Instructor- Mary Villani Classes: SBF6-01, SBF6-02, SBF6-03, SBF6-04
Chemical weaponsutilizethetoxic propertiesof
chemical substancesto createphysical effectson an
Advancement in chemical weaponswas
predominately adapted in WWI.
August 1914: theFrench fired tear-gasgrenades
July 1917: theGermansused mustard shellsfor the
Theusageof mustard, phosgene, and similar agents
waseventually perfected during World War II.
Thelow cost of chemical weaponseasily makethem
aprimary option for terroriststo use
Chemical weaponsarealmost impossibleto detect
Oneof theproblemswith chemical agentsisthat
thereisno easy way to protect oneself.
If acity wereto experiencealarge-scaleattack,
peoplewould haveto wear an airtight, waterproof
suit and gasmask at thetimeof theattack in order
to bewell protected.
$ cost per square
TheGulf Warsproved that chemical weaponscould beused against themilitary aswell
Highly populated areasand vital citiesmakechemical weapon attacksmoreeffective
Alternativeto conventional weapons
Armsracesor responseto other proliferation:
Compensation for military weakness
State, proxy, or privateterrorism
No safeguards- scaleof defenseeffortsagainst major threatsareunknown
Chemical weaponsarecapableof killing
A small releasepoint can cover alarger
Theweaponsinstillsfear and terror.
Through thewater supply
Through thefood supply
Chemical weaponsarealso easily obtained
Power hungry countrieshopeto satisfy
their need for tactical weapons
Chemical and biological weaponsmanufacturing information arereadily availableon
theinternet along with thenew technologiesfor delivering weaponsby missile,
ammunition, and back packs
Moremoney isbeing spent in governmentsfor developing, producing and equipping
chemical weaponsthan on other important issuessuch aseducation
Themajor useof chemical weaponsisin
Chemical weaponsmay not belocated for
Theearliest chemical weaponswereairborne
unresolved conflictsbetween countries.
Theneed to develop better weaponsthat
weremoreeffectivefor warfareled to
thecreation of chemical weapons
Chemical weaponsdelivered harmful
chemicalsfast to avast amount of
Chemical weaponsarehard to detect: In
1995 areligiouscult released aform of
saran nervegasin Tokyo'ssubway
system during morning rush, it wasnot
detected for over an hour
Disarmament of Chemical Weapons
Organization for theProhibition of Chemical
Weapons’ (OPCW) proposed plan for
disarmament. Early Efforts at Arms Control
-agents include tuban, sarin
acid(vx), in fatal doses,
causes death within 15
-respiratory doses of sarin kill
within 1-10 minutes:doses
absorbed through skin kill
within 1-2 hours
-lungs and eyes are quickest
to absorb nerve agents
-death is often a result of
-agents include mustard,
nitrogen mustard, lewisite and
-act on the eyes, mucous
membranes, skin and blood-
-there is no known treatments
for sulfur or mustard gas
-victims often die as a result of
airway or bronchial
obstruction or bacterial
-agents include phosgene,
diphosgene, chlorine and
-phosgene is the most
dangerous and most likely to
-once a victim survives
through first 48 hours, survival
-death often occurs within
-symptoms include coughing,
choking and tightness in the
“Sulfur mustardsarevesicantsand alkylating agents, more
commonly known asblister agents. They arecolorlesswhen
purebut aregenerally ayellow to brown color and haveaslight
garlic or mustard odor. Sulfur mustard in vapor and liquid
formscan beabsorbed through theeyes, skin and mucous
•Causesskin, eyeand respiratory tract injury
•Causesbonemarrow suppression and neurologic and
•No antidotefor sulfur mustard toxicity
•Decontamination of all potentially exposed areaswithin
minutesafter exposureistheonly effectivemeansof decreasing
“VX isahighly toxic compound in both itsliquid and vapor
form that attacksthecentral nervoussystem. It isconsidered
at least 100 timesmoretoxic by entry through theskin than
thenerve-agent sarin, and twiceastoxic by inhalation. VX
can persist for long periodsunder averageweather conditions
and for monthsin very cold conditions.”
“VX can causedeath minutesafter exposure. It can enter the
body by inhalation, ingestion, through theeyesand through
theskin. Symptomscan vary but commonly includerunny
nose, water eyes, drooling, excessivesweating, difficulty in
breathing, dimnessof vision, nauseaand twitching. It killsby
attacking thebody'svoluntary muscleand gland "on switch,"
causing themusclesto tireso they can no longer sustain
decontamination by removing
clothing and flushing theeyesand
skin with water. Hospitalsin many
“Sarin isahighly toxic compound in both itsliquid and
vapor statethat attacksthecentral nervoussystem.”
