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Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
Nuclear education and research in British universities.doc
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  • 1. NUCLEAR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN BRITISH UNIVERSITIES 17 OCTOBER 2000
  • 2. Foreword We thank those people who provided information. If there is an error, any omission or the data needs updating then please inform us at the address below. We would also be grateful to receive ideas on generating student interest in nuclear subjects or information on existing initiatives. The contact for comments and contributions is David Senior, at david.senior@hse.gsi.gov.uk.
  • 3. CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 I INTRODUCTION 5 II SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR EDUCATION 8 III SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR INDUSTRY RESEARCH LINKS 11 WITH UK UNIVERSITIES TABLES • Summary of masters courses relevant to nuclear education 14 • Summary of undergraduate courses relevant to nuclear education 15 • Number, age range and expected lifetime of nuclear facilities at universities. 17 APPENDIX 1 STATUS OF NUCLEAR EDUCATION BY UNIVERSITY 18 APPENDIX 2 STATUS OF NUCLEAR INDUSTRY RESEARCH LINKS WITH UK UNIVERSITIES 44 APPENDIX 3 OECD COUNTRY REPORT ON EDUCATION IN THE NUCLEAR FIELD: UNITED KINGDOM 51 APPENDIX 4 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HSE STUDY 2000 56 2
  • 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Concerns about the decline in nuclear education have been expressed for some time but it was only with the publication of the OECD/NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) report “Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?” in July 2000 that quantitative information first became available. Whilst the data provided by most countries, the UK included, was acknowledged as being incomplete, it did not detract from the findings of the report since the focus was more on trends than specifics. This report complements the OECD one by providing a comprehensive and detailed picture of nuclear education in the UK today, including a summary of the research links that the industry has with universities. It is hoped that it will be a valuable aid in shaping the future of nuclear education in this country so that an adequate supply of appropriately qualified staff for the future safe and economic operation of the industry will be assured. For this study, 22 universities were approached and responses obtained from 21, including the 9 that had responded to the OECD survey carried out in 1998. As far as is known, this covers all of the universities that are involved in teaching nuclear subjects; there are over 130 colleges and universities in the UK. In addition, one institution was surveyed, the Ministry of Defence establishment, HMS Sultan. Today, there is not one university undergraduate course with any significant nuclear content to it. Half of the nuclear modules are optional and the majority constitute less than 5% of the degree. In short, nuclear education at the undergraduate level has been reduced to taster modules within mainstream science degrees. With universities now run on a business footing, under-subscribed nuclear courses have been replaced by those pertinent to other industries where there is a demand. HMS Sultan offers a wide range of stand-alone training courses but these are not part of a first degree, although some are at that level. The three masters courses possibly most relevant to the industry have a combined uptake of about 24 students a year. These are in the areas of Nuclear Reactor Technology and Applied Radiation Physics. A further 15 masters courses have some nuclear content but in most cases it comprises only a small percentage of the degree. As a consequence of recent funding changes some of these courses are at risk. Already one has had to be rescued from closure through a Partnership of the university, the Regulator and the industry. The OECD survey found a common story among member countries of ageing faculty members who were not being replaced when they retired and ageing facilities that were not being renewed. Whilst this study did not address personnel issues, it did confirm that most of the university facilities for nuclear teaching in the UK are over 25 years old. There are some new laboratories and equipment and some laboratories have been refurbished and kept up to date but quite a few are in their original state. There is now only one civil research reactor in the country and in the last two years the only two hot cell facilities in universities have closed. 3
  • 5. Comparing the results of this study with those of the OECD survey does not show any decrease in the extent of nuclear teaching in the UK over the last two years. Indeed, there are probably more students taking nuclear options now than then. All of the respondents were optimistic about the prospects for nuclear teaching in their institutions over the next five years; most anticipated that the status quo would remain, a few envisaged a slight expansion with several universities proposing new courses. A further significant development is that the Ministry of Defence courses, previously only available to the military, have recently been made available to civilians. Of the 9 organisations that were approached to provide details of their research contracts, 8 responded. The nuclear industry currently has over 250 contracts with some 54 British universities worth about £10M a year. Generally, a university that has nuclear teaching has good research links with the industry. However, some universities have extensive research links but do not teach nuclear subjects. The manner in which research contracts are established may have a beneficial effect on nuclear teaching. Hitherto, most contracts have been placed on an ad-hoc basis to meet specific short-term needs. Like many other companies, those in the nuclear sector are beginning to cluster their research contracts in specific disciplines at specific universities as a way of underpinning core competencies. Not all of the centres so formed are in nuclear subjects. But unlike the ad-hoc approach to placing contracts, the centres engender a long-term relationship and the movement of staff between each other’s facilities. Although established for research purposes, the wider understanding of each other’s cultures and needs that will ensue could be capitalised on to develop teaching courses and training modules. 4
  • 6. I. INTRODUCTION i) Background In the Spring of 1998 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) convened an Expert Group, comprised of representatives from 17 Member countries, to quantify the concerns raised by those countries about the perceived decline in nuclear education. Two delegates represented the UK: one from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the other from BNFL. The findings of the Expert Group were published, in July 2000, as an OECD report: “Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?”1 The report confirmed what many had long suspected: “In most countries there are now fewer comprehensive, high-quality nuclear technology programmes at universities than before…….. The ability of universities to attract top-quality students to those programmes, meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry and conduct leading-edge research in nuclear topics is becoming seriously compromised…… There currently appear to be enough trainers and quality staff in industry and at research institutes. However, the provision of suitable trainers in the near future is becoming a concern because of the university situation.” The report concluded that, “Nuclear education and training are not yet at crisis point, but they are certainly under stress in many of the OECD/NEA Member countries…. The needs of the industry, in both recruitment and research, have declined as it has reached maturity and seeks to be more competitive in a deregulated energy sector. However, a sufficiently robust and flexible nuclear education is crucial to support the industry as it evolves.” That it may not be able to do so is evidenced by a common story of ageing faculty members and facilities combined with a decline in the number of students taking nuclear subjects and a decline in and dilution of, nuclear courses available. The first recommendation of the report is for immediate action – given that human resources do not appear instantly and a minimum of 4 to 5 years of higher education is needed to train the experts that will be needed. Another is that the nuclear industry and universities work together to market nuclear programmes to the younger generation. Governments are exhorted to engage in long-term strategic energy planning and, through a number of mechanisms, to encourage young people onto nuclear courses in order to ensure that “human resources are available to meet necessary obligations and address outstanding issues.” The findings and recommendations of the report, are, by their nature, generalisations that embrace 17 countries with markedly different cultures and institutions. Nevertheless, they are pertinent to the UK as can be seen from the UK Country Report, at Appendix 3, which is a summary of the situation based on the responses from the universities and nuclear companies surveyed. 1 A summary of the report is available free of charge from the OECD or on their website at http://www.nea.fr/html/pub/ret.cgi?id=new#2428. The full report, which contains the country reports, is available from the OECD price 210FF or at http://www.nea.fr/html/ndd/reports/2000/nea2428- education.pdf. 5
