c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
into theinto the
CollaboratoryCollaboratoryobjective, subjective, intersubject...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Co - locate
Co - lab - orate
Lab - oratory
Co - lab - oratory
collaboratory
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Dissertation
A Naturalistic Journey Into the Collaboratory:
In Search of Under...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Motivation for the StudyMotivation for the Study
Philosophical
How ideas becom...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Problem of the StudyProblem of the Study
Philosophical
What is the reality of ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Research AgendaResearch Agenda
Phase one:
Objective, document-based reality
Ph...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
intertwiningintertwining
modelmodel
PHASE TWO
a subjective
reality
PHASE
ONE a...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
MethodologyMethodology
Naturalistic Inquiry
Criteria:
•Confirmability
•Transfe...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
QuestionsQuestions
Objective:
What does the documentary evidence say?
Subjecti...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
ApproachApproach
Objective:
Examination of library holdings.
Subjective
Prolon...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke
Phase One:
– triangulated taxono-bibliome...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke
Phase Two:
– site visits
– analysis of co...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke
Phase Three:
– Delphi Among Collaboratory...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
into theinto the
CollaboratoryCollaboratory
Phase One
an objective reality of ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
What does the collaboratory, via the
published account, say it is?
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
The Documentary Evidence
Collaboratory’s first decade
1988-1998
N=89
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
DocumentaryDocumentary EvidenceEvidence
Available via library intermediation:
...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Search CriteriaSearch Criteria
• Keyword “collaboratory”
• No wildcards or tru...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Excludes documents NOT
available via the library
uncataloged Internet
unpublis...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
3 Foundation Documents3 Foundation Documents
Philosophical
1988 - Wulf’s NSF W...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Haddow, Gaby. 1997. The Nature of Journals of
Librarianship: A review. Libres ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
1 3
0
8
3
7
2
14 14 16 18
0
5
10
15
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
19...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Taxonomy ConstructionTaxonomy Construction
Triangulated analysis
frequencies &...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Taxonomy #1
Wulf’s (1988)Wulf’s (1988) White PaperWhite Paper
Philosophical fo...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf TaxonomyWulf Taxonomy
Disciplines that need to contribute
• Computer scie...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Taxonomy #1
Discipline x Focus
CS/CEE, SBE, LIS, OTHER
X
Instrumentation, Coll...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf TaxonomyWulf Taxonomy
Focus
Instrumentation Colleague Data Totals
Discipl...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
30
14
5
18
2 4 2
6
2 0 1 2
0
10
20
30
CS/CCE SBE LIS Other
Discipline of Princ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
ObservationObservation
19 disciplines contribute
86 publications to the
collab...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
““Other” DisciplinesOther” Disciplines
Chemistry Astronomy
Physics Mathematics...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity
Klein (1990, 55) defines four ways:
•by...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Multiple disciplines contribute
to create an interdisciplinary
information env...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Taxonomy #2
Haddow (1997)
Article Type
Glad tidings & Testimony
News Type
Rese...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Haddow TaxonomyHaddow Taxonomy
Type of article
Number of articles
Glad tidings...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Haddow TaxonomyHaddow Taxonomy
Type of Publication by Year N=86
0
2
4
6
8
10
1...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow
Discipline of Research, N=22
7
9
3 3
0
2
4
6
8
10
C...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow
Focus of Research, N=22
15
6 1
0
5
10
15
Instrument...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow
Frequencies &Frequencies & PercentagesPercentages
D...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow
## of Publications, Disciplines Combinedof Publicat...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution
(CS/CSS & O...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow
%% of Publications,of Publications, Disciplines Com...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution
(SBE & LIS)...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity
The numbers and percentages of
articles...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Taxonomy #3
Lederberg & Uncapher (1989)
Intellectual Foundation
of the Collabo...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & Uncapher TaxonomyLederberg & Uncapher Taxonomy
Topics of needed re...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
“Theory” TypeTheory” Type
addedadded
– Construct or apply theories
– Generally...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & Uncapher TaxonomyLederberg & Uncapher Taxonomy
Approach
Design Imp...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & UncapherLederberg & Uncapher Approach
24
9
31
22
0
10
20
30
40
Des...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & UncapherLederberg & Uncapher
Topic X Approach
9 8
0
98
11
3
45
12
...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & Uncapher X HaddowLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow
Topic of Theory Res...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X WulfLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X Wulf