“Sarin can causedeath minutesafter exposure. It entersthe
body by inhalation, ingestion, through theeyesand the
skin. Symptomsvary but commonly includearunny nose,
watery eyes, drooling and excessivesweating, difficulty in
breathing, dimnessof vision, nausea, vomiting, twitching
and headache. It killsby attacking thebody'svoluntary
muscleand gland "on switch," causing themusclesto tire
so they can no longer sustain breathing.”
“Immediatetreatment isdecontamination by removing
clothing and flushing eyesand skin with water. Hospitals
in many communitiesarestocking theantidotes.”
Chlorineisagreenish-yellow gaswith apungent odor that is
heavier than air. It reactsviolently with many organic
compounds, creating afireand explosion hazard.
Chlorineiscorrosiveto theeyesand theskin and can cause
tearing, blurred vision and burns. Inhalation may cause
labored breathing and lung edema. Thesymptomsof lung
edemaoften do not manifest until afew hoursafter exposure.
High exposurelevelsmay result in death.
Fresh air in thecaseof inhalation and rinsing with plenty of
water in caseof exposureto skin and eyes
“Hydrogen cyanideisan extremely flammable, colorlessgas
or liquid. It givesoff toxic fumesin afireand ishighly
“Exposureirritatestheeyes, theskin and therespiratory
tract. Symptomsareburning and rednessfor theskin and
eyes. Inhalation causesconfusion, drowsinessand shortness
of breath, leading to collapse. Thesubstancecan affect the
central nervoussystem, resulting in impaired respiratory and
circulatory functions. Exposurecan befatal.”
“Fresh air in thecaseof inhalation and rinsing with plenty
of water in thecaseof skin or eyeexposure.”
"Soman isahuman-madechemical warfareagent classified asanerveagent. Nerveagentsarethemost
toxic and rapidly acting of theknown chemical warfareagents. They aresimilar to pesticides(insect
killers) called organophosphatesin termsof how they work and thekindsof harmful effectsthey cause.
Soman isaclear, colorless, tastelessliquid with aslight camphor odor or rotting fruit odor. It can become
avapor if heated.”
"Peopleexposed to alow or moderatedoseof soman by inhalation, ingestion (swallowing), or skin
absorption may experiencesomeor all of thefollowing symptomswithin secondsto hoursof exposure:
runny nose,watery eyes, pinpoint pupils, eyepain, blurred vision, drooling and excessivesweating,
cough, chest tightness, rapid breathing, diarrhea, increased urination, confusion, drowsiness, weakness,
headache, nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, slow or fast heart rate, abnormally low or high blood
"Treatment consistsof removing soman from thebody assoon aspossibleand providing supportive
medical carein ahospital setting. Antidotesareavailablefor soman. They aremost useful if given as
soon aspossibleafter exposureincluding washing thebody.”
Detecting Chemical Weapons
Detection Paper: Detection paper isbased on certain dyesbeing solublein CW agents.
Two dyesand apH indicator areused, which aremixed with cellulosefibersin apaper
without special coloring (unbleached). When adrop of CW agent isabsorbed by thepaper,
it dissolvesoneof thepigments. Mustard agent dissolvesared dyeand nerveagentsa
Detection Tube: Thedetection tubefor mustard agent isaglasstubecontaining silicagel
impregnated with asubstrate(DB-3). Air issucked through thetubeusing aspecial pump.
Thereaction between themustard agent and substrateissped up by heating thetubewith ,
e.g., acigarettelighter. A developer isthen added, and theresult can beread
Detection Tickets: Theticket consistsof two parts, onewith enzyme-impregnated paper
and theother with substrate-impregnated paper. When thepackageisbroken and the
enzymepaper wetted, thesubstratepart of theticket isexposed to thetest vapor by means
of apump. If theenzymepart of theticket hasturned aweak bluecolor, thenerveagent is
not present in theair.