  • 7. ii) Objectives of this study • To update the OECD information. • To widen the data to cover all universities involved in nuclear teaching. • To provide more detailed information on courses. • To summarise research links with universities. • To provide a body of information which can be used to determine the way forward in nuclear education. Groundbreaking though the OECD work was, the information is becoming dated and, as far as the UK is concerned, is by no means comprehensive. In 1998, of the 13 universities that were approached because they were known to be teaching nuclear subjects, 9 responded to the OECD questionnaire. As these were the ones pre-eminently involved with nuclear education it was possible to establish what the trends in nuclear education were. However, the picture was incomplete because of those that did not respond, as well as others that were not approached but were subsequently found to be teaching nuclear subjects. The OECD report was confined to education and training; it did not address research sponsored by the nuclear industry at universities. Good teaching and good research often go together and it may be that the wider understanding of each other’s cultures and needs that ensues from research collaborations could provide the opportunity for industry and academe to jointly develop teaching courses and training modules. It is recognised that the future safe operation of nuclear facilities in the UK is dependent on the continued availability of appropriate skills and knowledge. Historically, universities have made a significant input to meeting these requirements through the provision of nuclear-specific education opportunities and hence the supply of suitably qualified technical graduates. This report provides a body of information, which can be used to help determine the way forward in nuclear education so that it will remain sufficiently robust and flexible to support the industry as it evolves. iii) Methodology The study was carried out between March and June 2000. Details of nuclear courses were obtained by sending a questionnaire, at Appendix 4, to individuals who had been identified as being involved in teaching nuclear subjects and with whom the objectives of the study had been discussed. Twenty-two universities were approached and responses received from 21, including the 9 that had responded to the 1998 OECD survey. As far as is known, all of the universities that are involved in teaching nuclear subjects have been included; there are over 130 universities and colleges in the UK. In addition, information was obtained from one institution, the Ministry of Defence establishment, HMS Sultan. Details of the nuclear industry’s research contracts with universities were obtained by directly approaching those in each company who were responsible for monitoring or 6
  • 8. controlling them. Of the 9 organisations that were approached, 8 provided details: British Energy, BNFL, BNFL Magnox, HSE, MoD, NIREX, NNC and UKAEA. Most of the companies did not have a centralised system for recording the details of their university research contracts and consequently the majority of the information was provided on an ad-hoc basis. As a result, occasionally, some detail was not obtainable. Hence, where the name of a department is not known it is listed as “Not categorised”. 7
  • 9. II. SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR EDUCATION i) Masters and post graduate courses. Table 1, overleaf, is a summary of the masters courses having some nuclear content. As a consequence of recent changes in funding arrangements, some masters courses are at risk. EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) funding is now only given to new masters courses, and only for a five-year period. In other words pump priming. As a result of losing EPSRC funding, one long established course at the University of Birmingham, the Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors, faced closure. However, thanks to the intervention of the Regulator (HSE – NII), a Partnership has been established comprising the industry, the university and the Regulator that assessed the value of the course and put in place arrangements, including financial support, to secure its future. Other courses are facing difficulties. The Advanced Radiation Physics course at Birmingham loses its Research Council support in 2001 and the Partnership is discussing the viability of replacing it with a MSc centred on Waste and Decommissioning. Queen Mary and Westfield College (QMW) have applied for Research Council support for a masters courses based on the QMW/UCL (University College London) course in Radiation Physics that has been in operation since 1957. At the University of Surrey, Research Council funding for the MSc in Radiation and Environmental Protection is guaranteed only until 2000/1. To widen their appeal and make them more flexible, masters courses are increasingly being offered on a modular basis. As well as enabling students to take individual modules to meet specific training needs, there are also the options of combining modules to obtain a Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma, or of obtaining a masters degree over several years of part-time study. The era of the one-year, intensive, full- time course is disappearing. The Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors course at Birmingham has been updated and re-written in a modular form that will also be available electronically for distance learning. The MSc in Environmental Diagnosis at Imperial College contains modules on Neutron Activation Analysis and Instrumentation, which are offered as stand-alone short courses. At the University of Liverpool, fourteen one-week modules are offered. Masters level CATS1 points are awarded and the modules may be taken singly or in sufficient numbers to constitute a MSc, Pg.Cert or Pg.Dip. As well as its MSc in Nuclear Reactor Technology, HMS Sultan also offers a Pg.Dip in Nuclear Reactor Technology, a Pg.Dip in Nuclear Radiological Protection and a PgDip in Nuclear Plant Engineering. Apart from existing courses that are being restructured to meet funding requirements, only one new MSc of relevance to the nuclear industry is being proposed. This in Safety Engineering at Lancaster University, and is scheduled to start in 2001. In addition to modules associated with generic safety engineering, students will take 1 CATS – Credit Accumulation Transfer Scheme – enables students to study modules at different universities acquiring points as they do so until they have accumulated enough for the qualification. 8