Theor...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Lederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X WulfLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X Wulf
Theor...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
ObservationsObservations
(SBE & LIS) provide the
greater number of
theory rese...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution
The discipl...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity
The Collaboratory is an
interdisciplina...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Toward aToward a
Grounded TheoryGrounded Theory
Qualitative content analysis
o...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Qualitative Content AnalysisQualitative Content Analysis
Theory research
n=22
...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Systems ArchitectureSystems Architecture
Theory Research, N=5, N=5
Common them...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Tools & TechnologyTools & Technology
Theory Research, N=7N=7
Common themes:
Eq...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Users & TestbedsUsers & Testbeds
Theory Research, N=10N=10
Common themes
Fair ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes
Principles of ParticipationPrinciples of ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes
EnvironmentEnvironment
Absence of traditi...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes
EnvironmentEnvironment
Collaboratory envi...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes
EnvironmentEnvironment
Suggests a purposi...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.intertwining.org
The collaboratory is an
ungendered
technologically-enabled
inte...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
The problem for librarianshipThe problem for librarianship
The Collaboratory i...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
The TaxonomiesThe Taxonomies
Wulf discipline x focus
Haddow article type
L&U t...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
How would YOUYOU search for a
a research article about
implementing a testbed ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
into theinto the
CollaboratoryCollaboratory
Phase Two
a subjective reality of ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Does the collaboratory exist?
Is the collaboratory as the
library represents?
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Alta Vista SearchAlta Vista Search
February 1998
468 hits for “collaboratory”
...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Toward Criteria for Inclusion
as a Collaboratory
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
NRC’sNRC’s Towards a NationalTowards a National
CollaboratoryCollaboratory (19...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Criteria for Inclusion
CIRALCIRAL MatrixMatrix
CComputerized Network
Remote II...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
"derivative collaboratories"
Do not meet the CIRAL
criteria for inclusion, mos...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
“derivative collaboratories”
• MIS Collaboratory at UT
• CREW Collaboratory at...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Collaboratory Test Site
M2C
The Materials MicroCharacterization
Collaboratory
...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
M2C
TelePresence Microscopy Sites
Argonne National Laboratory
http://tpm.amc.a...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
M2C meets all the CIRAL
criteria for inclusion
The collaboratory exists
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Site Visit
SPARC
Space Physics and Aeronomy
Research Collaboratory
http://si.u...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Site Visit
EMSL
Environmental Molecular Science
Laboratory Collaboratory
Pacif...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Site Visit
EEC
Experimental Electronic
Collaboratory at DIII-D Tokamak
http://...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Communication modes
and data generated are
determined by:
1. instrument
2. siz...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Information resources and
interfaces are not managed by
librarians or informat...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
into theinto the
CollaboratoryCollaboratory
Phase Three
an intersubjective rea...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Delphi Technique
• Toward convergence, divergence, or
stasis of opinion among ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
STEPS:
• The problem is identified
• An expert panel is developed
• The panel ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Questions:
“What are the “Rules of the road”
for the collaboratory?” (NRC
1993...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Collaboratory Pioneers
n=6
Criteria for Inclusion:
• associated with a functio...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Seven “Rules of the Road
1. Be direct in your communication.
2. Get involved, ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Seven “Rules of the Road”
5. Stay flexible within a formal framework
of meetin...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Skills valued in prospective participants
1. Tolerance for evolving technology...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
FindingsFindings
Subtle but remarkable
differences in preference for
balance b...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Tuck and Earle (1996) group size is
always a determining factor in group
commu...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
FindingsFindings
Collaboratory Pioneers value a
balance of social, technologic...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
FindingsFindings
Collaboratory pioneers
unanimously disagree that the
hard and...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
FindingsFindings
"The collaboratory is an
ungendered environment"
received
a d...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Needed ResearchNeeded Research
1. The preliminary findings of
this study need ...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Needed ResearchNeeded Research
2. Evaluation and analysis of existing
collabor...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Needed ResearchNeeded Research
• mapping and modeling the actual work
practice...