Detecting Chemical Weapons
"SPLAT”("Sticky Polymer Lethal Agent
Tag”) can beused to shoot at dangerous
Detecting TheInvisible: ION Mobility
Effectsof Chemical Weapons
Physical Effects– Thesymptomsof variouschemical weaponsrangefrom irritation to
theskin, damageto organsand nervoussystems, to death. Over thecourseof the20th
century, chemical weaponshavebeen mademuch moredeadly and designed to kill
Social Effects– Chemical weaponsareused asatool of terroristsnot only becauseof the
carnageit causes, but becauseit causesterror in theheart of thevictims. A population
that haschemical weaponsarebrought into asenseof hysteria. They arefrightened and
causetheentiresociety to beunableto function correctly.
Psychological Effects– A person becomesvery paranoid with thethreat of chemical
weapons. Many healthy individualsmight becomeafraid and think they havecertain
symptomsof achemical attack even if they don’t. A good exampleof thisstemsfrom
theAnthrax scarenot so long ago.
Physical Effectsof Chemical Weapons
Unexplained runny nose
Tightnessin chest or difficulty
Unexplained sudden headaches
Strangeor confused behavior
Severely pinpointed pupils
Tearing, red eyes
Wheezing, dyspnea, and
MassSpectrometry- Confirmation Tool
Theuseof atmospheric pressure
ionization (API) massspectrometry asa
confirmation tool by synthetic chemists
haslong been established.
API techniquesdo not efficiently ionize
all organic compounds.
Falsenegativesand positivesmay arise
dueto thediscriminatory natureof API,
leading thechemist to incorrect
conclusionsabout thestateof the
detectorsof isotopesbased on their
masses. They areused in carbon
dating and other radioactivedating
processes. Thecombination of a
massspectrometer and agas
tool for thedetection of trace
techniquethat can beused to separatevolatile
A gaschromatograph consistsof aflowing
mobilephase, an injection port, aseparation
column containing thestationary phase, and a
Theorganic compoundsareseparated dueto
differencesin their partitioning behavior between
themobilegasphaseand thestationary phasein
Gaschromatography isachromatographic technique
used to separatevolatileorganic compounds. Gas
A flowing mobilephase
An injection port
A separation column containing thestationary phase
Note: Theorganic compoundsareseparated dueto differencesin their partitioning behavior between themobilegasphase
and thestationary phasein thecolumn.
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) isa
chromatographic techniquethat isuseful for
separating organic compounds.
It consistsof astationary phase
immobilized on aglassor plastic plateand a
Thesample, either liquid or dissolved in a
volatilesolvent, isdeposited asaspot on the
Theseparated spotsarevisualized with
ultraviolet light or by placing theplatein
Thedifferent componentsin themixture
moveup theplateat different ratesdueto
differencesin their partitioning behavior
between themobileliquid phaseand the
An immunoassay will tell parentsof an
unborn baby if their child hasany deficiencies
or abnormalitiesin their antibodies. It is
usually an indication of whether thebaby will
haveanything wrong with hisor her body
when they areborn. It isalso asign for babies
with autism and other variousdiseases.
Determinesthecauseand manner of
death by utilizing thetechniquesof
analytical forensic toxicology.
immunoassay, and other sensitive
analytical methods, it ispossibleto see
if theuseof drugsparticipated in the
death of aperson.
Answersaresought in thefluid and
tissuesamplesrecovered from the
autopsy aswell asfrom other relevant
evidenceuncovered by our
Forensic toxicology isaspecialty area
of analytical chemistry.
Toxicology isthescienceof adverse
effectsof chemicalson living
A toxicologist detectsand identifies
foreign chemicalsin thebody.
A descriptivetoxicologist performs
toxicity teststo evaluatetherisk of
A toxin isany material exerting alife
threatening effect upon aliving organism.
A mechanistic toxicologist determineshow
substancesexert harmful effectson living
A regulatory toxicologist judgeswhether or
not asubstancehaslow enough risk to justify
making it availableto thepublic.
Eyeprotection must beworn at all timesin the
Studentsshould wear durableclothing that covers
thearms, legs, torso and feet.
An open flamemay beignited only when no
In caseof afireor imminently dangeroussituation,
notify everyonewho may beaffected immediately.
Eating, drinking and smoking areprohibited in the
laboratory at all times.
Never carry out unauthorized experiments.
Never pipetteusing mouth suction.
Never forceglasstubing through arubber stopper.