  • 10. modules relating to one of three industrial areas. One of these will be Nuclear Engineering and Remote Handling Concepts. There will also be a six-month project. For students choosing a nuclear subject for their project the nuclear content of their degree will be over 75%. Universities now operate as businesses and they cannot afford to run expensive, post- graduate courses that are undersubscribed. The decline in nuclear related masters courses in the last decade is evidence enough. To widen their appeal and to be more flexible, courses are increasingly offered on a modular basis but the current funding arrangements send a very clear message that, beyond the initial pump-priming period, if industry wants it then industry will have to pay for it. And if industry does not pay then courses will atrophy. On the other hand, if industry can specify what it wants, then it is very likely that its needs will be met in a flexible manner. ii) Undergraduate courses From Table 2, overleaf, it can be seen that there is no longer any university undergraduate course with any significant nuclear content to it. Where there is a nuclear content, it constitutes typically less than 5% of the degree; only two universities suggested a figure of 10% for their courses. Of the modules identified, half are optional. In short, nuclear education at the undergraduate level has been reduced to “taster” modules within mainstream science degrees. HMS Sultan offers a wide range of stand-alone courses, lasting from a day to a year, but these are not part of a first degree, although some of them are at that level. The emphasis is more on training than scholarship and the courses cater for those already in the industry rather than those that might be encouraged to join it. Only one university, De Montfort, is contemplating a new undergraduate course with any significant nuclear content. This is only at the early planning stage but it is hoped that it will have a nuclear content of about 20% and the word “nuclear” in the title. Undergraduate teaching - the principal purpose of universities - is financed on a block-funding basis; to get the maximum funding universities have to enrol the maximum number of students. With empty seats meaning a loss of income, universities literally cannot afford to run courses for which there are few takers. The result has been that under-subscribed nuclear courses have been replaced by those pertinent to other industries where there is a student demand. At the masters level it may be a case of if industry wants it then industry pays for it but, for a number of reasons, funding mechanisms included, this approach does not readily translate to the undergraduate level. However, that is not to say that the industry cannot lend support in any way practicable to retain and strengthen existing modules and try and introduce new ones. In other words, to try and increase demand so that supply will follow naturally. 9
  • 11. iii) Facilities The age and expected lifetime of the different types of experimental facilities varies from university to university and Table 3, overleaf, shows the current situation. Most facilities are over 25 years old and many are over 30 years old. There are some new laboratories and equipment and some of the old laboratories have been refurbished and kept up to date but quite are few are in their original state. There is only one civil research reactor left in the country, the Imperial College CONSORT reactor at Silwood Park and in the last two years the only two hot cell facilities in universities have closed (at Salford and UCL). iv) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 Based on 9 responses from 13 universities the best estimate for the number of students taking masters courses in 1998 was 78 a year. From the data in Table 1 the number of students on the three courses possibly most relevant to the nuclear industry, Applied Radiation Physics, Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Reactor Technology is 21 – 30 a year. By including the other courses and allowing for the fact that they contain less than 100% nuclear content, a figure of 78 full-time equivalent students a year may be arrived at but it seems an optimistic total. At the undergraduate level, the number of students having a nuclear component to their education showed an increase from 364 in 1990 to 427 in 1998. The figures in Table 2 indicate that the total could exceed 1300, without counting the 400 attending the HMS Sultan training courses. Unfortunately, with the majority of courses showing a nuclear content of 5% or less, the suspicion articulated in the OECD report that it was unlikely that any undergraduate programme in the UK could now claim any appreciable nuclear content has been proved to be true. The rather pessimistic portrayal of ageing facilities given by the OECD report is confirmed by the information gathered in the course of this study. In addition, since 1998, the only two hot cell facilities in universities have closed (at Salford and UCL). 10
  • 12. III. SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR INDUSTRY RESEARCH LINKS WITH UK UNIVERSITIES The nuclear industry currently has over 250 contracts with some 54 British universities worth about £10M a year; a summary on a university department basis is shown at Appendix II. Hitherto, many contracts were placed on an ad hoc basis to meet specific short-term needs and the contracts were managed individually as part of planned and budgeted programmes of work. Like many other companies, those in the nuclear sector are now beginning to manage their university contracts collectively as an investment portfolio. Part of this strategy is to underpin core competencies by clustering contracts in specific areas at specific universities. An inherent advantage of this approach for both parties is the comparatively long-term funding involved, enabling both the university and the company to plan ahead. Having secure funding for a number of years is also essential in attracting good quality researchers, particularly at the post-doctoral level where there is a high mobility. BNFL, for example, has sought to underpin its core competence in radiochemistry by establishing a centre of excellence in the subject at Manchester University. The company will invest £2M over 5 years in staff and students, the university will provide the laboratories and the infra structure and it is envisaged that the centre will be self-supporting after the initial five year period. Manchester will link to the other radiochemistry centres in the UK and abroad to form a network. The future of radiochemistry in the UK should thus be assured and BNFL will have access to academic expertise in this area for years to come. Other such centres are planned in the areas of Particle Technology and Non-Destructive Testing. Another company, AEA Technology, is establishing similar centres in Advanced Materials at Oxford and Chemical Engineering at Cambridge. Not all of these centres are in nuclear specific subjects but unlike the ad hoc approach to placing research contracts, they engender a long-term relationship and the sharing of facilities. The movement of researchers between industry and university and vice versa results in a better understanding of each other’s cultures and needs that could be capitalised on to develop teaching courses and training modules. Where there is teaching there is also research, though not necessarily vice versa. All of the universities listed in Tables 1 and 2, with the exception of Middlesex and Plymouth, are known currently to have research contracts with the industry. Generally, a university with strong teaching has strong research links. However, some universities have extensive research links with the industry but do not teach nuclear subjects eg Bath, Bristol, Leicester and UMIST. This picture of nuclear teaching and research may be explained by the evolution of both the industry and the university system. Where teaching exists it has generally existed for some time and so have the links with the industry. As demand has reduced over the years, so has the number and content of the courses and what remains today is the rump of what existed in the heyday of the industry. In contrast, research contracts offer industry funding and the possibility for departments to improve their 11
  • 13. Research Assessment Exercise status and so get a bigger slice of government funding. In such an environment, those departments that feel capable of conducting research will bid for it from any sector, the nuclear one included. Unlike the majority of teaching, research is less confined to those universities that have traditionally had links with the industry. If there is to be resurgence in nuclear teaching, then this diversity could be of benefit. 12
  • 14. TABLES 13
