between themobileliquid phaseand the stationary phase.
  26. 26. Immunoassay An immunoassay will tell parentsof an unborn baby if their child hasany deficiencies or abnormalitiesin their antibodies. It is usually an indication of whether thebaby will haveanything wrong with hisor her body when they areborn. It isalso asign for babies with autism and other variousdiseases.
  27. 27. Forensic Toxicology Determinesthecauseand manner of death by utilizing thetechniquesof analytical forensic toxicology. Employssuch techniquesasgas chromatography, liquid chromatography, massspectrometry, immunoassay, and other sensitive analytical methods, it ispossibleto see if theuseof drugsparticipated in the death of aperson. Answersaresought in thefluid and tissuesamplesrecovered from the autopsy aswell asfrom other relevant evidenceuncovered by our investigation.
  28. 28. Forensic Toxicology Forensic toxicology isaspecialty area of analytical chemistry. Toxicology isthescienceof adverse effectsof chemicalson living organisms. A toxicologist detectsand identifies foreign chemicalsin thebody. A descriptivetoxicologist performs toxicity teststo evaluatetherisk of exposureto humans. A toxin isany material exerting alife threatening effect upon aliving organism. A mechanistic toxicologist determineshow substancesexert harmful effectson living organisms. A regulatory toxicologist judgeswhether or not asubstancehaslow enough risk to justify making it availableto thepublic.
  29. 29. Eyeprotection must beworn at all timesin the laboratory. Studentsshould wear durableclothing that covers thearms, legs, torso and feet. An open flamemay beignited only when no flammablesolventsarein thevicinity. In caseof afireor imminently dangeroussituation, notify everyonewho may beaffected immediately. Eating, drinking and smoking areprohibited in the laboratory at all times. Never carry out unauthorized experiments. Never pipetteusing mouth suction. Never forceglasstubing through arubber stopper. Laboratory Safety
  30. 30. Laboratory Safety Within thelab therearefour main areasof protection against chemical weapons: Physical Protection: PPE suits, SCBAs Medical Protection: pretreatment, therapy Detection: monitoring, alarms& all- clears, staff identification Decontamination: Personal and equipment decontamination
  31. 31. Laboratory Safety Laboratoriescontain agreater number of hazardousmaterialsin comparison to other environmentsand thereforecertain safety practicesmust beimplemented in order to avoid therisk of injury to workers. Safety equipment availableto protect workers: fireextinguishers, safety showers, eyewash fountains, explosion- proof refrigerators, chemical fume hoods, and safety shields. Any chemical spill isclassified asan emergency, no matter what thesize. In caseof achemical spill theHazardous Materials(HAZMAT) Unit must be notified. Thespill must beisolated. Contaminated clothing must be removed and skin and eyeswashed with soap and rinsed with water. Control thespread and volumeof the spill if possibleby blocking thespread with equipment or absorbents. GENERALPRECAUTIONS: EMERGENCY PROCEDURES:
  32. 32. Public Safety Report acrime Check criminal recordsdatabases Seelistsof fugitives, missing persons, and sex offenders Filean accident report Licenseahandgun Watch safety training videos View crimeand safety statistics Learn about stateand national homeland security efforts Departmentsof public safety includes: StateBureau of Investigations, CrimeLabs, Division of FireSafety, commercial carrier inspection, weight load management office, Officeof NarcoticsEnforcement, or StatePublic Safety TelecommunicationsNetwork
  33. 33. Public Safety In theevent of achemical attack: Civiliansshould seek protection in shelters with air filters. Adultsshould utilizeasimplecivilian protection mask. Younger children should usea protectivejacket. Children lessthan ayear old should be carried in a“carry-cot.”
  34. 34. Public Safety Thefederal government isspending seven billion dollars annually to deal with thethreat of weaponsof mass destruction, including chemical weapons. TheDefenseAgainst Weaponsof MassDestruction Act of 1996 providesfor training of fire, police, and emergency medical techniciansin 120 of thelargest citiesin the country. Each city receives$300,000 from theDepartment of Defensefor personal protection, decontamination, and detection equipment. ThePublic Health Servicewill also set up Metropolitan Medical StrikeTeamsin each of the120 cites, aswell, with each city receiving $350,000 of equipment and pharmaceuticals.