Within thelab therearefour
main areasof protection
against chemical weapons:
Physical Protection: PPE suits,
Medical Protection: pretreatment,
Detection: monitoring, alarms& all-
clears, staff identification
Decontamination: Personal and
Laboratoriescontain agreater number of
hazardousmaterialsin comparison to
other environmentsand thereforecertain
safety practicesmust beimplemented in
order to avoid therisk of injury to
Safety equipment availableto protect
workers: fireextinguishers, safety
showers, eyewash fountains, explosion-
proof refrigerators, chemical fume
hoods, and safety shields.
Any chemical spill isclassified asan
emergency, no matter what thesize. In
caseof achemical spill theHazardous
Materials(HAZMAT) Unit must be
Thespill must beisolated.
Contaminated clothing must be
removed and skin and eyeswashed with
soap and rinsed with water.
Control thespread and volumeof the
spill if possibleby blocking thespread
with equipment or absorbents.
GENERALPRECAUTIONS: EMERGENCY PROCEDURES:
Check criminal recordsdatabases
Seelistsof fugitives, missing persons, and sex
Filean accident report
Watch safety training videos
View crimeand safety statistics
Learn about stateand national homeland security
Departmentsof public safety includes:
StateBureau of Investigations, CrimeLabs, Division of FireSafety, commercial carrier inspection,
weight load management office, Officeof NarcoticsEnforcement, or StatePublic Safety
In theevent of achemical
protection in shelters
with air filters.
Younger children should usea
Children lessthan ayear old should be
carried in a“carry-cot.”
Thefederal government isspending seven billion dollars
annually to deal with thethreat of weaponsof mass
destruction, including chemical weapons.
TheDefenseAgainst Weaponsof MassDestruction Act of
1996 providesfor training of fire, police, and emergency
medical techniciansin 120 of thelargest citiesin the
country. Each city receives$300,000 from theDepartment
of Defensefor personal protection, decontamination, and
ThePublic Health Servicewill also set up Metropolitan
Medical StrikeTeamsin each of the120 cites, aswell, with
each city receiving $350,000 of equipment and
Selected on thebasisof thetypeof material being handled and thehazard(s) associated with
Safety glassesand goggles, should beworn when handling biological, chemical, and
Shoesthat completely cover and protect thefoot areessential
In certain crimesceneswherestructural damagehasor can occur, protectivehelmetsshould be
Certain crimescenes, such asbombingsand clandestinelaboratories, can producenoxious
fumesand other airbornecontaminantsin which respondersmust userespiratory protection
Approach upwind from the
Wear afull PPE suit and SCBA
Avoid contact with liquids.
Becautionsof secondary devices.
Consider that theperpetrator may
still be closeby.
Personal Protective Equipment
In all crimescenes, theselection of
personal protectiveequipment must be
donein coordination with ahazard-risk
assessment completed by trained and
Thehazard-risk assessment should
asthehazardsassociated with each
Chemical Weapon Safety
Gas Masks/Pro tective Gear: Very
limiting and problematic dueto the
pressurethey put on thefaceand
difficulty breathing. No food or drink
can beingested. In order to protect
against agentswhich can beabsorbed
through theskin, protectivegear such as
that shown at left must beworn.
InternalRo o m Filter:
An internal room filter pressurizesthe
air in aroom and filterschemical agents
out of theroom.
Undergro und Shelter:
An underground shelter providesa
chemical-freeenvironment in which one
can livefor extended periodsof time.
(1) Foreign Assistance. No assistanceshall beprovided to that country under theForeign AssistanceAct of 1961 or the
ArmsExport Control Act other than assistancethat isintended to benefit thepeopleof that country directly and that isnot
channeled through governmental agenciesor entitiesof that country.
(2) Multilateral Development Bank Assistance. TheUnited Statesshall opposeany financial or technical assistanceto that
country by international financial institutionsin accordancewith section 701 of theInternational Financial InstitutionsAct
(22 U.S.C. 262d).
(3) Denial of Credit or Other Financial Assistance. TheUnited Statesshall deny any financial assistanceby any department,
agency, or instrumentality of theUnited StatesGovernment.
(4) Prohibition on ArmsSales. TheUnited StatesGovernment shall not, under theArmsExport Control Act, sell any
defensearticlesor servicesor issueany licensefor theexport of itemson theUnited StatesMunitionsList.
(5) Exportsof National Security-SensitiveGoodsand Technology. No exportsshall bepermitted of any goodsor
technologiescontrolled for national security reasonsunder Export Administration Regulations.
