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  1. 1. NMT 215 - Non-Imaging Instrumentation Jimmy L. Council
  2. 2. 2 Course Description This course covers the proper operation of various types of non-imaging equipment used in nuclear medicine. Emphasis is placed on principles of radiation detection, quality control procedures, various counting problems, and machine-specific operating procedures. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate the proper use of the devices discussed in the course.
  3. 3. 3 Evaluation  Quizzes 25%  Lab 15%  Mid-Term 30%  Final 30%
  4. 4. 4  Review of Radioactive Decay Process  Review of Interaction of Ionizing Radiation  Basic Electronics
  5. 5. 5 Radioactive Decay Process  Alpha  Beta  β− Positron β+  Gamma Electron Capture Isomeric Transition
  6. 6. 6 Alpha  Helium nucleus (2protons, 2 neutrons)  From nuclei of heavier atoms  Charge of +2, Ionizes e- from outer shell until rest  Travels approx. 4 cm in air
  7. 7. 7 Beta  High velocity electron ejected from nucleus  May be negatively or positively charged  N -> P + β− (Beta -)  P -> N + β+ (Positron)
  8. 8. 8 Beta -  Can repel orbital electrons  In tissue 1 MeV beta has a range of 0.42 cm  Bremsstrahlung - Breaking radiation Near contact with nucleus causing an ejection of a x-ray and secondary beta
  9. 9. 9 Positron Decay  May result in an annihilation reaction causing 2photons of 0.51 MeV being released at 180 degrees of each other
  10. 10. 10 Electron Capture  K or L shell electron is captured by the nucleus  P + e- -> N  X-rays can be produced filling the vacancy  Auger electrons can be produced if an outer shell electron is hit by a x-ray
  11. 11. 11 Isomeric Transition  Nucleus is in an excited state  Release of energy in the form of a gamma photon  99m Tc -> 99 Tc
  12. 12. 12 Interactions with Matter  Scatter  Photoelectric Effect  Compton scatter  Pair Production  Photodisintegration
  13. 13. 13 Scatter
  14. 14. 14 Photoelectric Effect
  15. 15. 15 Compton Scatter
  16. 16. 16 Pair Production
  17. 17. 17 Photodisintegration
  18. 18. 18 Electricity and Magnetism  Electricity - flow of electrons  Conductor - substance through which electrons flow easily  Insulator - substance that inhibit the flow of electrons  Good heat conductors are usually good electric conductors
  19. 19. 19 Electricity and Magnetism  Semiconductor - material that under some conditions behaves as an insulator and others like a conductor  Electric Circuit - a closed path with a controlled resistance and conductor  Electric currents are measured in amperes  Electric potential is measured in volts (v)
  20. 20. 20 Electricity and Magnetism  Electric resistance is measured in ohms (Ω)  Ohms law - the voltage across the total circuit or any portion of the circuit is equal to the current times the resistance  V=IR
  21. 21. 21 Electricity and Magnetism  Direct Current - DC - electrons flow in one direction along an electric conductor  Alternating Current - AC - Current in which electrons oscillate back and forth  Electric power measured in watts - one watt is equal to 1 amp of current flowing through an electric potential of 1 volt

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