  35. 35. CrimeSceneSafety Hand Protection Selected on thebasisof thetypeof material being handled and thehazard(s) associated with thematerial Eye Protection Safety glassesand goggles, should beworn when handling biological, chemical, and radioactivematerials Foot Protection Shoesthat completely cover and protect thefoot areessential Head Protection In certain crimesceneswherestructural damagehasor can occur, protectivehelmetsshould be worn. Respiratory Protection Certain crimescenes, such asbombingsand clandestinelaboratories, can producenoxious fumesand other airbornecontaminantsin which respondersmust userespiratory protection
  36. 36. CrimeSceneSafety Approach upwind from the incident. Wear afull PPE suit and SCBA equipment. Avoid contact with liquids. Becautionsof secondary devices. Consider that theperpetrator may still be closeby.
  37. 37. Personal Protective Equipment In all crimescenes, theselection of personal protectiveequipment must be donein coordination with ahazard-risk assessment completed by trained and qualified personnel. Thehazard-risk assessment should identify thepossiblecontaminantsaswell asthehazardsassociated with each product. CrimeSceneSafety
  38. 38. Chemical Weapon Safety Gas Masks/Pro tective Gear: Very limiting and problematic dueto the pressurethey put on thefaceand difficulty breathing. No food or drink can beingested. In order to protect against agentswhich can beabsorbed through theskin, protectivegear such as that shown at left must beworn. InternalRo o m Filter: An internal room filter pressurizesthe air in aroom and filterschemical agents out of theroom. Undergro und Shelter: An underground shelter providesa chemical-freeenvironment in which one can livefor extended periodsof time.
  39. 39. Federal Policy (1) Foreign Assistance. No assistanceshall beprovided to that country under theForeign AssistanceAct of 1961 or the ArmsExport Control Act other than assistancethat isintended to benefit thepeopleof that country directly and that isnot channeled through governmental agenciesor entitiesof that country. (2) Multilateral Development Bank Assistance. TheUnited Statesshall opposeany financial or technical assistanceto that country by international financial institutionsin accordancewith section 701 of theInternational Financial InstitutionsAct (22 U.S.C. 262d). (3) Denial of Credit or Other Financial Assistance. TheUnited Statesshall deny any financial assistanceby any department, agency, or instrumentality of theUnited StatesGovernment. (4) Prohibition on ArmsSales. TheUnited StatesGovernment shall not, under theArmsExport Control Act, sell any defensearticlesor servicesor issueany licensefor theexport of itemson theUnited StatesMunitionsList. (5) Exportsof National Security-SensitiveGoodsand Technology. No exportsshall bepermitted of any goodsor technologiescontrolled for national security reasonsunder Export Administration Regulations. (6) Further Export Restrictions. TheSecretary of Commerceshall prohibit or substantially restrict exportsto that country of goods, technology, and services(excluding agricultural commoditiesand productsotherwisesubject to control). (7) Import Restrictions. Restrictionsshall beimposed on theimportation into theUnited Statesof specific articles. (8) Landing Rights. At theearliest possibledate, theSecretary of Stateshall terminatein amanner consistent with international law, theauthority of any air carrier that iscontrolled by thegovernment of that country to engagein air transportation.
  40. 40. Federal Policy TheArmsControl and Disarmament Act Agency dealswith thereduction and control of chemical weapons, their main goal isto disarm theworld of chemical weapons. They will reinforceAmerica’snational security by applying their strategiesof chemical weapon control. Over ten yearsago Bush Sr. signed theConvention on theProhibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Useof Chemical Weaponsand on Their Destruction Therearestill eight chemical weaponsstockpilesin theUnited States, although according to federal law they must bedestroyed, and should havebeen destroyed long ago. TheUnited Statesand other superpowersallied and conceded to create"acooperative international nonproliferation policy" in attemptsto prevent chemical weaponsamongst other weaponsfrom falling into thehandsof weaker and morevolatilecountries. This policy, obviously, hasnot been too successful.