(6) Further Export Restrictions. TheSecretary of Commerceshall prohibit or substantially restrict exportsto that country of
goods, technology, and services(excluding agricultural commoditiesand productsotherwisesubject to control).
(7) Import Restrictions. Restrictionsshall beimposed on theimportation into theUnited Statesof specific articles.
(8) Landing Rights. At theearliest possibledate, theSecretary of Stateshall terminatein amanner consistent with
international law, theauthority of any air carrier that iscontrolled by thegovernment of that country to engagein air
TheArmsControl and Disarmament Act Agency dealswith thereduction and control
of chemical weapons, their main goal isto disarm theworld of chemical weapons. They
will reinforceAmerica’snational security by applying their strategiesof chemical
Over ten yearsago Bush Sr. signed theConvention on theProhibition of the
Development, Production, Stockpiling and Useof Chemical Weaponsand on Their
Therearestill eight chemical weaponsstockpilesin theUnited States, although
according to federal law they must bedestroyed, and should havebeen destroyed long
TheUnited Statesand other superpowersallied and conceded to create"acooperative
international nonproliferation policy" in attemptsto prevent chemical weaponsamongst
other weaponsfrom falling into thehandsof weaker and morevolatilecountries. This
policy, obviously, hasnot been too successful.
Canada’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons
Creation of theIntegrated Threat
Thecreation of Health Emergency
ResponseTeamsmadeup of health
increasing Canada'sability to respond
to health emergencies
Increasemarinesecurity along with
A permanent forum on emergencies
which allow strategic discussion of
emergency management issue
Egypt’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons
Egypt wasthefirst country in theMiddleEast to obtain
chemical weaponstraining, indoctrination, and material.
Chemical weaponsarepart of theEgyptian army'sstandard
Asof 1990 theDefenseIntelligenceAgency study "Offensive
Chemical WarfareProgramsin theMiddleEast" concluded that
Egypt wascontinuing to conduct research related to chemical
For several yearsprior to the1991 Gulf War, Egypt was
believed to havebeen working with Iraq on theproduction and
stockpiling of chemical weapons.
“In December 1998 theRepublic of China'sMinistry of National
Defensedenied that theisland isdeveloping chemical weapons.”
“A MND spokesman stressed it hasalwaysbeen theROC'spolicy
to adhereto theChemical WeaponsConvention, which went into
effect on April 29, 1997.”
“According to thedirector of theFourth Institute, thestrategy of
Taiwan'sarmed forcescallsfor strong defense[operations] - for
which Taiwan need not consider at all theproduction of offensive
chemical war agents.”
“Therearepersistent public reportsthat Taiwan hasachemical
weaponsprogram, which may havebeen under way since1989, for
thehigh-priority development of offensiveand defensivechemical
Taiwan’sPolicy on Chemical Weapons
New York StatePolicy
Centersfor diseasecontrol and
prevention areprepared with procedures
to handlecasesof chemical harm
theNew York City Department of
Health and Mental Hygienehas
guidelinesthat areavailableto follow in
theevent of achemical attack
TheAgency for Toxic Substancesand
New York StatePolicy
New York hasaparticularly strong chemical
Disseminatesdetailed information it its
citizensregarding possiblethreatsand coursesof
Hasagovernment which isextremely
concerned regarding possibleattacksin water,
subways, trains, and city environments
TheUnited StatesCustomsServiceand theOfficeof Public Security gaveradiation detectors
to New York cops. Thisallowsthem to detect if thereisany chemical materialsin theair.
Governor Pataki released thefirst Counter Terrorism Network for thelaw enforcement. The
network broadcaststo law enforcement staff when thereisaterrorism alert. Thisnetwork has
been given to law enforcement’sall over New York state.
TheDepartment of Health hascreated theHealth Alert Network which isanetwork between
different hospitals. It allowsthem to sharedataon diseasesthat peoplehave, which can lead to
knowing if thediseaseswerecaused by chemical weapons. If thediseaseiscaused by a
chemical weapon theDepartment of Health can then contact theappropriateauthorities.