c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i
Needed ResearchNeeded Research
3. Evaluation and analysis of extra-
collaborat...
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  1. 1. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i into theinto the CollaboratoryCollaboratoryobjective, subjective, intersubjective realities intertwined joanne twining, M.L.S. Doctoral Candidate, School of Library & Information Studies Texas Woman’s University September 6, 1999
  2. 2. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Co - locate Co - lab - orate Lab - oratory Co - lab - oratory collaboratory
  3. 3. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Dissertation A Naturalistic Journey Into the Collaboratory: In Search of Understanding For Prospective Participants http://www.intertwining.org/dissertation
  4. 4. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Motivation for the StudyMotivation for the Study Philosophical How ideas become knowledge: objective, subjective, intersubjective Intellectual Modeling reality creation Instrumental What are the “Rules of the Road” for the Collaboratory?
  5. 5. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Problem of the StudyProblem of the Study Philosophical What is the reality of the Collaboratory? Intellectual How is reality constructed in the Collaboratory? Instrumental Why do scholars collaborate online?
  6. 6. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Research AgendaResearch Agenda Phase one: Objective, document-based reality Phase two: Subjective, experience-based reality Phase three: Intersubjective, via Delphi technique
  7. 7. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i intertwiningintertwining modelmodel PHASE TWO a subjective reality PHASE ONE an objective reality PHASE THREE an inter- subjective reality
  8. 8. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i MethodologyMethodology Naturalistic Inquiry Criteria: •Confirmability •Transferabilty •Audits Let the data speak and leave a trail for others to follow...
  9. 9. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i QuestionsQuestions Objective: What does the documentary evidence say? Subjective What does the collaboratory experience say? Phase three: What do Collaboratory Pioneers say?
  10. 10. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i ApproachApproach Objective: Examination of library holdings. Subjective Prolonged immersion in the online environment Phase three: Delphi Among Collaboratory Pioneers
  11. 11. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke Phase One: – triangulated taxono-bibliometric analysis (n=86) – qualitative content analysis (n=22) – CIRAL matrix of criteria for inclusion
  12. 12. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke Phase Two: – site visits – analysis of communication modes – analysis of datatypes produced
  13. 13. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i How the Data SpokeHow the Data Spoke Phase Three: – Delphi Among Collaboratory Pioneers – “Rules of the road” – Skills valued in prospective participants
  14. 14. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i into theinto the CollaboratoryCollaboratory Phase One an objective reality of the Collaboratory based on the documentary evidence
  15. 15. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i What does the collaboratory, via the published account, say it is?