  41. 41. Canada’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons Enhancing intelligencecapabilities Creation of theIntegrated Threat Assessment Center Thecreation of Health Emergency ResponseTeamsmadeup of health professionalsfrom acrossthecountry, increasing Canada'sability to respond to health emergencies Increasemarinesecurity along with US A permanent forum on emergencies which allow strategic discussion of emergency management issue
  42. 42. Egypt’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons Egypt wasthefirst country in theMiddleEast to obtain chemical weaponstraining, indoctrination, and material. Chemical weaponsarepart of theEgyptian army'sstandard issue. Asof 1990 theDefenseIntelligenceAgency study "Offensive Chemical WarfareProgramsin theMiddleEast" concluded that Egypt wascontinuing to conduct research related to chemical agents. For several yearsprior to the1991 Gulf War, Egypt was believed to havebeen working with Iraq on theproduction and stockpiling of chemical weapons.
  43. 43. “In December 1998 theRepublic of China'sMinistry of National Defensedenied that theisland isdeveloping chemical weapons.” “A MND spokesman stressed it hasalwaysbeen theROC'spolicy to adhereto theChemical WeaponsConvention, which went into effect on April 29, 1997.” “According to thedirector of theFourth Institute, thestrategy of Taiwan'sarmed forcescallsfor strong defense[operations] - for which Taiwan need not consider at all theproduction of offensive chemical war agents.” “Therearepersistent public reportsthat Taiwan hasachemical weaponsprogram, which may havebeen under way since1989, for thehigh-priority development of offensiveand defensivechemical weapons.” Taiwan’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons
  44. 44. New York StatePolicy Centersfor diseasecontrol and prevention areprepared with procedures to handlecasesof chemical harm theNew York City Department of Health and Mental Hygienehas guidelinesthat areavailableto follow in theevent of achemical attack TheAgency for Toxic Substancesand diseaseregistry allowsindividualsto accessthetoxicological profilesof hundredsof chemicals
  45. 45. New York StatePolicy New York hasaparticularly strong chemical weaponspolicy: Disseminatesdetailed information it its citizensregarding possiblethreatsand coursesof action. Trainsemployeesto handlepossiblechemical weapon attacks. Hasagovernment which isextremely concerned regarding possibleattacksin water, subways, trains, and city environments
  46. 46. TheUnited StatesCustomsServiceand theOfficeof Public Security gaveradiation detectors to New York cops. Thisallowsthem to detect if thereisany chemical materialsin theair. Governor Pataki released thefirst Counter Terrorism Network for thelaw enforcement. The network broadcaststo law enforcement staff when thereisaterrorism alert. Thisnetwork has been given to law enforcement’sall over New York state. TheDepartment of Health hascreated theHealth Alert Network which isanetwork between different hospitals. It allowsthem to sharedataon diseasesthat peoplehave, which can lead to knowing if thediseaseswerecaused by chemical weapons. If thediseaseiscaused by a chemical weapon theDepartment of Health can then contact theappropriateauthorities. New York StatePolicy
  47. 47. Eliminatenuclear weapons Prevent thespread of weaponsof massdestruction Lower thedeployment of MissileDefenseby the Bush administration Stop international armstrade Promoteglobal peace The Peace Action of New York State (PANYS) is affiliated with Peace Action and currently has eleven locations in New York. This organization strives to: New York StatePolicy
  48. 48. New York StatePolicy Beon thelook out for: An unusual increasein thenumber of peopleseeking care, especially with respiratory, neurological, gastrointestinal or dermatological symptoms Any clustering of symptomsor unusual agedistribution (e.g. chemical exposure in children) Any unusual clustering of patientsin timeor location (e.g. personswho attended thesamepublic event)
  49. 49. CaliforniaStatePolicy TheCaliforniaEmergency Medical ServicesAuthority providesresources and information for dealing with chemical and biological attacksand exposure TheEMSA hasresponsesystemsto deal with any kind of attacksby providing thepublic with information and instructions TheEMSA hasguidebooksavailableo thepublic in order to keep it informed about what to do in theevent of any health emergency
  50. 50. MassachusettsStatePolicy 1998:Medical Responseto Biological Warfareand Terrorism SatelliteBroadcast - 3 day course. 118 attendeesrepresenting personnel from: firedepartments, statehealth department, local boardsof health, MEMA, Hazmat teams, EMT teams, emergency roomsand HMOs. 2000: MA Veterinary Medical Association contacted to provideemergency contact information on all MA veterinary practitionersfor thepurposeof follow-up in a zoonotic BT emergency. •Presentation on clinical aspectsof anthrax vaccine given to all Air ForceNational Guard in MA. 2001: Enhanced activesurveillanceactivitiesat all MA laboratoriesinitiated to assist in theearly detection of BT and other diseasecausing organisms.