  • 15. Table 1. Summary of masters courses relevant to nuclear education. UNIVERSITY TITLE OF COURSE NUMBER OF STUDENTS PA NUCLEAR CONTENT OF COURSE BIRMINGHAM Applied Radiation Physics 10 – 16 100% Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors 8 -10 100% Medical and Radiation Physics 10 55% CITY Energy Technology and Economics 16 5% Information Engineering 25 5% Radiation Protection* 6 – 10 17% IMPERIAL Environmental Diagnosis 12 15% LIVERPOOL Radiometrics 50 – 60** 100% LOUGHBOROUGH Analytical Chemistry 12 4% Medicinal Chemistry 10 4% MIDDLESEX Occupational Health and Safety 30 1% PLYMOUTH various 45 5% QUEEN MARY AND WESTFIELD Radiation Physics 12 – 15 5 – 10% HMS SULTAN Nuclear Reactor Technology 3 – 4 100% SURREY Radiation and Environmental Protection 20 100% Medical Physics 25 50 – 75% SWANSEA MRes 15 5% UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON Radiation Physics 20 –25 20% * Radiation protection is an optional module in the MSc programme for medical radiographers. ** the number of students taking modules, not necessarily the MSc 14
  • 16. Table 2. Summary of undergraduate courses relevant to nuclear education. UNIVERSITY TITLE OF MODULE COMPULSORY EXAMINED NUMBER OF STUDENTS PA PERCENT OF DEGREE BIRMINGHAM Nuclear Power Plant Yes Yes 5 – 17 1% Fission and Fusion No Yes 35 Applied Nuclear Laboratory No Assessed by report 35 CAMBRIDGE Energy and Power Generation No Yes 35 <1% Power Station Simulation No Assessed by report 12 <1% Nuclear Power Engineering No Yes 16 2% CITY Nuclear Reactor Simulation and Control No Yes 6 5% Nuclear Energy Yes No 25 1% DE MONTFORT Applied Radiation & Nuclear Chemistry No Yes 20 5% Radiochemistry Yes Yes 50 - 70 <2% Medical Applications of Radioisotopes Yes Yes 100 5% Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Yes Yes 100 5% IMPERIAL Nuclear Reactor Technology No Yes 40 8% LIVERPOOL Nuclear Power and Environmental Radiation No Yes 40 10% LOUGHBOROUGH Radiochemistry and Macromolecules Yes Yes 90 4% Radiochemistry and Physical Chemistry No Yes 20 MANCHESTER Introduction to Radioactivity and Radiochemistry Yes Yes 140 2% Nuclear and Radiochemistry No Yes 70 10% Nuclear Power Plant No Yes 30 7% 15
  • 17. UNIVERSITY TITLE OF MODULE COMPULSORY EXAMINED NUMBER OF STUDENTS PA PERCENT OF DEGREE MIDDLESEX Radioactivity, Measurement and Monitoring Yes Yes 20 <1% Environmental Radioactivity and Risk Yes Yes 20 <1% Radioactive Waste Disposal Yes Yes 30 <1% Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay Yes Yes 15 <1% PLYMOUTH Nuclear Power No Yes 45 SALFORD Nuclear and Particle Physics Yes Yes 70 4% SHEFFIELD Nuclear Reactor Engineering No Yes 35 <3% SOUTHAMPTON Applied Nuclear Physics No Yes 25 5% Nuclei and Particles Yes Yes 65 5% STRATHCLYDE Nuclear Physics No Yes 20 6% HMS SULTAN A wide range of 17 courses below post-graduate level Most are stand alone courses for SQEP training Over half are examined >400 in total 100% SURREY Nuclear Physics, Yes Yes 40 5% Radiation Detection and Measurement Yes Yes 40 5% Nuclear Medicine Imaging Yes Yes 40 5% 16
  • 18. Table 3. The number, age range and expected lifetime of nuclear facilities at universities FACILITY NUMBER RANGE (years) EXPECTED LIFETIME Cyclotron 1 50 indefinite Dynamitron 1 29 indefinite Radiation Measurement Labs 6 10 - 40 2005 - 2010 Radiochemistry Labs 8 1 - 40 2005 - 2015 Neutron source 1 40 2005 - 2010 Research reactor 1 40 2010 - 2035 Van der Graaff 1 25 2005 -2010 17
  • 19. APPENDIX 1 STATUS OF NUCLEAR EDUCATION BY UNIVERSITY University of Bath University of Birmingham University of Cambridge City University De Montfort University Heriot-Watt University Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine Lancaster University University of Liverpool Loughborough University University of Manchester Middlesex University University of Plymouth Queen Mary and Westfield College, London University of Salford University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Strathclyde HMS Sultan University of Surrey University of Wales, Swansea University College London 18
  • 20. UNIVERSITY OF BATH i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate There are some modules on the Materials Science and Engineering course in the Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences which include examples and case studies from the nuclear industry. This course has recently been axed and will disappear over the next few years as the remaining students progress through their university careers. A new course, Management of Technology, is in the planning stages and it is anticipated that this course will include 1 or 2 modules with significant nuclear industry related topics. However, it is not likely to run for at least two years. Currently, 1 or 2 undergraduate research projects are undertaken within the research group and these are examined. The nuclear component constitutes 0-5% of the degree, depending on the choice of project. ii) Facilities There are no nuclear specific facilities at the university but access can be gained to facilities at AEAT at Windscale or BNFL Magnox labs at Berkeley. iii) Future The teaching of nuclear subjects is likely to remain at the same level for the next 5 years. 19
  • 21. UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM i) Masters The School of Physics and Astronomy offers two totally nuclear oriented Masters courses: The MSc in Applied Radiation Physics (ARP) is taken by between 10 and 16 students a year whilst the MSc in Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors (PTNR) is taken by between 8 and 10 students a year. On both courses, students do practical work at the university and there is also a project, which is often done as a work placement in the nuclear industry. Both courses are full-time but recently the PTNR course has been re-written in a modular form, which will also be available electronically for distance learning. In addition there is a MSc in Medical and Radiation Physics which is taken by about 10 students a year and which has a nuclear content of about 55%. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Metallurgy and Materials delivers 10 hours of lectures on Nuclear Power Plant to 4th Year MEng students. Between 5 and 17 students a year take this module, which is compulsory and which is examined. There is no practical work associated with the lectures, which constitute about 1% of the degree. The School of Physics delivers a number of nuclear courses: An optional course of 24 hours of lectures on Fission and Fusion is taken in the last year of either the 4 year MSci or 3 year BSc programmes by about 35 students a year. It is examined. There is no directly linked practical work, but many of the same students also take the Applied Nuclear Laboratory course. This consists of 80 hours of practical work using the facilities in the MSc laboratory. Assessment is by written reports. Some 100 2nd year students take a course in Nuclear Physics. About 75 3rd year students take the Nuclear and Particle Physics course and approximately 20 4th year students take the Nuclear Structure course. iii) Facilities An approximately 50 year old Cyclotron is available (another is being decommissioned). The 29-year-old Dynamitron is now solely dedicated to Boron Cancer Therapy. No end date is proposed for either machine. There is a laboratory for radiation measurement that was established 40 years ago but which has been constantly updated. In addition the Silwood Park reactor is used 1 day a year as part of the PTNR course. 20
  • 22. iv) Future In 1999 the Research Council withdrew funding for the PTNR course. A Partnership has been established comprising the university, the industry1 and the Regulator (HSE- NII), that assessed the value of the course and put in place arrangements, including financial support, to secure its future. The course has been rewritten, updated and can now be offered in a modular form. The ARP course loses its EPSRC support in 2001 and the Partnership is considering whether to offer a MSc centred on Waste and Decommissioning in its place. With these changes, nuclear teaching at Birmingham looks secure for the foreseeable future and there are prospects of expansion. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 There has been little or no change in the extent of nuclear teaching, the facilities available or the number of students taking nuclear courses. 1 BNFL, BNFL MAGNOX, BE, NNC, Rolls Royce Marine, AEAT, UKAEA. 21