New York StatePolicy
Prevent thespread of weaponsof massdestruction
Lower thedeployment of MissileDefenseby the
Stop international armstrade
The Peace Action of New York State (PANYS) is affiliated with Peace Action and
currently has eleven locations in New York. This organization strives to:
New York StatePolicy
New York StatePolicy
Beon thelook out for:
An unusual increasein thenumber of
peopleseeking care, especially with
neurological, gastrointestinal or
Any clustering of symptomsor unusual
agedistribution (e.g. chemical exposure
Any unusual clustering of patientsin
timeor location (e.g. personswho
attended thesamepublic event)
and information for dealing with
chemical and biological attacksand
deal with any kind of attacksby
providing thepublic with information
thepublic in order to keep it informed
about what to do in theevent of any
1998:Medical Responseto Biological Warfareand
Terrorism SatelliteBroadcast - 3 day course. 118
attendeesrepresenting personnel from: firedepartments,
statehealth department, local boardsof health, MEMA,
Hazmat teams, EMT teams, emergency roomsand
2000: MA Veterinary Medical Association contacted
to provideemergency contact information on all MA
veterinary practitionersfor thepurposeof follow-up in a
zoonotic BT emergency.
•Presentation on clinical aspectsof anthrax vaccine
given to all Air ForceNational Guard in MA.
2001: Enhanced activesurveillanceactivitiesat all
MA laboratoriesinitiated to assist in theearly detection
of BT and other diseasecausing organisms.
New Jersey StatePolicy
New Jersey isextremely awareof itsprecarious
position—closeto New York and filled with
several major highwaysand shopping malls.
Similar to New York, alargeconcern of New
Jersey’sisto beprepared in dealing with a
chemical attack of any sort. They requiretrained
officialsand proper equipment. They also
determinehow much hospital spaceisrequired
and if they aremeeting therequirements.
PeaceAction, which includesNew Jersey PeaceAction, is
America’slargest grassrootsorganization. Their goalsareto:
Abolish nuclear war
Stop weapon trading
Encouragepassivesolutionsto international problems
Urging policy changesin Congress, TheUnited Nations
Educating thepublic by printing fact sheets, holding public meetings, and
Persuading thepublic to votefor candidateswho support peace
Promoteconflict resolution programsin New Jersey Schools
New Jersey StatePolicy
Pennsylvania, especially Philadelphia, hasbeen
aggressiveover chemical weaponspreparedness:
Disseminatesdetailed information to itscitizens
regarding possiblethreatsand coursesof action.
Staysin tunewith theTri-Stateareain termsof
Hasagovernment which isextremely concerned
regarding possiblechemical attacksin water, sewage,
subways, and trains.
New York City Policy
Dealshavebeen worked out with
regional hospitalsfor emergency health
Negotiationshavebeen madewith at
least onedrug company in an effort to
makemedicine, such asantibiotics,
quickly in an emergency.
Over $1 million hasbeen spent to buy a
dozen mobileemergency trailersfilled
with containment vesselsto isolate
Plansarebeing madeto build a$15
million crisiscenter near Ground Zero.
Department of Education Policy
If astudent isfound either possessing or
using achemical weapon upon school
premises, possibledisciplinary reactions
A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for a
fixed period of 6-30 school daysor 30-90 school
A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for one
year with thepossibility of early reinstatement
after 90 school days.
A Regional Superintendent’ssuspension for one
year and an assignment to aSecond Opportunity
School without theopportunity for early
Expulsion for studentswho turned 17 prior to
thebeginning of theschool year.
Department of Education Policy
TheDepartment of Education hasasolid list of rules, regulationsand proceduresfor all
schoolsto follow in theevent of achemical attack. Theseregulationsaregiven to ensure
order, cooperation, and to ensurethesafety of studentsand staff.
Thisordained emergency group would go over thedesignated plan given by the
Department of Education and choosealeader for their operations.
All membersin thegroup will betrained for any typeof safety drill; in casethe
leader isunavailable, any member will beableto takechargeof thesituation.
After becoming knowledgeablein all typesof safety drillsthegroup would haveto
inspect theexternal surroundingsof theschool to makesurethat it issafeto go
outdoors, or wherespecifically to go in casethereisan attack.
TheBronx High School of Sciencehastaken measuresto ensurethat
everyoneinsidethebuilding can besafein casethereisachemical
When thereisachemical attack thegongsinsidethebuilding will ring and
theteacherswill preparethestudentsto exit.
Each room isassigned aspecific routeto takewhileexiting thepremisesin
order to prevent any panic or crowding. When all areoutdoors, thestudents
and faculty areto get asfar from thebuilding in an orderly fashion until told
If thereisachemical attack insidetheschool then theschool will be
evacuated and each classroom would exit from itsdesignated exit. If thereisa
chemical attack outsidetheschool then theschool closethedoorsand keep all
studentsand faculty insidetheschool until it issafeto exit.
