NuSc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry (and nuclear chemistry)


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  • Mesons are composite mesons, but they are not composed of mesons, because the quarks are spin-1/2 particles and therefore they are fermions.
  • NuSc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry (and nuclear chemistry)

    1. 1. NuSc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry (and Nuclear chemistry) John D’Auria
    2. 2. Instructor: John D’Auria (Professor Emeritus) Office: ??? Telephone: At SFU - ??? At TRIUMF - 604 222 7337 E-Mail: (preferred method of comm.) Web page: Office hours: ??? Also you are automatically member of email list Useful Web page
    3. 3. Some GuidelinesSome Guidelines Lectures: M,W,F 8:30-9:20, AQ5018 Tutorial: Th 8:30-9:20, AQ5018 (not regularly) Books: “Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis” by Willian D. Ehman & Diane E. Vance OR “Modern Nuclear Chemistry” by Walter Loveland, Dave Morrissey and Glen Seaborg 2 Midterm Exams: October 12 and November 13, Final Exam: Mid December 9, Final Grade: 60% final; 20% midterm 1; 20%; midterm 2
    4. 4. Course Outline Topic # Lectures First 4 weeks -Introduction to material/basics 1 -Properties of the nucleus 6 -Radioactive Decay 2 -Kinetics of decay 2 First mid-term test Fri, 12th Oct (tentative)...50 min (20%) Next four weeks -Interactions of radiation with matter (3) -Radiation detection (3) -Health Physics (1) -Nuclear reactions (2) -Accelerators and Reactors (2) Second mid-term test Mon. Nov 13th (tentative)...50 min (20%) Final weeks Applications -Nuclear dating -Origin of the elements -Nuclear techniques -Topics related to nuclear phenomena (Muonic atoms, muonium and positronium chemistry, -Nuclear Medicine and others). Final Exam...3 hours Wed 9th December, 8:30 – 11:30, room#?? (60%) Visit to TRIUMF (needs to be scheduled)
    5. 5. Other Useful Books Jeff Bryan, Introduction to Nuclear Science, 2008, CRC Publishing Co. G.Friedlander & al., Nuclear and Radiochemistry, all editions 3th ed., 1981 Wiley. G.R. Choppin & J. Rydberg, Nuclear Chemistry, Theory and Applications (1980) Pergamon Press. O. Navrátil ... [et al.]. Nuclear chemistry New York : E. Horwood, 1992. Karl Heinrich Lieser, Nuclear and radiochemistry : fundamentals and applications, 2nd ed. Berlin ; New York : Wiley-VCH, 2001. B.L. Cohen, Concepts of Nuclear Physics (1971) McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. G.R. Choppin, Nuclei and Radioactivity (1964), W.A. Benjamin Pub. Co. M. Haissinsky, Nuclear Chemistry and its applications, (1964) Addison-Wesley. B.G. Harvey, Introduction to Nuclear Physics and Chemistry (1962) Prentice-Hall. Choppin, Gregory R., Jan-Olov Liljenzin, and Jan Rydberg. Radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry 3rd ed., Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 Adloff, J-P & Guillaumont R., Fundamentals of Radiochemistry, CRC Press 1993
    6. 6. Nuclear Science Minor The Program in Nuclear Science Nusc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry 342 Introduction to Nuclear Science 344 (or Phys. 390) Nucleosynthesis and Distribution of the Elements 346 Radiochemistry Laboratory 444 Special Topics in Nuclear Science 485 Particle Physics 481/482 Directed Studies Faculty Chemistry – Corina Andreoiu, Kris Starosta, Physics – Mike Vetterli, Duggan O’Neil, Howard Trottier, Bernd Stelzer
    7. 7. What is in the Universe?What is in the Universe?