  51. 51. New Jersey StatePolicy New Jersey isextremely awareof itsprecarious position—closeto New York and filled with several major highwaysand shopping malls. Similar to New York, alargeconcern of New Jersey’sisto beprepared in dealing with a chemical attack of any sort. They requiretrained officialsand proper equipment. They also determinehow much hospital spaceisrequired and if they aremeeting therequirements.
  52. 52. PeaceAction, which includesNew Jersey PeaceAction, is America’slargest grassrootsorganization. Their goalsareto: Abolish nuclear war Stop weapon trading Promoteamorepeaceful economy Encouragepassivesolutionsto international problems PeaceAction undertakesthesegoalsby: Urging policy changesin Congress, TheUnited Nations and townseverywhere Educating thepublic by printing fact sheets, holding public meetings, and using themedia Persuading thepublic to votefor candidateswho support peace Promoteconflict resolution programsin New Jersey Schools New Jersey StatePolicy
  53. 53. PennsylvaniaStatePolicy Pennsylvania, especially Philadelphia, hasbeen aggressiveover chemical weaponspreparedness: Disseminatesdetailed information to itscitizens regarding possiblethreatsand coursesof action. Staysin tunewith theTri-Stateareain termsof policy precedents. Trainsemployeesto handlepossiblechemical weapon threats. Hasagovernment which isextremely concerned regarding possiblechemical attacksin water, sewage, subways, and trains.
  54. 54. New York City Policy Toprepareforachemicalweapons attackonNewYorkCity… Dealshavebeen worked out with regional hospitalsfor emergency health care. Negotiationshavebeen madewith at least onedrug company in an effort to makemedicine, such asantibiotics, quickly in an emergency. Over $1 million hasbeen spent to buy a dozen mobileemergency trailersfilled with containment vesselsto isolate chemicals Plansarebeing madeto build a$15 million crisiscenter near Ground Zero.
  55. 55. Department of Education Policy If astudent isfound either possessing or using achemical weapon upon school premises, possibledisciplinary reactions include: A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for a fixed period of 6-30 school daysor 30-90 school days. A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for one year with thepossibility of early reinstatement after 90 school days. A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for one year and an assignment to aSecond Opportunity School without theopportunity for early reinstatement. Expulsion for studentswho turned 17 prior to thebeginning of theschool year.
  56. 56. Department of Education Policy TheDepartment of Education hasasolid list of rules, regulationsand proceduresfor all schoolsto follow in theevent of achemical attack. Theseregulationsaregiven to ensure order, cooperation, and to ensurethesafety of studentsand staff. Specific regulationsinclude: Thisordained emergency group would go over thedesignated plan given by the Department of Education and choosealeader for their operations. All membersin thegroup will betrained for any typeof safety drill; in casethe leader isunavailable, any member will beableto takechargeof thesituation. After becoming knowledgeablein all typesof safety drillsthegroup would haveto inspect theexternal surroundingsof theschool to makesurethat it issafeto go outdoors, or wherespecifically to go in casethereisan attack.
