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NMT 215 - Non-Imaging
Instrumentation
Jimmy L. Council
2
Course Description
This course covers the proper operation of various types of
non-imaging equipment used in nuclear med...
3
Evaluation
 Quizzes 25%
 Lab 15%
 Mid-Term 30%
 Final 30%
4
 Review of Radioactive Decay Process
 Review of Interaction of Ionizing Radiation
 Basic Electronics
5
Radioactive Decay Process
 Alpha
 Beta
 β−
Positron β+
 Gamma
Electron Capture
Isomeric Transition
6
Alpha
 Helium nucleus (2protons, 2 neutrons)
 From nuclei of heavier atoms
 Charge of +2, Ionizes e-
from outer shell...
7
Beta
 High velocity electron ejected from nucleus
 May be negatively or positively charged
 N -> P + β− (Beta -)
 P ...
8
Beta -
 Can repel orbital electrons
 In tissue 1 MeV beta has a range of 0.42 cm
 Bremsstrahlung - Breaking radiation...
9
Positron Decay
 May result in an annihilation reaction causing
2photons of 0.51 MeV being released at 180
degrees of ea...
10
Electron Capture
 K or L shell electron is captured by the nucleus
 P + e-
-> N
 X-rays can be produced filling the ...
11
Isomeric Transition
 Nucleus is in an excited state
 Release of energy in the form of a gamma photon
 99m
Tc -> 99
Tc
12
Interactions with Matter
 Scatter
 Photoelectric Effect
 Compton scatter
 Pair Production
 Photodisintegration
13
Scatter
14
Photoelectric Effect
15
Compton Scatter
16
Pair Production
17
Photodisintegration
18
Electricity and Magnetism
 Electricity - flow of electrons
 Conductor - substance through which electrons
flow easily...
19
Electricity and Magnetism
 Semiconductor - material that under some
conditions behaves as an insulator and others
like...
20
Electricity and Magnetism
 Electric resistance is measured in ohms (Ω)
 Ohms law - the voltage across the total circu...
21
Electricity and Magnetism
 Direct Current - DC - electrons flow in one
direction along an electric conductor
 Alterna...
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  1. 1. NMT 215 - Non-Imaging Instrumentation Jimmy L. Council
  2. 2. 2 Course Description This course covers the proper operation of various types of non-imaging equipment used in nuclear medicine. Emphasis is placed on principles of radiation detection, quality control procedures, various counting problems, and machine-specific operating procedures. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate the proper use of the devices discussed in the course.
  3. 3. 3 Evaluation  Quizzes 25%  Lab 15%  Mid-Term 30%  Final 30%
  4. 4. 4  Review of Radioactive Decay Process  Review of Interaction of Ionizing Radiation  Basic Electronics
  5. 5. 5 Radioactive Decay Process  Alpha  Beta  β− Positron β+  Gamma Electron Capture Isomeric Transition
  6. 6. 6 Alpha  Helium nucleus (2protons, 2 neutrons)  From nuclei of heavier atoms  Charge of +2, Ionizes e- from outer shell until rest  Travels approx. 4 cm in air
  7. 7. 7 Beta  High velocity electron ejected from nucleus  May be negatively or positively charged  N -> P + β− (Beta -)  P -> N + β+ (Positron)
  8. 8. 8 Beta -  Can repel orbital electrons  In tissue 1 MeV beta has a range of 0.42 cm  Bremsstrahlung - Breaking radiation Near contact with nucleus causing an ejection of a x-ray and secondary beta
  9. 9. 9 Positron Decay  May result in an annihilation reaction causing 2photons of 0.51 MeV being released at 180 degrees of each other
  10. 10. 10 Electron Capture  K or L shell electron is captured by the nucleus  P + e- -> N  X-rays can be produced filling the vacancy  Auger electrons can be produced if an outer shell electron is hit by a x-ray
  11. 11. 11 Isomeric Transition  Nucleus is in an excited state  Release of energy in the form of a gamma photon  99m Tc -> 99 Tc
  12. 12. 12 Interactions with Matter  Scatter  Photoelectric Effect  Compton scatter  Pair Production  Photodisintegration
  13. 13. 13 Scatter
  14. 14. 14 Photoelectric Effect
  15. 15. 15 Compton Scatter
  16. 16. 16 Pair Production
  17. 17. 17 Photodisintegration
  18. 18. 18 Electricity and Magnetism  Electricity - flow of electrons  Conductor - substance through which electrons flow easily  Insulator - substance that inhibit the flow of electrons  Good heat conductors are usually good electric conductors
  19. 19. 19 Electricity and Magnetism  Semiconductor - material that under some conditions behaves as an insulator and others like a conductor  Electric Circuit - a closed path with a controlled resistance and conductor  Electric currents are measured in amperes  Electric potential is measured in volts (v)
  20. 20. 20 Electricity and Magnetism  Electric resistance is measured in ohms (Ω)  Ohms law - the voltage across the total circuit or any portion of the circuit is equal to the current times the resistance  V=IR
  21. 21. 21 Electricity and Magnetism  Direct Current - DC - electrons flow in one direction along an electric conductor  Alternating Current - AC - Current in which electrons oscillate back and forth  Electric power measured in watts - one watt is equal to 1 amp of current flowing through an electric potential of 1 volt
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