    8. 8. What is Nuclear Science?What is Nuclear Science? Nuclear science: study of structure, properties, and interactions of atomic nuclei at fundamental level. nucleus – contains almost all mass of ordinary matter in a tiny volume understanding behavior of nuclear matter under normal conditions and conditions far from normal a major challenge extreme conditions existed in the early universe, exist now in the core of stars, and can be created in the laboratory during collisions between nuclei (TRIUMF) Nuclear scientists investigate by measuring the properties, shapes, and decays of nuclei at rest and in collisions. Radiochemistry: Use chemistry and related techniques to study properties of the nucleus; Use of radiation and radioactivity in chemistry and related fields. Applications: - Nuclear medicine and Radiopharmaceutical chem.. Diagnostic, e.g. PET Therapeutic isotopes (Silver bullet) Radiation Therapy - Radioanalytical techniques NAA (Neutron activation analysis) Isotopic Dilution Wet Chemistry - Environmental Radiochemistry Radon in Homes Activity in snow Smoke detectors Flying - Tracer Studies in Bio, Chem, Biochem., etc. - Waste Disposal and Treatment (Reactors) - Homeland security !!!
    9. 9. InteractionsInteractions forces strength range (fm) exchange particle mass (eV) charge spin Decay gravitational 6x10-39 infinite graviton? 0 0 2 ? weak 1x10-6 2x10-3 W±, Z 91x109 ±1,0 1 beta electromagnetic 7x10-3 infinite photon 0 0 1 gamma strong 1 1.5 pion 35x106 0 1 alpha 1 fm = 101 fm = 10-15-15 mm The forces of elementary particle physics are associated with the exchange of particles.The forces of elementary particle physics are associated with the exchange of particles. An interaction between particles is characterized by both its strength and its range.An interaction between particles is characterized by both its strength and its range. Force between two objects can be described as exchange of a particle – particle transfers momentum and energy between the two objects, and is said to mediate the interaction graviton – not yet observed pions or pi mesons – between nucleons
    10. 10. Standard ModelStandard Model • Attempts to explain all phenomena of particle physics in terms of properties and interactions of a small number of three distinct types. • Leptons: spin-1/2 (β+ β- µτeτυυ) • Quarks: spin-1/2 • Bosons: spin-1; force carriers These are assumed to be elementary.
    11. 11. Standard ModelStandard Model
    12. 12. HadronsHadrons Hadrons: any strongly interacting subatomic particle; composed of quarks. There are 2 categories: • Baryons: fermions, made of 3 quarks (duu-p) • Mesons: bosons, made of quark, antiquark
    13. 13. AntiparticlesAntiparticles • Electron (e-) – Positron (e+) Particles and antiparticles (such as the pair highlighted in pink) are created in pairs from the energy released by the collision of fast-moving particles with atoms in a bubble chamber. Since particles and antiparticles have opposite electrical charges, they curl in opposite directions in the magnetic field applied to the chamber.
    14. 14. AntiparticlesAntiparticles
    15. 15. Building BlocksBuilding Blocks • Molecules consists of atoms. • An atom consists of a nucleus, which carries almost all the mass of the atom and a positive charge Ze, surrounded by a cloud of Z electrons. • Nuclei consist of two types of fermions: protons and neutrons, called also nucleons. • Nucleons consists of three quarks. e = 1.6022 x 10-19 C
    16. 16. 1 fm = 10-15 m 1 Å = 10-10 m
    17. 17. mp = 1.6726 x 10-27 kg = 938.26 MeV = 1.007276 u mn = 1.6749 x 10-27 kg = 939.55 MeV = 1.008665 u Charge: e Charge: 0 3 quarks baryons
    18. 18. The NucleusThe Nucleus The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons Protons and neutrons are generally called nucleons A nucleus is characterized by: • A: Mass Number = number of nucleons • Z: Charge Number = number of protons • N: Neutron Number Of course A=Z+N Determines the Element Determines the Isotope Usual notation: 12 C Element symbol – defined by charge number C is Carbon and Z = 6 Mass number A So this nucleus is made of 6 protons and 6 neutrons
    19. 19. MassMass • Nuclear and atomic masses often given in u: atomic mass unit • 12.000 u = 12 daltons mass of a neutral 12 C atom • 1 u = 1.6605 x 10-27 kg • Mass and energy are interchangeable – E = mc2 where energy usually expressed in MeV • 1 MeV = 1.602 x 10-13 J • 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c2