  16. 16. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i The Documentary Evidence Collaboratory’s first decade 1988-1998 N=89
  17. 17. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i DocumentaryDocumentary EvidenceEvidence Available via library intermediation: – Databases – Catalogs – Holdings – Interlibrary loan – Extraordinary actions of Librarians
  18. 18. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Search CriteriaSearch Criteria • Keyword “collaboratory” • No wildcards or truncation • Excludes large, relevant, surrounding literature • Includes only highly pertinent documents • Focus on collaboratory as information environment
  19. 19. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Excludes documents NOT available via the library uncataloged Internet unpublished papers private correspondence
  20. 20. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i 3 Foundation Documents3 Foundation Documents Philosophical 1988 - Wulf’s NSF White Paper (unpublished) Intellectual 1989 - Lederberg & Uncapher’s Report (unpublished) Instrumental 1993 - NRC’s National Collaboratories
  21. 21. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Haddow, Gaby. 1997. The Nature of Journals of Librarianship: A review. Libres 7(1). March 31. http://aztec.lib.utk.edu/libre7n1/haddow.html Triangulating DocumentTriangulating Document Types of journal articles:: Scholarly (citations) Glad tidings, testimony, and research News-type articles
  22. 22. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i 1 3 0 8 3 7 2 14 14 16 18 0 5 10 15 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Year Publications Collaboratory PublicationsCollaboratory Publications n=86
  23. 23. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Taxonomy ConstructionTaxonomy Construction Triangulated analysis frequencies & percentages n=86 1. Wulf discipline x focus 2. Haddow article type 3. Lederberg & Uncapher topic x approach
  24. 24. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Taxonomy #1 Wulf’s (1988)Wulf’s (1988) White PaperWhite Paper Philosophical foundation of the Collaboratory Discipline x Focus
  25. 25. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf TaxonomyWulf Taxonomy Disciplines that need to contribute • Computer science (CS) • Computer/communication engineering (CCE) • Social, behavioral, economics (SBE) Focus of needed research • Instrumentation • Colleagues • Data
  26. 26. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Taxonomy #1 Discipline x Focus CS/CEE, SBE, LIS, OTHER X Instrumentation, Colleagues, Data
  27. 27. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf TaxonomyWulf Taxonomy Focus Instrumentation Colleague Data Totals Disciplines CS/CCE 30 2 2 34 SBE 14 4 0 18 LIS 5 2 1 8 OTHER 18 6 2 28 totals 67 14 5 86
  28. 28. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i 30 14 5 18 2 4 2 6 2 0 1 2 0 10 20 30 CS/CCE SBE LIS Other Discipline of Principal Author Publications Instrumentation Colleagues Data Wulf taxonomyWulf taxonomy Discipline x Focus n=86
  29. 29. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i ObservationObservation 19 disciplines contribute 86 publications to the collaboratory literature Multi- or Inter- disciplinarity?Multi- or Inter- disciplinarity?
  30. 30. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i ““Other” DisciplinesOther” Disciplines Chemistry Astronomy Physics Mathematics Psychology Government Education Botany Biology Medicine Journalism Knowledge Engineering
  31. 31. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity Klein (1990, 55) defines four ways: •by example •by motivation •by principles of interaction •by terminological hierarchy “The space betweenbetween the books”
  32. 32. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Multiple disciplines contribute to create an interdisciplinary information environment.
  33. 33. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Taxonomy #2 Haddow (1997) Article Type Glad tidings & Testimony News Type Research
  34. 34. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Haddow TaxonomyHaddow Taxonomy Type of article Number of articles Glad tidings & testimony 14 News-type 50
  35. 35. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Haddow TaxonomyHaddow Taxonomy Type of Publication by Year N=86 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Year Publications Glad Tidings & Testimony Research News-type
  36. 36. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow Discipline of Research, N=22 7 9 3 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 CS/CCE SBE LIS Other Discipline Publications
  37. 37. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow Focus of Research, N=22 15 6 1 0 5 10 15 Instrumentation Colleagues Data Focus Publications
  38. 38. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow Frequencies &Frequencies & PercentagesPercentages Discipline Publications %ofTotal Publications ResearchArticles %ofArticlesthat areResearch %ofTotal ResearchArticles Researchas%of TotalPublications CS/CCE 34 40% 7 21% 32% 8% SBE 18 21% 9 50% 41% 10% LIS 8 9% 3 38% 14% 3% Other 26 30% 3 12% 14% 3% Totals 86 22
  39. 39. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow ## of Publications, Disciplines Combinedof Publications, Disciplines Combined 60 26 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 CS/CCE & OTHER LIS & SBE Number of Total Publications, n=86 Number of Research Publications, n=22
  40. 40. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution (CS/CSS & Other) “Hard Sciences” provide the greater number of articles. MOST “Hard Science” articles are News-type and Glad Tidings. (CS/CSS & Other) & (SBE & LIS) contribute approximately the same number of research articles.