Everyonemust beinformed of thefollowing proceduresin caseof achemical attack:
Look for nearest exit
Seek higher ground/Go to an open space
Moveasfar away from thecontaminated areaaspossible
Seek medical attention
Haveaworking radio on hand so asto keep up with emergency broadcasts
Stay away from contaminated people
Do not try to treat woundsyourself
In theevent of achemical attack, police, firefighters, and paramedicsshould:
Keep out themediauntil theproper authoritiesarepresent
Determineand isolatetheareaof contamination
Placethecity on high alert
Pamphletsconcerning safety and chemical weaponsshould beavailableto families.
All buildingsshould haveemergency guidelinesin caseof achemical attack occurs(including amap
Local officialsshould betrained to deal with terrorist and/or chemical attacksand develop an
A standard safety drill should beset in casesof chemical weapon emergencies.
Citiesshould build mobileemergency unitsand havethem ready 24/7.
A trained forceshould beready and present to keep order during achemical attack.
Hospitalsshould beprepared to handlean attack and respond efficiently in emergencies.
Doctorsshould bepresent to help with both physical and psychological effectsof chemical attacks.
Drug companiesshould beready to makeantidotesor medicinesquickly, stockpilemedication.
Ventilation systemsshould beinstalled in crisiscentersand emergency bunkers.
Quarantineand treatment centerswill beopened with thecapacity for at least 25% of thepopulation.
Chemical weaponsshould only betested in secluded areasfar from humans.
Transportation Bureau should working closely with theMTA and thePort Authority to ensurewar-
related precautionsarein place.
TheNational Guard assistsin patrolling thesubway system.
Deploying critical responsevansto eventsor major locationssuch aslandmarksor tourist
Dept. of Health and Human Services(HHS) and theOfficeof Public Health Preparednessto:
Coordinateaunified national responseto national health emergencies
Coordinatewith stateand local authoritieson public health issues
Work with HHSagenciesfor deployment of emergency health personnel and infectiousdiseasesurveillance.
Dept of Homeland Security’sfour divisions:
Border and Transportation Security (ie. U.S. Coast Guard, CustomsService, etc)
Emergency Preparednessand Response(firefighters, police, and emergency medical technicians)
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures
Information Analysisand InfrastructureProtection
Run abackground checkson thosewho purchasechemicalsin massquantities.
Violationsof policiescan result in imprisonment.
Integration of classroom lessonson chemical weaponsand emergency procedures.
Increasedetection of chemical attacksby providing morefundsto support research and
Federal government should providesafety kitsthat will provideprotection against chemical attacks.
Kitsshould includevarioussafety materialssuch asgasmasks, protectiveclothing, air filters, etc, at
Alwayshavefirst aid kitsand respirator kitsaround public areas.
International policiesshould beagreed upon to limit theproduction, testing, and useof chemical
All countriesthat wish to test chemical weaponsmust sign atreaty to establish that:
All facilitiesmust havethehighest security system
A country cannot useachemical weapon on another country or it’sown people.
An annual check for chemical weaponsmust bemadeto every county within theUnited Nations.
Implement global classification of all known chemical agents.
Any country that possesseschemical weaponsisrequired to register them with theUnited Nations.
Any country that isfound with undisclosed chemical weaponsmust disarm thoseweapons.
TheUN hastheright to randomly perform inspectionson any country to observeit’schemical
Development of new technologiesused to locatechemical weapons.
Alwayshaveacontingency plan in placein casethefirst plan fails.
TheLEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee) developsand coordinatesemergency response
plansfor chemical facilitieswithin thecounty.
LEPC developsplansto educate, communicate, and protect local communities, in caseof achemical
Increasedeploymentsof Harbor, Aviation, and Emergency ServiceUnits.
COBRA (Chemical , Biological, or Radiological Actions) team deployments.
SAMPSON team deployments.
ARCHANGEL teams, composed of Emergency ServicesPersonnel, bomb expertsand investigators
havebeen staged strategically in thecity.
HAMMER teams, policeand firedepartment expertsin hazardousmaterials, aredeployed jointly.
Mich Alvarez Brechtl
Chong Si Chang
Hosub Jason Hwang
ThomasLouie Jeffrey Lucas
Sidharth Makkar Kimberly Marcelino
Paul Won Park
Chong Ho Shin
Xing Zhou Xu
Su Jin You