  • 23. UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Engineering offers three series of lectures with a nuclear content. All are optional but are either examined or assessed. Energy and Power Generation is a 32 lecture course of which the optional nuclear power component is 4 lectures (4hours). About 35 students a year take this during the 3rd year of their BA as part of their Engineering Tripos Part IIA. It constitutes less than 1% of their degree but it is examined. Power Station Simulation is an option which comprises of 2 lectures plus a one-day activity on reactor simulators. This is currently taken by 12 students a year (18 from 2001) during the 3rd year of their BA as part of their Engineering Tripos Part IIA. This constitutes less than 1% of their degree. Assessment is via a report. The Department also offers a 12 lecture course, including 3 hours of practical work, on Nuclear Power Engineering. This option is taken by 16 students a year in the 4th year of their MEng as part of their Engineering Tripos Part IIB. This constitutes about 2% of their degree and is examined. iii) Facilities The university has a counting laboratory, which is 30 years old and has a life expectancy of the foreseeable future. There is also access to simulators at Sizewell B. iv) Future It is anticipated that all three nuclear options will continue for the foreseeable future at the present level of tuition. Student interest in the nuclear options has increased in the last couple of years. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 In 1998 Cambridge included all of their engineering undergraduates in the data of students taking nuclear relevant courses and so direct comparison is impossible. Then, as now, there was a laboratory for radiation measurement. The extent of nuclear teaching seems to have been maintained over the last two years and the courses seem to be attracting at least as many students, if not more. 22
  • 24. CITY UNIVERSITY i) Masters The MSc in Energy Technology and Economics run by the School of Engineering offers 10 hours of lectures on nuclear energy, technology and economics. The introduction to nuclear energy is compulsory and is examined; there is also an additional optional nuclear module. About 16 students a year take the MSc, the nuclear content of which is about 5%. The MSc in Information Engineering run by the Department of Electrical, Electronic & Information Engineering has an optional 3 hours of lectures on nuclear reactor control, which are examined. 25 students a year attend in total, with about 10 taking the nuclear option. The latter constitutes 5% of the MSc. The Department of Radiography runs a course on Radiation Protection about every other year, which comprises 45 hours of lectures. It can be taken either as an optional module in the MSc programme for medical radiographers or as a stand-alone short course. In both cases it is examined. The course caters for between 6 and 10 students and for those taking it as part of their MSc it constitutes about 17% of their degree. ii) Undergraduate The BEng (Hons) Electrical Engineering run by the Department of Electrical, Electronic & Information Engineering has 3 hours of lectures on nuclear reactor simulation and control. About 25 students per annum take the main course, with about 6 taking the nuclear option which is examined. The nuclear content of the degree for those that take the option is 5%. The BEng (Hons) Mechanical Engineering run by the Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics Department has 2 hours of lectures on nuclear energy. This is a compulsory part of the course but it is not examined. About 25 students per annum attend and the nuclear component constitutes about 1% of their degree. iii) Facilities Those pursuing the radiography course have access to a Radiation Physics lab, Medical Imaging suites and Dosimetry equipment, all of which are quite recent and are expected to last for at least 10 years. Otherwise, the university does not have any nuclear specific facilities. With the exception of the radiography students who may do a dose related study on radiation use in hospitals, none of the students on the courses cited do any practical work for the nuclear options. iv) Future The extent of nuclear teaching is likely to remain as described for at least the next five years. The recent closure of the nearby Queen Mary and Westfield Radiobiology Department has meant that lecturers for the Radiography course will have to be sought elsewhere. 23
  • 25. DE MONTFORT UNIVERSITY i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Chemistry offers a number of modules in nuclear related areas. An optional module, which is examined, in Applied Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry is offered to final year undergraduates taking the BSc in Applied Chemistry. Currently about 20 students a year take this option, which is of 48 hours duration and constitutes about 5% of their degree. The module does not include any practical work. A module on Radiochemistry, comprising 6 hours of lectures and 8 hours of practicals, is delivered to between 50 and 70 2nd year undergraduates. This module, which is examined, is part of the compulsory Analytical Chemistry component taught on a number of BSc and HND courses. It constitutes less than 2 % of the degree. A module on the Medical Applications of Radioisotopes, which includes 4 hours of practical work, is a compulsory, examined, component of the BSc in Biomedical Science. It is taken by about 100 students a year and constitutes about 5% of their degree. The 100 or so students a year taking the MPharm have to follow a course on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, which includes 16 hours of practical work. This module, which is examined, constitutes about 5% of their degree. iii) Facilities The Department has Radiochemistry labs and a neutron source, both of which are about 40 years old but still serviceable. iv) Future The Department of Chemistry is planning to introduce a new degree, which will include an extended version of the Applied Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry course. Although the title of the new degree has yet to be decided it will include the term “nuclear chemistry” and the nuclear content will be 20-30% of the degree. Without this expansion there is a danger that the existing facilities, already seen as expensive, will be closed down. The other courses described are likely to remain as they are for the foreseeable future. v) Comparison to the OECD Survey of 1998 In 1998, around 400 students were estimated to attend degree programmes including Radiochemistry lectures and practicals. From the current data this figure has dropped to around 280. There has been no change in the facilities available. 24
  • 26. HERIOT-WATT UNIVERSITY i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate A visiting lecturer from BNFL used to give 8 of the 24 lectures on the Nuclear Science and Technology module. With the recent departure of the main instigator and lead lecturer to another university this module is unlikely to be run again. 25
  • 27. IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & MEDICINE i) Masters The T H Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering offers a MSc in Environmental Diagnosis. This is based at Silwood Park in the Analytical Research Group and currently caters for about 12 students a year. The nuclear content of the MSc is about 15% and it contains 28 hours on Radioactivity and the Environment and 12 hours on Neutron Activation Analysis. The latter is also offered as a two-day short course. In addition there is also a module on Instrumentation, which is also taught as a short course. The teaching is complemented by a five-month research project carried out in the field of radiochemistry. The projects are usually proposed by the industry or the regulatory bodies. As part of a wider programme focussing on research in computational modelling, there is a PhD training programme in Reactor Physics, Shielding and Criticality. iii) Undergraduate An optional module in Nuclear Reactor Technology is offered by the Department of Mechanical Engineering to some 40 Final year undergraduates on the Master of Engineering (first degree) course. The course is examined and constitutes about 8% of the degree. There is a full day of practical work based around the Silwood Park reactor and visits to Oldbury power station and the British energy Oldbury Nuclear training centre. iv) Facilities The university has the only civil research reactor in the country, at Silwood Park, which is part of the T H Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering. Apart from the 40 students on IC’s own Nuclear Reactor Technology course, the reactor is used by about 10 students a year on the Birmingham MSc in Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors and about 20 students a year on the Surrey MSc in Environmental Protection. For all of these students attendance at Silwood Park, which is typically one day, constitutes less than 1% of their degree. Apart from teaching, the reactor is used on a commercial basis for sample irradiation and to offer a neutron activation analysis service. The reactor is nearly 40 years old and has a further life expectancy of between 10 and 35 years, depending on the political climate and the ability to refuel it. The radiochemical laboratory and associated preparation and counting rooms date from 1971 and have not been refurbished. The instrumentation in the counting rooms dates from the 1980s. NAA is dependent upon the Silwood Park reactor. v) Future It is hoped to update the radiochemistry labs and the facilities in them as soon as possible and to expand both teaching and research to encourage students with an interest in radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning. 26