  57. 57. Bronx SciencePolicy TheBronx High School of Sciencehastaken measuresto ensurethat everyoneinsidethebuilding can besafein casethereisachemical emergency: When thereisachemical attack thegongsinsidethebuilding will ring and theteacherswill preparethestudentsto exit. Each room isassigned aspecific routeto takewhileexiting thepremisesin order to prevent any panic or crowding. When all areoutdoors, thestudents and faculty areto get asfar from thebuilding in an orderly fashion until told to stop. If thereisachemical attack insidetheschool then theschool will be evacuated and each classroom would exit from itsdesignated exit. If thereisa chemical attack outsidetheschool then theschool closethedoorsand keep all studentsand faculty insidetheschool until it issafeto exit.
  58. 58. Everyonemust beinformed of thefollowing proceduresin caseof achemical attack: Stay calm Look for nearest exit Seek higher ground/Go to an open space Moveasfar away from thecontaminated areaaspossible Seek medical attention Contact theauthorities Haveaworking radio on hand so asto keep up with emergency broadcasts Stay away from contaminated people Do not try to treat woundsyourself In theevent of achemical attack, police, firefighters, and paramedicsshould: Keep out themediauntil theproper authoritiesarepresent Determineand isolatetheareaof contamination Decontaminatetheinfected Placethecity on high alert Thoroughly investigatethecrimescene Decontaminatethescene Pamphletsconcerning safety and chemical weaponsshould beavailableto families. All buildingsshould haveemergency guidelinesin caseof achemical attack occurs(including amap of thepremises). Local officialsshould betrained to deal with terrorist and/or chemical attacksand develop an immediatedefensestrategy. A standard safety drill should beset in casesof chemical weapon emergencies. Citiesshould build mobileemergency unitsand havethem ready 24/7. TheMost EffectiveFeasiblePolicy
  59. 59. A trained forceshould beready and present to keep order during achemical attack. Hospitalsshould beprepared to handlean attack and respond efficiently in emergencies. Doctorsshould bepresent to help with both physical and psychological effectsof chemical attacks. Drug companiesshould beready to makeantidotesor medicinesquickly, stockpilemedication. Ventilation systemsshould beinstalled in crisiscentersand emergency bunkers. Quarantineand treatment centerswill beopened with thecapacity for at least 25% of thepopulation. Chemical weaponsshould only betested in secluded areasfar from humans. Transportation Bureau should working closely with theMTA and thePort Authority to ensurewar- related precautionsarein place. TheNational Guard assistsin patrolling thesubway system. Deploying critical responsevansto eventsor major locationssuch aslandmarksor tourist attractions. Dept. of Health and Human Services(HHS) and theOfficeof Public Health Preparednessto: Coordinateaunified national responseto national health emergencies Coordinatewith stateand local authoritieson public health issues Work with HHSagenciesfor deployment of emergency health personnel and infectiousdiseasesurveillance. TheMost EffectiveFeasiblePolicy
  60. 60. Dept of Homeland Security’sfour divisions: Border and Transportation Security (ie. U.S. Coast Guard, CustomsService, etc) Emergency Preparednessand Response(firefighters, police, and emergency medical technicians) Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures Information Analysisand InfrastructureProtection Run abackground checkson thosewho purchasechemicalsin massquantities. Violationsof policiescan result in imprisonment. Integration of classroom lessonson chemical weaponsand emergency procedures. Increasedetection of chemical attacksby providing morefundsto support research and development. Federal government should providesafety kitsthat will provideprotection against chemical attacks. Kitsshould includevarioussafety materialssuch asgasmasks, protectiveclothing, air filters, etc, at areasonableprice. Alwayshavefirst aid kitsand respirator kitsaround public areas. International policiesshould beagreed upon to limit theproduction, testing, and useof chemical weapons. All countriesthat wish to test chemical weaponsmust sign atreaty to establish that: All facilitiesmust havethehighest security system A country cannot useachemical weapon on another country or it’sown people. TheMost EffectiveFeasiblePolicy
  61. 61. TheMost EffectiveFeasiblePolicy An annual check for chemical weaponsmust bemadeto every county within theUnited Nations. Implement global classification of all known chemical agents. Any country that possesseschemical weaponsisrequired to register them with theUnited Nations. Any country that isfound with undisclosed chemical weaponsmust disarm thoseweapons. TheUN hastheright to randomly perform inspectionson any country to observeit’schemical weaponsstatus. Development of new technologiesused to locatechemical weapons. Alwayshaveacontingency plan in placein casethefirst plan fails. TheLEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee) developsand coordinatesemergency response plansfor chemical facilitieswithin thecounty. LEPC developsplansto educate, communicate, and protect local communities, in caseof achemical release. Increasedeploymentsof Harbor, Aviation, and Emergency ServiceUnits. COBRA (Chemical , Biological, or Radiological Actions) team deployments. SAMPSON team deployments. ARCHANGEL teams, composed of Emergency ServicesPersonnel, bomb expertsand investigators havebeen staged strategically in thecity. HAMMER teams, policeand firedepartment expertsin hazardousmaterials, aredeployed jointly.
