Mesons are composite mesons, but they are not composed of mesons, because the quarks are spin-1/2 particles and therefore they are fermions.
NuSc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry (and nuclear chemistry)
Introduction to Radiochemistry
(and Nuclear chemistry)
Instructor: John D’Auria (Professor Emeritus)
Telephone: At SFU - ???
At TRIUMF - 604 222 7337
E-Mail: email@example.com (preferred method of comm.)
Web page: http://www.sfu.ca/NuSc344.htm
Office hours: ???
Also you are automatically member of email list
Useful Web page
Some GuidelinesSome Guidelines
Lectures: M,W,F 8:30-9:20, AQ5018
Tutorial: Th 8:30-9:20, AQ5018 (not regularly)
“Radiochemistry and Nuclear Methods of Analysis”
by Willian D. Ehman & Diane E. Vance
“Modern Nuclear Chemistry” by
Walter Loveland, Dave Morrissey and Glen Seaborg
2 Midterm Exams: October 12 and November 13,
Final Exam: Mid December 9,
Final Grade: 60% final; 20% midterm 1; 20%; midterm 2
Topic # Lectures
First 4 weeks -Introduction to material/basics 1
-Properties of the nucleus 6
-Radioactive Decay 2
-Kinetics of decay 2
First mid-term test Fri, 12th
Oct (tentative)...50 min (20%)
Next four weeks
-Interactions of radiation with matter (3)
-Radiation detection (3)
-Health Physics (1)
-Nuclear reactions (2)
-Accelerators and Reactors (2)
Second mid-term test Mon. Nov 13th
(tentative)...50 min (20%)
Final weeks Applications
-Origin of the elements
-Topics related to nuclear phenomena (Muonic
atoms, muonium and positronium chemistry,
-Nuclear Medicine and others).
Final Exam...3 hours
December, 8:30 – 11:30, room#?? (60%)
Visit to TRIUMF (needs to be scheduled)
Other Useful Books
Jeff Bryan, Introduction to Nuclear Science, 2008, CRC Publishing Co.
G.Friedlander & al., Nuclear and Radiochemistry, all editions 3th ed., 1981 Wiley.
G.R. Choppin & J. Rydberg, Nuclear Chemistry, Theory and Applications (1980) Pergamon Press.
O. Navrátil ... [et al.]. Nuclear chemistry New York : E. Horwood, 1992.
Karl Heinrich Lieser, Nuclear and radiochemistry : fundamentals and applications, 2nd
Berlin ; New York : Wiley-VCH, 2001.
B.L. Cohen, Concepts of Nuclear Physics (1971) McGraw-Hill Pub. Co.
G.R. Choppin, Nuclei and Radioactivity (1964), W.A. Benjamin Pub. Co.
M. Haissinsky, Nuclear Chemistry and its applications, (1964) Addison-Wesley.
B.G. Harvey, Introduction to Nuclear Physics and Chemistry (1962) Prentice-Hall.
Choppin, Gregory R., Jan-Olov Liljenzin, and Jan Rydberg. Radiochemistry and nuclear
ed., Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002
Adloff, J-P & Guillaumont R., Fundamentals of Radiochemistry, CRC Press 1993
Nuclear Science Minor
The Program in Nuclear Science
Nusc 341 Introduction to Radiochemistry
342 Introduction to Nuclear Science
344 (or Phys. 390) Nucleosynthesis and Distribution
of the Elements
346 Radiochemistry Laboratory
444 Special Topics in Nuclear Science
485 Particle Physics
481/482 Directed Studies
Chemistry – Corina Andreoiu, Kris Starosta,
Physics – Mike Vetterli, Duggan O’Neil,
Howard Trottier, Bernd Stelzer
What is in the Universe?What is in the Universe?
What is Nuclear Science?What is Nuclear Science?
Nuclear science: study of structure, properties, and interactions of atomic nuclei at fundamental level.
nucleus – contains almost all mass of ordinary matter in a tiny volume
understanding behavior of nuclear matter under normal conditions
and conditions far from normal a major challenge
extreme conditions existed in the early universe, exist now in the core
of stars, and can be created in the laboratory during collisions
between nuclei (TRIUMF)
Nuclear scientists investigate by measuring the properties, shapes, and decays of nuclei at rest and in collisions.
Radiochemistry: Use chemistry and related techniques to study properties of the nucleus; Use of radiation and
radioactivity in chemistry and related fields.
Applications: - Nuclear medicine and Radiopharmaceutical chem..
Diagnostic, e.g. PET
Therapeutic isotopes (Silver bullet)
- Radioanalytical techniques
NAA (Neutron activation analysis)
- Environmental Radiochemistry
Radon in Homes
Activity in snow
- Tracer Studies in Bio, Chem, Biochem., etc.
- Waste Disposal and Treatment (Reactors)
- Homeland security !!!
forces strength range (fm) exchange particle mass (eV) charge spin Decay
infinite graviton? 0 0 2 ?
W±, Z 91x109
±1,0 1 beta
infinite photon 0 0 1 gamma
strong 1 1.5 pion 35x106
0 1 alpha
1 fm = 101 fm = 10-15-15
The forces of elementary particle physics are associated with the exchange of particles.The forces of elementary particle physics are associated with the exchange of particles.
An interaction between particles is characterized by both its strength and its range.An interaction between particles is characterized by both its strength and its range.
Force between two objects can be described as exchange of a particle – particle transfers
momentum and energy between the two objects, and is said to mediate the interaction
graviton – not yet observed
pions or pi mesons – between nucleons
Standard ModelStandard Model
• Attempts to explain all phenomena of particle
physics in terms of properties and interactions
of a small number of three distinct types.
• Leptons: spin-1/2 (β+
• Quarks: spin-1/2
• Bosons: spin-1; force carriers
These are assumed to be elementary.