  • 28. There is a good level of industrial support, through visiting lecturers, for the undergraduate course and it is anticipated that this will run for at least a further 5 years. No expansion of nuclear teaching is predicted. The CONSORT reactor is currently experiencing difficult times and new sources of funding are being urgently sought by offering a wider range of training packages. vi) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 At the undergraduate level the number of students taking the Nuclear Reactor Technology module appears to have dropped from about 60 a year to about 40 a year. The number of MSc students appears to have remained the same. The facilities available have remained unchanged between the two surveys. 27
  • 29. LANCASTER UNIVERSITY i) Masters The Department of Engineering is seeking to establish a new MSc in Safety Engineering, which will commence at the beginning of the academic year 2001. In addition to four compulsory modules associated with generic safety engineering, students will take two modules relating to one of three industrial areas. One of these will be Nuclear Engineering and Remote Handling Concepts and will consist of two two-week modules with each two-week module having an accompanying week of practical work. In addition to the six modules, students will have to complete a six- month project. The nuclear content of the course will thus vary from virtually nothing to about 75% for those choosing a nuclear subject for their project. It is anticipated that the MSc will attract about 20 students a year ii) Undergraduate No nuclear content of any significance iii) Facilities The Physics Department possesses neutron sources. There is access to a hot cell at VSEL (Barrow) and the Research Reactor at Silwood Park. iv) Future It is anticipated that the teaching of nuclear subjects will grow at Lancaster. EPSRC funding is being sought for the MSc course and beyond that initial five-year support it is intended that the course will be self-financing. 28
  • 30. UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL i) Masters The Physics Department offers short courses in Radiometrics. Fourteen one-week modules are available with each module consisting of about 35 hours of lectures and practicals. The courses are examined as part of a MSc, a Pg.Dip or a Pg.Cert; masters level CATS points are awarded. About 50 –60 people a year attend the modules. They may be taken individually or in sufficient numbers to constitute a MSc in Radiometrics or a Pg.Cert in Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Monitoring. The nuclear component of these courses is 100%. The 14 modules are currently being developed to include computer-aided learning and assessment. ii) Undergraduate The Physics Department offers an option entitled Nuclear Power and Environmental Radiation on the BSc or M.Phys in Physics. The option, which is examined, consists of 30 lectures (about 150hours work including private study) and is delivered during the third year of the course. About 40 students a year take it and it constitutes about 10% of their degree. Practical and project work are part of the degree course and some practicals and projects use nuclear instrumentation. iii) Facilities The university has a 2 year old radiochemistry laboratory, a 10 year old nuclear instrumentation laboratory, a 10 year old gamma detector laboratory, a 2 year old neutron detector laboratory and a 10 year old low background laboratory. All of these facilities have a life expectancy in excess of 10 years. iv) Future The life expectancy of the Masters level courses is dependent upon demand from industry, which pays the attendance fees. The life expectancy of the undergraduate module is anticipated as being in excess of 10 years. Overall, it is thought that there would be a slight expansion in the teaching of nuclear subjects over the next 5 years. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 The number of undergraduates taking the nuclear option seems to have dropped slightly from 50 in 1998 to 40 in 2000. The number taking the MSc in Radiometrics was recorded as 6 in 1998. In this survey only the number taking modules has been recorded, making direct comparison impossible. Since 1998 a new radiochemistry laboratory and a new neutron detector laboratory have been built. Overall, the teaching of nuclear subjects seems to have increased over the last two years. 29
  • 31. LOUGHBOROUGH UNIVERSITY i) Masters Eight hours of lectures, 12 hours of practicals and 2 hours of tutorials on radiochemistry are delivered by the Chemistry Department on both the MSc in Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation and the MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. 12 students a year take the former and 10 a year the latter. This input is a compulsory component of the courses and it is examined. It constitutes about 4% of the degree in both cases. ii) Undergraduate Radiochemistry is taught to undergraduates on the following degree programmes: Chemistry, Chemistry with Analytical Chemistry, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chemistry with Polymer Chemistry/Technology and Chemistry and Sports Science. During the second year a compulsory module, Radiochemistry and Macromolecules is taught. This consists of 9 hours of lectures, 12 hours of practicals and 2 hours of tutorials. Taken by some 90 students a year it constitutes about 4% of their degree. During the third year there is an optional course on Radiochemistry and Physical Chemistry. This consists of 20 hours of lectures, 12 hours of practicals and 2 hours of tutorials. About 20 students a year take this course, which is examined. iii) Facilities The Radiochemistry labs are 35 years old, with a life expectancy of a further 15 years. The gamma radiation cell is also 35 years old and has a life expectancy of a further 10 years. The Department has access to the facilities at BNFL’s technology centre (BTC) at Sellafield. iv) Future The extent to which nuclear subjects are taught is likely to remain the same for at least the next 5 years. However, the life expectancy of radiochemistry is very much dependent upon the principal lecturer – when he leaves it is anticipated that radiochemistry will close down. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 There seems to have been little or no change in the throughput of students since the OECD survey and the number of hours devoted to teaching radiochemistry at both masters and undergraduate levels also appears unchanged. There has been no change regarding facilities since 1998. 30
  • 32. UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Chemistry delivers an Introduction to Radioactivity and Radiochemistry (8 hours plus practical work) to some 140 1st year undergraduates. Some 120 2nd year undergraduates receive 8 hours of lectures plus practical work on F-element chemistry. Both of these courses, which are components of all BSc and MChem degrees, are compulsory and are examined; they each constitute about 2% of the degree. Final year students may elect to take a course in Nuclear and Radiochemistry (24 hours). About 70 a year choose this option, which is examined, as part of their BSc or MChem and which constitutes about 10% of their degree. About 10 students a year do a 12 week radiochemistry project and a further 3-5 do a 2 week one. The School of Engineering offers an option, which is examined, on Nuclear Power Plant (24hours) to 3rd year BEng and MEng students. About 30 a year take this option which constitutes about 7% of their degree. iii) Facilities The Department of Chemistry has Radiochemistry Labs, which are about 30 years old, and various counters. The laboratories are at the end of their life but will be refurbished during 2000. The Department hosts the BNFL Centre of Excellence in Radiochemistry. The School of Engineering does not have any specialist equipment for teaching nuclear subjects but has access to the Calder Hall simulator. iv) Future In the Department of Chemistry, it is anticipated that the teaching of nuclear subjects, principally radiochemistry, will expand. In the School of Engineering the teaching of nuclear subjects is likely to remain fairly constant, with the present course good for at least 10 years. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 The OECD survey recorded 3 masters degrees a year being awarded. This is not apparent in the present survey. Apart from that, there appears to be little or no change in the number of students taking nuclear courses. The facilities available remain the same but will be refurbished in 2000. The establishment of the BNFL Centre of Excellence in Radiochemistry will underpin this competence and may promote a wider interest in nuclear subjects. 31