  62. 62. Credits Production Staff Peter Baez Zachary Chen Jerllin Cheng JamesChin NicholasFazal Emil Fraija JoshuaFrost Wenjing Gao AlexandraKostiw Emily Lin Tom Louie Yasmeen Majoka ChristinaMasterson ZuleymaPeralta Ryan Santiago John Shin Holly Tsang AlyssaTorres Justin Wang Justin Wong IreneWu Frank Yang MelissaYang Hayley Yee Instructor Mary Villani Student Coordinator AlyssaTorres Leaders Tiffany Chiang Wenjing Gao Elizabeth Ginsberg JessicaLee Emily Lin GraceLuk ChristinaMercado JamesPajela StephanieSchneider AlyssaTorres Christen Toyen TiphanieWong
  63. 63. Mich Alvarez Brechtl Samiul Anwar Zachary Appel NehaArora Peter Baez CorinneBart Maryam Belly Kristian Berardi Michael Bernaudo Rakim Brooks Cinyeh Cai Chong Si Chang EuniceChang Kristin Chen Zachary Chen Andrew Cheng Jeffrey Cheng Jerllin Cheng Tiffany Chiang JamesChin Joseph Cho David Choi Colin Clancey Kevin Dong NicholasFazal Joan Ferreira Perry Flowers Emil Fraija JoshuaFrost Wenjing Gao Elizabeth Garcia JieLu Geng Rosaly German Elizabeth Ginsberg Seth Giurato Gregory Gouras DeniseGuerrero Mohan Harry John Howell Channing Hui Hosub Jason Hwang Mark Iong Anthony Jabbour Eric Jackman Noemi Jorge JaniceKang Allison Kim Daniel Kim Peter Kim Robert Kim Henry Kong AlexandraKostiw YaninaKrasavtseva Michael Lam Nancy Lan DeneeshaLawrence Elizabeth Lee Jenny Lee JessicaLee Paul Lee Raymond Lee Maximillion Lerner Emily Lin Lilan Ling ThomasLouie Jeffrey Lucas GraceLuk Clark Ma EwaMaciukiewics Sidharth Makkar Kimberly Marcelino ChristinaMasterson Rebekkah Mavarrette ChristinaMercado Miller Sayoko Yasmeen Mojoka AmandaMontano Yamin Murshed Cory Ng Karen Nunez Opeyemi Olanrewaju Hector Oritz Christopher Pae David Paik JamesPajela MichelePalladino Kenny Pang JamesPark Paul Won Park Kenneth Parson ZuleymaPeralta DaniellePhilip ShaveetaRadhamohan Sunil Ramchandani ChristopheRaybon RonnieRogersJr. Naomi Sachar Ryan RossSantiago Madelyn Santos StephanieSchneider Matthew Serrano EzraSerrur Bethany Shields Chong Ho Shin Edward Shin Devekanand Singh RenelleSmith ShaziaSohrawardy Michael Strong Randy Suarez SurrendraSukhu NedaTangchakkrachai AlyssaTorres SaraMaeveTorres Christien Toyen Holly Tsang Lynn Tsao Amir Uddin Yeisy Urbaez Justin Wang Erik Whyne SamanthaWolner Andrew Wong TiphanieWong IreneWu Xing Zhou Xu MelissaYang Yifan Yang Hayley Yee Michael Yeh CandiceYip Su Jin You Siming Zhu Researchers

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