  41. 41. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Wulf X HaddowWulf X Haddow %% of Publications,of Publications, Disciplines CombinedDisciplines Combined 30 70 54 46 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CS/CCE & Other SBE & LIS Percent of Total Publications (n=86) Percent of Total Research Publications (n=22)
  42. 42. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution (SBE & LIS) “Soft Sciences” provide fewer articles, but a greater percentage of those articles are research. Hard and Soft sciences contribute relatively equal number of research articles.
  43. 43. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity The numbers and percentages of articles reflect that the collaboratory is an interdisciplinary environment by example, motivation, principles of interaction. Wulf’s assumption of interdisciplinarity.
  44. 44. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Taxonomy #3 Lederberg & Uncapher (1989) Intellectual Foundation of the Collaboratory Topic x Approach
  45. 45. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & Uncapher TaxonomyLederberg & Uncapher Taxonomy Topics of needed research: – Systems Architecture – Tools & Technologies – Users & Testbeds Approach of research needed: – Design – Implementation – Testing
  46. 46. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i “Theory” TypeTheory” Type addedadded – Construct or apply theories – Generally specific – Support praxis
  47. 47. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & Uncapher TaxonomyLederberg & Uncapher Taxonomy Approach Design Impl. Test Theory Totals Topic System Architecture 9 8 0 9 26 Tools & Technologies 8 11 3 4 26 Uses & Testbeds 5 12 6 11 34 Totals 22 31 9 24 86
  48. 48. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & UncapherLederberg & Uncapher Approach 24 9 31 22 0 10 20 30 40 Design Implementation Testing Theory Type of Publication
  49. 49. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & UncapherLederberg & Uncapher Topic X Approach 9 8 0 98 11 3 45 12 6 11 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Design Implementation Testing Theory Approach Systems Architecture Tools & Technologies Users & Testbeds
  50. 50. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & Uncapher X HaddowLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow Topic of Theory Research, n=22 5 7 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 System Architecture Tools & Technologies Users & Testbeds Topic of Theory-Type Research Publications
  51. 51. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X WulfLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X Wulf Theory Research X Topic X Discipline n=22 3 1 0 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 0 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CS/CCE SBE LIS Other Discipline Publications Systems Architecture Tools & Technologies Uses & Testbeds
  52. 52. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Lederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X WulfLederberg & Uncapher X Haddow X Wulf Theory Research X Topic X Discipline 4 5 2 9 1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 CS/CCE & Other SBE & LIS Discipline Publications Users & Testbeds Tools & Technologies Systems Architecture
  53. 53. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i ObservationsObservations (SBE & LIS) provide the greater number of theory research publications. The topics of theory research are inversely proportional between disciplines.
  54. 54. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Relative Equality of ContributionRelative Equality of Contribution The disciplines make relatively equal contributions to the Collaboratory literature
  55. 55. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i InterdisciplinarityInterdisciplinarity The Collaboratory is an interdisciplinary environment
  56. 56. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Toward aToward a Grounded TheoryGrounded Theory Qualitative content analysis of Theory Research n=22
  57. 57. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Qualitative Content AnalysisQualitative Content Analysis Theory research n=22 Topics:Topics: Systems Architecture n=5 Tools & Technologies n=7 Users & Testbeds n=10
  58. 58. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Systems ArchitectureSystems Architecture Theory Research, N=5, N=5 Common themes: Inter- and intra-systems communication, integration, adaptability, and independence supported by individual participation within an indivisible and cohesive whole
  59. 59. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Tools & TechnologyTools & Technology Theory Research, N=7N=7 Common themes: Equalization in communication via media richness empowered by choice, power, openness, and sharing
  60. 60. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Users & TestbedsUsers & Testbeds Theory Research, N=10N=10 Common themes Fair exchange, sharing, and commonalities, with maintenance of strong individuality within the collective, are positive.