  • 33. MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY i) Masters The Department of Health, Biological and Environmental Sciences delivers 3hrs of lectures on Risk Management in the Nuclear Industry as part of the MSc in Occupational Health and Safety taken by about 30 students a year. There is also some MSc project work on radon. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Health, Biological and Environmental Sciences provides a course on Radioactivity, Measurement and Monitoring (3hours) and Environmental Radioactivity and Risk (4 hours) on the BSc in Environmental Science, which is taken by some 20 students a year. There is an input on Radioactive Waste Disposal (2 hours) to the BSc in Environmental Health, taken by about 30 students a year. Radioactivity and Radioactive Decay (4hours) is taught on the Foundation Science Course and there is also about 8 hours of practical tuition. About 15 students a year take this course. All the courses are compulsory and are examined. In addition there is some BSc project work on radon. iii) Facilities The university has a Low Level Radiochemistry Laboratory, which is 10 years old and in need of upgrading. There is various counting equipment ranging in age from new to very old but all with a life expectancy of at least 5 years. iv) Future The nuclear components of the courses are essential to them and will survive as long as the courses do. It is anticipated that the level of teaching of nuclear subjects might increase over the next five years. It is possible that the school could start radiation- related courses for paramedics. The university is also interested in initiating postgraduate radiological protection and health physics courses. 32
  • 34. UNIVERSITY OF PLYMOUTH i) Masters See below. ii) Undergraduate In the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, an external lecturer delivers a module on Nuclear Power (25 hours) to about 45 students a year who are following BSc, MSc and PhD degrees. The module is optional but it is examined; there is no practical work associated with it. iii) Facilities There are no laboratory facilities for nuclear work. iv) Future The course has been in existence for five years and is expected to last at least another three. The level of teaching of nuclear subjects is likely to remain the same over the next five years. 33
  • 35. QUEEN MARY AND WESTFIELD COLLEGE, LONDON i) Masters QMW have applied to the EPSRC for support for a Masters training package based on the QMW/UCL course in Radiation Physics, which has been in operation since 1957. Nuclear and nuclear-related subjects will be integrated within three modules: Interactions and Sources, Advanced Radiation Science/Sources and Advanced Radiation Science/Detectors. It is estimated that, within these areas, about 30-40 hours of teaching time would be nuclear-related. In addition there will be about 5 hours of practical work. The nuclear content of the proposed MSc in Radiation Physics is estimated to be between 5 and 10%. It is anticipated that 12-15 students a year will attend each of the modules with lectures being given at QMW(Physics), UCL(Medical Physics), BNFL (Berkeley), BNFL (Sellafield) and NPL. ii) Undergraduate No details provided. iii) Facilities There is a small Van de Graaff generator that is 25 years old and x-ray machines and sealed sources that are between 10 and 40 years old. The life expectancy of these facilities is between 5 and 10 years. Facilities at BNFL and NPL are expected to be available. iv) Future If EPSRC support is obtained, the MSc course, due to start in 2001, will have at least a 5 year life. Beyond the MSc, it is not anticipated that there would be any expansion in nuclear teaching at QMW. 34
  • 36. UNIVERSITY OF SALFORD i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate All students taking a Physics or Physics with… degree take a final year core module on Nuclear and Particle Physics. This is delivered in the Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Sciences and comprises 16 lectures and 8 tutorials. About 70 students a year take the module, which is compulsory and is examined. It constitutes about 10% of the final year, or about 4% of their degree. Those on the MPhys course (4 year version taken by about 12 students) do a nuclear project (gamma and charged particle detection). There is also introductory material in the First year course on Atomic and Nuclear Physics and some additional information in the medical physics options relevant to medical applications. iii) Facilities The (Cockroft) Radio Chemistry Labs are 30 years old and have a life expectancy of a further 5 years. There is a 4 year old activated carbon test rig with a life expectancy of 20 years and facilities for nuclear detector experiments that are 10 years old and can be expected to last for a further 10 years. iv) Future The present nuclear modules are regarded as being an essential part of a physics degree. No expansion in nuclear teaching is anticipated. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 The number of students and the extent of nuclear teaching appear unchanged from the OECD survey to this. In terms of facilities, the OECD survey recorded the existence of a hot cell and a Van de Graaff generator. Both were listed as expected to last until 2000 and as they have not appeared in this survey they have presumably been closed. The laboratory for radiochemistry was also listed as expected to last until 2000 but this survey indicates that it will now last until 2005. All these facilities were given as being 30 years old at the time of the OECD survey. Neither the activated carbon test rig nor the facilities for nuclear detector experiments were included in the OECD survey. 35
  • 37. UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects ii) Undergraduate The Department of Chemical and Process Engineering offers an optional module in Nuclear Reactor Engineering to 3rd Year Undergraduates taking the BEng or MEng degrees. The course provides a broad-base introduction to the theory and practice of nuclear reactors for power production About 35 students a year choose this option, which is examined but which does not contain any practical work. The course counts for 10 credits in the 3rd year out of a total of 120 credits for the year, ie less than 3% of their degree. iii) Facilities The university does not have any specialist facilities for teaching nuclear subjects. iv) Future The present option is expected to continue for the foreseeable future with the extent of nuclear teaching remaining the same as at present. 36
  • 38. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate Third year students on the BSc Physics and MPhys degrees can take a module on Applied Nuclear Physics (30 lectures of 45 min each) delivered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy. About 25 students a year choose this option, which is examined, but which does not contain any practical work. It constitutes about 5% of their degree. The Department of Physics and Astronomy also delivers a compulsory module on Nuclei and Particles (30 lectures of 45 min each) to third year BSc Physics and MPhys students. About 65 students a year attend and this module constitutes about 5% of their degree. The module is examined but there is no practical work associated with it. iii) Facilities There are no specialist facilities for teaching nuclear subjects. iv) Future The optional course is seen as lasting only a further two years as “Applied Nuclear Physics” may be subsumed into “Applied Physics”. The compulsory module is an integral part of the degrees and will last as long as the degrees are offered. 37