    20. 20. Isotopes: same Z 40 Ca, 42 Ca, 44 Ca [9 C—22 C particle stable and exist] often, ‘isotope’ used instead of ‘nuclide’ isotopes have same Z, so same number of electrons => same chemistry use radioactive isotope in place of stable one – can monitor decay for tracer studies Isotones: same N 40 Ca, 42 Ti, 44 Cr Isobars: same A 42 Ca, 42 Ti, 42 Cr Isomers: Long lived excited states Isodiaphors: same neutron excess 42 Ca, 46 Ti, 50 Cr isodiaphors: same neutron excess, N - Z 11 −+ N A Z E N A Z E1 1 + + 1 2 1 + + + N A Z E 1 1 + + N A ZYN A ZY1 1 − − N A ZY 1 2 1 − − − N A Z X N A Z X1 1 − − 11 +− N A Z X isodiaphors isotopes isobars isotones Z
    21. 21. Classification of NuclidesClassification of Nuclides • Stable nuclei: 264; 16 O • Primary natural radionuclides: 26; very long half-lives; 238 U with T1/2 = 4.47 x 109 y • Secondary natural radionuclides: 38; 226 Ra T1/2 = 1600 y decay of 238 U • Induced natural radionuclides: 10; cosmic rays; 3 H T1/2 = 12.3 y; 14 N(n,t)12 C • Artificial radionuclides: 2000, 60 Co, 137 Cs… • 4 He++ stripped helium nucleus (1905 – Rutherford)
    22. 22. Properties/Info on nuclear species Alpha Particle – 4 He++ (α) – stripped helium nucleus Identified in 1905 by Rutherford who placed a 210 Po alpha emitting source in a glass tube. It was evacuated and left for a period of time. Helium gas was then found in the tube. Beta: Member of the lepton family Two beta particles, namely - Electron (β-, ) discovered by J.J. Thomson - Positron (β+ ) discovered by Carl Anderson Neutrino: - Member of the lepton family - Predicted by Pauli 1937 - Very weakly interacting - Observed in 1953 by Reines and Cowan….How??? - Solar neutrino flux studied by SNO….??? Leptons: Interact through the weak force Behave as point particles Emitted by nucleus; cannot exist in nucleus Gamma Ray - γ-ray ; photon of high energy (high frequency) massless member of EM spectrum
    23. 23. Periodic TablePeriodic Table
    24. 24. Chart of NucleiChart of Nuclei • plot of all known nuclei as a function of Z and N
    25. 25. Chart of NuclidesChart of Nuclides
    26. 26. ……or Segre Chartor Segre Chart • plot allows various nuclear properties to be understood at a glance, similar to how chemical properties are understood from the periodic chart • ~ 2500 different nuclei known • 270 stable/non-radioactive • theorists guess at least 4000 more to be discovered at higher neutron numbers, higher mass • limits – • proton-rich side (left of stable): proton dripline cannot add another proton, it “drips” off dripline is known/accessible to experiments • neutron-rich side (right of stable): neutron dripline cannot add another neutron, it “drips” off dripline is unknown – neutron-rich nuclei difficult to produce/study • mass (above stable) – cannot add another proton or neutron limit unknown – again, difficult to produce/study • “island of stability” predicted near Z = 114; not yet observed
    27. 27. Terms Half-life – time it takes for ½ of the nuclides to decay - T1/2 Activity
    28. 28. Units 1 – Unit of activity CURIE Becquerel 2 – Units of energy 3 – Units of mass 4 – Health Physics ( rad, rem, sieverts) Concepts Energy Work = Force x distance Kinetic energy = ½ x mass x (velocity)2 Potential energy – energy a body possess by virtue of its position in a field. Coulombic : attractive (repulsion) between unlike (like) charges Force = q1 q2/ r2 ; PE = V = force x distance,
    29. 29. Ions in a magnetic field radius of curvature = momentum/charge x magnetic field xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx ρ = xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx Bρ - rigidity = Relativity Decay Scheme Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle
    30. 30. Brief history Roentgen (X-rays), 1895 (cathode rays struck wall, caused emission of light and X-rays) Becquerel, Natural radioactivity (1896) (discovered radiation from uranyl sulphate) Curie, isolate more radioactive elements Rutherford, 1903 (proved alphas were helium ion) Rutherford, Geiger and Marden, 1911 (atomic model) Soddy (1913), isotopes Chadwick (1932) neutron Hahn and Strassman (1938) discover fission (n + U) Fermi – first reactor at Univ. of Chicago, theory of beta decay,+++ Seaborg – producing many tranuranic elements Lawrence – the cyclotron