  61. 61. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes Principles of ParticipationPrinciples of Participation • Integration and adaptability is necessary and good. • Change, choice, and personal power are requisite. • Consensus, sharing, and exchange are positive and practiced. • Individuality and collectivity are distinctly and respectfully maintained.
  62. 62. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes EnvironmentEnvironment Absence of traditionally male (hierarchic or patriarchal) social behaviors: individualism, dominance, competition, confrontation, mastery, aggression, advantage, etc. (Crimshaw1986).
  63. 63. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes EnvironmentEnvironment Collaboratory environment is antithetical to traditional (male dominated) scientific and technological practices.
  64. 64. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Theoretical ThemesTheoretical Themes EnvironmentEnvironment Suggests a purposively de-gendered environment, or an ungenderedness, which in many circles (Haraway 1985) is remarkably feminist.
  65. 65. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.intertwining.org The collaboratory is an ungendered technologically-enabled interdisciplinary scientific information environment built from a relatively equal contribution by the hard and soft sciences
  66. 66. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i The problem for librarianshipThe problem for librarianship The Collaboratory is an interdisciplinary information environment Traditional database collections, subject category classifications, and search options do not facilitate the search for “collaboratory” twining’s first finding violates Ranganathan’s 5th Law
  67. 67. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i The TaxonomiesThe Taxonomies Wulf discipline x focus Haddow article type L&U topic x type Five categories, 27 subcategories
  68. 68. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i How would YOUYOU search for a a research article about implementing a testbed design for a medical collaboratory ?? Wulf discipline x focus L&U topic x type Haddow article type
  69. 69. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i into theinto the CollaboratoryCollaboratory Phase Two a subjective reality of the Collaboratory via immersion in the online environment
  70. 70. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Does the collaboratory exist? Is the collaboratory as the library represents?
  71. 71. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Alta Vista SearchAlta Vista Search February 1998 468 hits for “collaboratory” Announcement of $350mil 5-year NSF KDI funding for “collaboratory research” February 1999 4,982 hits for “collaboratory”
  72. 72. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Toward Criteria for Inclusion as a Collaboratory
  73. 73. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i NRC’sNRC’s Towards a NationalTowards a National CollaboratoryCollaboratory (1993)(1993) Instrumental foundation of the Collaboratory Defines the criteria for inclusion Raises individual and institutional issues and concerns
  74. 74. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Criteria for Inclusion CIRALCIRAL MatrixMatrix CComputerized Network Remote IInstrumentation RResources to Support Data AArchives Digital LLibraries
  75. 75. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i "derivative collaboratories" Do not meet the CIRAL criteria for inclusion, mostly for lack of access to and remote control of instrumentation.
  76. 76. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i “derivative collaboratories” • MIS Collaboratory at UT • CREW Collaboratory at UMich • Baltimore-Washington Regional Collab. • CoVis Collaboratory • MUDS, MOOs
  77. 77. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Collaboratory Test Site M2C The Materials MicroCharacterization Collaboratory TelePresence Microscopy Sites DOE-Funded
  78. 78. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i M2C TelePresence Microscopy Sites Argonne National Laboratory http://tpm.amc.anl.gov National Institute of Standards & Technology http://scanner.cme.nist.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory http://tpm.amc.anl.gov/MMC/ University of Illinois Champagne-Urbana http://cmm-sun.mrl.uiuc.edu
  79. 79. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i M2C meets all the CIRAL criteria for inclusion The collaboratory exists
  80. 80. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Site Visit SPARC Space Physics and Aeronomy Research Collaboratory http://si.umich.edu/sparc (formerly UARC) Upper Atmospheric Space Science Sondrestrom Scatter Radar Facility Greenland NSF-Funded
  81. 81. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Site Visit EMSL Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory Collaboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. http://www.emsl.pnl.gov:2080/dpcs/collab/ Nuclear Waste Cleanup Micro- Spectroscopes DOE- Funded
  82. 82. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Site Visit EEC Experimental Electronic Collaboratory at DIII-D Tokamak http://lithos.gat.com US Atomics Corporation Fission energy DOE-Funded
  83. 83. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Communication modes and data generated are determined by: 1. instrument 2. size of experiment team
  84. 84. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Information resources and interfaces are not managed by librarians or information professionals, but by “collaboratory scientists”
  85. 85. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i into theinto the CollaboratoryCollaboratory Phase Three an intersubjective reality of the Collaboratory via “Delphi Among Collaboratory Pioneers”
  86. 86. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Delphi Technique • Toward convergence, divergence, or stasis of opinion among experts via interative rounds • Individual responses anonymous • Communication via intermediary “We think… by way of ‘what I meant to say was…’”
  87. 87. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i STEPS: • The problem is identified • An expert panel is developed • The panel is presented the problem and asked to respond • Responses are synthesized into a series of statements • The synthesized statements are submitted to the panel • The panel responds • The process continues until convergence, divergence, or stasis is identified.