Hadrons: any strongly interacting subatomic
particle; composed of quarks.
There are 2 categories:
• Baryons: fermions, made of 3 quarks (duu-p)
• Mesons: bosons, made of quark, antiquark
• Electron (e-) – Positron (e+) Particles and antiparticles
(such as the pair highlighted
in pink) are created in pairs
from the energy released by
the collision of fast-moving
particles with atoms in a
bubble chamber. Since
particles and antiparticles
have opposite electrical
charges, they curl in
opposite directions in the
magnetic field applied to
Building BlocksBuilding Blocks
• Molecules consists of atoms.
• An atom consists of a nucleus, which carries
almost all the mass of the atom and a positive
charge Ze, surrounded by a cloud of Z
• Nuclei consist of two types of fermions:
protons and neutrons, called also nucleons.
• Nucleons consists of three quarks.
e = 1.6022 x 10-19
mp = 1.6726 x 10-27
= 938.26 MeV
= 1.007276 u
mn = 1.6749 x 10-27
= 939.55 MeV
= 1.008665 u
Charge: e Charge: 0
The NucleusThe Nucleus
The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons
Protons and neutrons are generally called nucleons
A nucleus is characterized by:
• A: Mass Number = number of nucleons
• Z: Charge Number = number of protons
• N: Neutron Number
Of course A=Z+N
Determines the Element
Determines the Isotope
Element symbol – defined by charge number
C is Carbon and Z = 6
Mass number A
So this nucleus is made of 6 protons and 6 neutrons
• Nuclear and atomic masses often given in u: atomic mass
• 12.000 u = 12 daltons mass of a neutral 12
• 1 u = 1.6605 x 10-27
• Mass and energy are interchangeable – E = mc2
where energy usually expressed in MeV
• 1 MeV = 1.602 x 10-13
• 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c2
Isotopes: same Z 40
C particle stable and exist]
often, ‘isotope’ used instead of ‘nuclide’
isotopes have same Z, so same number of electrons => same chemistry
use radioactive isotope in place of stable one – can monitor
decay for tracer studies
Isotones: same N 40
Isobars: same A 42
Cr Isomers: Long lived excited states
Isodiaphors: same neutron excess 42
isodiaphors: same neutron excess, N - Z
11 −+ N
Z E N
Z X N
− 11 +− N
Classification of NuclidesClassification of Nuclides
• Stable nuclei: 264; 16
• Primary natural radionuclides: 26; very long
U with T1/2 = 4.47 x 109
• Secondary natural radionuclides: 38; 226
Ra T1/2 =
1600 y decay of 238
• Induced natural radionuclides: 10; cosmic rays;
H T1/2 = 12.3 y; 14
• Artificial radionuclides: 2000, 60
stripped helium nucleus (1905 – Rutherford)
Properties/Info on nuclear species
Alpha Particle – 4
(α) – stripped helium nucleus
Identified in 1905 by Rutherford who placed a 210
emitting source in a glass tube. It was evacuated and left for a
period of time. Helium gas was then found in the tube.
Beta: Member of the lepton family
Two beta particles, namely
- Electron (β-,
) discovered by J.J. Thomson
- Positron (β+
) discovered by Carl Anderson
Neutrino: - Member of the lepton family
- Predicted by Pauli 1937
- Very weakly interacting
- Observed in 1953 by Reines and Cowan….How???
- Solar neutrino flux studied by SNO….???
Leptons: Interact through the weak force
Behave as point particles
Emitted by nucleus; cannot exist in nucleus
Gamma Ray - γ-ray ; photon of high energy (high frequency)
member of EM spectrum
Chart of NucleiChart of Nuclei
• plot of all known nuclei as a function of Z and N
Chart of NuclidesChart of Nuclides
……or Segre Chartor Segre Chart
• plot allows various nuclear properties to be understood at a glance, similar
to how chemical properties are understood from the periodic chart
• ~ 2500 different nuclei known
• 270 stable/non-radioactive
• theorists guess at least 4000 more to be discovered at higher neutron
numbers, higher mass
• limits –
• proton-rich side (left of stable): proton dripline cannot add another proton, it
“drips” off dripline is known/accessible to experiments
• neutron-rich side (right of stable): neutron dripline cannot add another
neutron, it “drips” off dripline is unknown – neutron-rich nuclei difficult to
• mass (above stable) – cannot add another proton or neutron limit unknown –
again, difficult to produce/study
• “island of stability” predicted near Z = 114; not yet observed
Half-life – time it takes for ½ of the nuclides to decay - T1/2
1 – Unit of activity CURIE
2 – Units of energy
3 – Units of mass
4 – Health Physics ( rad, rem, sieverts)
Work = Force x distance
Kinetic energy = ½ x mass x (velocity)2
Potential energy – energy a body possess by virtue of
its position in a field.
Coulombic : attractive (repulsion) between unlike (like) charges
Force = q1 q2/ r2
; PE = V = force x distance,
Ions in a magnetic field
radius of curvature = momentum/charge x magnetic field
xxxxxxxxxx ρ =
Bρ - rigidity =
Heisenberg Uncertainity Principle
Roentgen (X-rays), 1895
(cathode rays struck wall, caused emission of light and X-rays)
Becquerel, Natural radioactivity (1896)
(discovered radiation from uranyl sulphate)
Curie, isolate more radioactive elements
Rutherford, 1903 (proved alphas were helium ion)
Rutherford, Geiger and Marden, 1911 (atomic model)
Soddy (1913), isotopes
Chadwick (1932) neutron
Hahn and Strassman (1938) discover fission (n + U)
Fermi – first reactor at Univ. of Chicago, theory of beta decay,+++
Seaborg – producing many tranuranic elements
Lawrence – the cyclotron