PHM3102

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PHM3102

  1. 1. COURSE OUTLINE Kulliyyah Department Pharmaceutical Technology Programme B. Pharmacy Course Title Nuclear Pharmacy Course Code PHM 3102 Status Elective Level 3000 Credit Hours Contact Hours 2 Lecture = 22, Demonstration = 2 x 3, Visit = 2 x 3, Tutorial = 3 Total = 37 hours Pre-requisites (if any) Nil Co-requisites (if any) Nil Teaching Methodology Lecture Demonstration/Practical/Laboratory Visits Tutorial Method of Evaluation Mid-semester assessments 40% MCQs 10 questions 10% Duration: 20 minutes Short Essays 2 out of 3 questions 15% Long Essays 1 out of 2 questions 15% Duration: 1 hour
  2. 2. End of semester assessments 60% Assignments/ Reports 10% MCQs 15 questions 15% Duration: 30 minutes Short Essays 3 out of 4 questions 15% Long Essays 2 out of 4 questions 20% Duration: 2 hours Course Coordinator Instructor(s) Dr. Mohamed Awang Bro. Zulkafli Mohd Nor (Kulliyyah of Allied Health Science) Dr. Shaharuddin Mohd (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Research and Technology, MINT) Dr. Mat Ripin (Hospital Ampang Puteri) Semester Offered 1 Course Objectives At the end of the course, students should be able to understand the following: 1. Principles of radioactivity 2. Safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals (radiation safety) 3. Types of radiopharmaceuticals, their processing and quality control methods 4. Uses of radiopharmaceuticals 5. Regulations pertaining to radioactive materials Course Synopsis This course introduces various aspects of radiopharmaceuticals including processing, use, quality control and safe handling of radiopharmaceuticals. Tc99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals are emphasized since they are the most commonly used by most nuclear medicine centres.
  3. 3. Course Outlines Radioactivity, types of decay, production methods, generator systems, Tc99m- radiopharmaceuticals, mechanisms of localisation, clinical uses, quality controls, radiolabelling methods, design of radioactive laboratory, waste management, safe handling of radioactive sources. During the course, a visit to the MINT Complex in Bangi will be arranged to enable students to observe various facilities available on-site including the reactor, radiopharmaceutical production laboratories, radioactive waste management centre and the radiation sterilization facility. A visit to a nuclear medicine centre around Kuala Lumpur will also be arranged where students will be able to observe some aspects of hospital radiopharmacy, documentation practice, and clinical nuclear medicine studies. Weeks 1 2 3 Topics Introduction: The atom Radioactivity, modes of decay, radionuclide chart Instruments for radiation detection and measurements Principles of radiation protection Radionuclide production: reactor, cyclotron and accelerator Radionuclide generator system: Tc-99m, Kr-81m References Reference 1. Chapter 1 Page 1-10 Dr. Mohamed Reference 1. Chapter 2 Page 11-24 Dr. Mohamed Reference 1. Chapter 3 Page 31-46 Bro. Zulkafli Reference 1. Chapter 11 Page 201-229 Bro. Zulkafli Reference 1. Chapter 4 Page 47-64 Dr. Mohamed Reference 1. Chapter 5 Page 65-78 Dr. Mohamed
  4. 4. 4 5 6 7 8 DEMONSTRATION 1: Radiation detection, radiation safety: distance, shielding and time. Tutorial I Tc99m-labelled radiopharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical aspects, Technetium cold kits, stability of radiopharmaceuticals Mechanisms of localization of radiopharmaceuticals. Visit I: MINT Visit II: Nuclear Medicine Department Clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals, diagnostic applications, organ and functional imaging (at the Nuclear Medicine Department) Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals (radiochemical, radio- nuclidic, apyrogenicity, sterility) Tutorial II Freeze-drying of radiopharmaceutical kits I Freeze-drying of radiopharmaceutical kits II Bro. Zulkafli Dr. Mohamed/Bro. Zulkafli Reference 2. Chapter 4 Page 37-51 Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 23 Page 283-289 Dr. Mohamed MINT, Bangi Kuala Lumpur Reference 2. Chapter 28 Page 337-367 Dr. Mat Ripin Reference 2. Chapter 11 Page 145-165 Dr. Mohamed Dr. Mohamed Reference 4. Chapter 26 Page 379-396 Dr. Mohamed Reference 4. Chapter 26 Page 379-396 Dr. Mohamed
  5. 5. 9 10 11 12 13 14 Factors affecting tissue distribution of radiophar- maceuticals, Adverse effects DEMONSTRATION II: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals Design of radiopharmacy laboratory in hospital Documentation, labelling, packaging and delivery of radiopharmaceuticals, regulatory requirements for dispensing and supply. Radioactive waste management Use of radionuclides in pharmaceutical research, radiolabelling of dosage forms I Radiolabelling of dosage forms II Radiolabelling of peptides, monoclonal antibodies and blood cells Receptor studies/New radiopharmaceuticals Dosimetric considerations Tutorial III Reference 2. Chapter 26 Page 307-318, Reference 2. Chapter 34 Page 431-444 Dr. Mohamed Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 29 Page 369-382 Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 14 Page 205-212 Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 13 Page 195-204; Dr. Shaharuddin Reference 2. Chapter 16 Page 221-224 Dr. Shaharuddin Reference 2. Chapter 38 Page 483-489 Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 38 Page 483-489 Dr. Mohamed Reference 2. Chapter 5, 6, 7. Page 57-101 Dr. Shaharuddin Reference 3. Chapter 5,6 Page 167-253/ Reference 2. Chapter 32 Page 407-409 Dr. Shaharuddin Reference 2. Chapter 35 Page 447-460 Dr. Mohamed Dr. Mohamed
  6. 6. References Required 1. Saha, G.B, (1998), Fundamental of Nuclear Pharmacy, New York: Springer 2. Sampsom, C.B, (1999), Textbook of Radiopharmacy, Theory and Practice, Netherlands:Gordon and Breach 3. Nunn, A.D, (1992), Radiopharmaceuticals, Chemistry and Pharmacology, New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc 4. Aulton, M.E, (2002), Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design, UK: Churchill Livingstone Recommended 5. Tubis,M and Wolf, W (1976), Radiopharmacy, New York:John Wiley & Sons 6. Abu Bakar AM, Noorizan AA, Samsinah HH (1996), Radiofarmasi, USM Proposed Start Date ( Semester) Year 2004/2005 (Semester 1) Batch of Students to be Affected Year 2004/2005 and onward
  7. 7. References Required 1. Saha, G.B, (1998), Fundamental of Nuclear Pharmacy, New York: Springer 2. Sampsom, C.B, (1999), Textbook of Radiopharmacy, Theory and Practice, Netherlands:Gordon and Breach 3. Nunn, A.D, (1992), Radiopharmaceuticals, Chemistry and Pharmacology, New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc 4. Aulton, M.E, (2002), Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design, UK: Churchill Livingstone Recommended 5. Tubis,M and Wolf, W (1976), Radiopharmacy, New York:John Wiley & Sons 6. Abu Bakar AM, Noorizan AA, Samsinah HH (1996), Radiofarmasi, USM Proposed Start Date ( Semester) Year 2004/2005 (Semester 1) Batch of Students to be Affected Year 2004/2005 and onward

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