  88. 88. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Questions: “What are the “Rules of the road” for the collaboratory?” (NRC 1993) “What skills do you value in prospective participants?”
  89. 89. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Collaboratory Pioneers n=6 Criteria for Inclusion: • associated with a functioning CIRAL collaboratory • "big picture" position in the collaboratory • practicing scientist who has actively participated in collaboratory experiments for one year
  90. 90. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Seven “Rules of the Road 1. Be direct in your communication. 2. Get involved, get others involved in working on a problem. 3. Have a real problem that the collaboratory can help solve. 4. Understand the opportunities and limitations of collaboratory work.
  91. 91. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Seven “Rules of the Road” 5. Stay flexible within a formal framework of meetings and experiments. 6. Make frequent contributions to collaboratory data repositories. 7. Working in a collaboratory is not the same as being physically present in a laboratory.
  92. 92. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Skills valued in prospective participants 1. Tolerance for evolving technology and practices 2.Good communication skills 3.Experience in the scientific techniques used 4.Good to expert scientific knowledge 5.General team skills 6.Computer application and Internet competence.
  93. 93. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i FindingsFindings Subtle but remarkable differences in preference for balance between formal and informal communication, and planned and fluid experiment modes.
  94. 94. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Tuck and Earle (1996) group size is always a determining factor in group communication structures Egalitarian: working group (under 6 people) camp (6-30 people) Hierarchical tribe (50-100 people) state (100+ people)
  95. 95. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i FindingsFindings Collaboratory Pioneers value a balance of social, technological, and scientific skills in prospective participants over a superior expertise in any one of them.
  96. 96. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i FindingsFindings Collaboratory pioneers unanimously disagree that the hard and soft disciplines have made a relatively equal contribution.
  97. 97. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i FindingsFindings "The collaboratory is an ungendered environment" received a different response from each participant.
  98. 98. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Needed ResearchNeeded Research 1. The preliminary findings of this study need to be confirmed with more experts and in different collaboratories.
  99. 99. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Needed ResearchNeeded Research 2. Evaluation and analysis of existing collaboratory data stores with an eye toward: –exploiting those stores to provide automated, intelligent information flow to the collaboratory interface, and consilient, expansive studies of collaboratory work practices, and
  100. 100. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Needed ResearchNeeded Research • mapping and modeling the actual work practices and information needs of collaboratory participants as they relate to trust building according to collaboratory size toward – informing the design of collaboratory interfaces, and – developing a Delphi-based Collaboratory Expert System.
  101. 101. c1999 twining@intertwining.org http://www.i Needed ResearchNeeded Research 3. Evaluation and analysis of extra- collaboratory information practices of collaboratory scientists as they relate to the library toward –developing a collaboratory science library, and within it, discipline-, instrument-, and experiment-specific information resources pertinent to practicing collaboratory scientists.

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