  • 39. UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE i) Masters No taught courses in nuclear subjects. ii) Undergraduate The Department of Physics and Applied Physics offers an option in Nuclear Physics (23 hours of lectures and 4 of tutorials) to 4th (Final) Year students on the BSc Physics, Applied Physics and Laser Physics courses. About 20 students a year attend. The option is examined and constitutes about 6% of the degree. iii) Facilities The university has beta, gamma and cosmic ray spectrometers, which are about 25 years old and have a life expectancy of a further 5. There are also two Rutherford Scattering machines of the same vintage. A more recent acquisition is a Moessbauer Spectrometer, which is only three years old and is expected to last for another 10. iv) Future The life expectancy of the nuclear option is put at 5 years, with no change in the extent of nuclear teaching for the foreseeable future. The teaching of Reactor Physics is predicted to decrease and that of Health Physics to increase. 38
  • 40. HMS SULTAN Department of Nuclear Science & Technology (DNST) i) Masters/PgDip (awarded from University of Surrey) The MSc in Nuclear Reactor Technology is followed by 3-4 students per annum and lasts a full academic year. The course is examined and contains between 60 –100 hours of practical work. There is also a PgDip in Nuclear Reactor Technology, which is taken by 10-16 students a year. This is a stand-alone course, which lasts 26 weeks and of the total 1000 hours, 80 are devoted to practical work. As a precursor to this there is a Nuclear Preparatory Course, which lasts 460 hours, of which 60 are practical work. Some 4-6 students a year take the course. About 8 students a year attend the PgDip in Nuclear Radiological Protection. It is a stand-alone course, which is of 460 hours duration, including 80hours practical work, plus a workplace project. A Nuclear Engineers Course(NEC) is offered either as a stand-alone course or as part of the PgDip in Nuclear Plant Engineering. About 8 students a year attend. The course is of 400 hours duration, including 30 hours practical work, plus a workplace project. The course constitutes about 40% of the PgDip. As a precursor to the NEC, or as a stand-alone course, there is a Nuclear Technical Personnel Course. This is of 310 hours duration of which 40 hours are practical work. About 6-8 students a year follow the course ii) Other courses In addition to the above, DNST offer an extensive range of courses, which are appropriate for SQEP training. The levels are not clear but would seem to be below that of graduate in most cases. Some are specific to the Navy. Hours students pa examined Nuclear Introductory Course 75 120 yes Nuclear Introductory Short Course 39 12 yes Health Physics Nuclear Accident 40 10 no Response Course Senior Health Physics Nuclear 40 10 no Accident Response Course Nuclear Systems Designers Course 230 8 yes Nuclear Instrumentation Calibration 110 6 yes Course Nuclear Accident Procedures Course 40 140 no Nuclear Site Safety Justification 40 54 no Course Nuclear Vanguard Technical Mangers 37 6 no Brief Nuclear Dockyard Officers Course 350 50 yes Nuclear Dockyard Reactor Chemists 460 6 yes Course 39
  • 41. iii) Facilities DNST has an irradiation facility, a Pantatron, x-ray equipment, a SEM, a neutron generator, a Radiochemistry lab, Physics labs and Gamma spec labs. Most of the equipment is less than 2 years old, the exceptions being the Pantatron and the SEM which are over five years old. All the equipment has a life expectancy of at least another 10 years. iv) Future It is expected that the 17 courses listed above will continue for at least 5 years. Within that time, an expansion in the teaching of nuclear subjects at DNST is anticipated. 40
  • 42. UNIVERSITY OF SURREY i) Masters The Department of Physics offers two MSc courses. The MSc in Medical Physics comprises 258 taught hours, of which 109 are nuclear orientated, and 108 laboratory hours, of which 48 are nuclear orientated. In addition there is a three-month dissertation project and a significant fraction of the students take nuclear oriented projects. Overall the nuclear content of the degree thus varies from just under half to about three-quarters, depending on project choice. The equivalent of about 25 full-time students a year take this degree. The MSc in Radiation and Environmental Protection comprises 204 hours of teaching and 110 hours of practicals plus a three month dissertation. The equivalent of about 20 full-time students a year take the course, which has a 100% nuclear content. ii) Undergraduate As part of the BSc in Physics, Physics with Nuclear Astrophysics and Physics with Medical Physics, the Department of Physics delivers 24 hours of lectures on Nuclear Physics, 12 hours of lectures on Radiation Detection and Measurement and 12 hours of lectures on Nuclear Medicine Imaging to 2nd year students. In addition students undertake 16 hours of practical work associated with these lecture courses. About 40 students a year attend these lectures and practicals, which are a compulsory part of their degree and which are examined. This nuclear content constitutes 5 - 10% of the degree. iii) Facilities The University has state of the art Radiation Teaching Laboratories and Nuclear Physics Research Labs. There is a modern Neutron Irradiation Lab and modern Low Background Counting Facilities. All of these facilities have a long life expectancy. There are some old Accelerator Labs with a limited life expectancy but new, state of the art ones are due to be built in 2001. There is also access to the Imperial College Reactor at Silwood Park, other research reactors overseas and cyclotrons and accelerators both in the UK and overseas. The life expectancy of these facilities varies from uncertain to long. iv) Future The MSc in Medical Physics is popular and has a good life expectancy; the extent of nuclear teaching is likely to remain about the same for the next few years. The Research Council funding for the MSc in Radiation and Environmental Protection is guaranteed only until 2000/01. If the bid for funding is successful an expansion in nuclear teaching is foreseen; if it is unsuccessful, there will be a contraction. The undergraduate courses are an integral part of the degrees and will remain, at the present level, as long as the degrees are offered. 41
  • 43. UNIVERSITY OF WALES, SWANSEA i) Masters An external lecturer delivers a 20 hour module in Nuclear Power on the MRes course. Typically 15 students a year attend and it forms about 10% of the taught part of the MRes degree ie about 5% overall. The module, which does not include any practical work, is optional but is examined. ii) Undergraduate No nuclear courses reported. iii) Facilities There are no laboratory facilities for nuclear work. iii) Future The module has been taught for the past five years and is expected to be taught for the next three. The extent of nuclear teaching is predicted as remaining at the current level for the foreseeable future. 42
  • 44. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON i) Masters The Department of Medical Physics & Bioengineering offers a MSc in Radiation Physics. The nuclear content of the course is estimated at being about 20% and topics such as interactions of radiations, detection of radiations, dosimetry etc are taught. All of these topics are compulsory and are examined. Usually 20 –25 part-time and full- time students enrol on the MSc each year. ii) Undergraduate No nuclear teaching reported. iii) Facilities The university has a radiopharmacy, which is 30 years old with an indefinite life expectancy. There are various detection systems, which are 20 years old and have a life expectancy of a further 10 years. iv) Future The MSc has been running since 1956 and it is likely to continue for another 10 years at least. The Research Council funding of Masters courses has changed recently and as a result UCL is currently considering some changes to the course and expansion of nuclear teaching if there is the industry support for it. v) Comparison with the OECD Survey of 1998 The number of students and the extent of nuclear teaching appear to be the same now as at the time of the OECD survey. In the OECD survey a hot cell was listed, which does not appear on this survey, so presumably that has closed. Otherwise the facilities available do not appear to have changed. 43
  • 45. APPENDIX 2 STATUS OF NUCLEAR INDUSTRY RESEARCH LINKS WITH UK UNIVERSITIES 44
  • 46. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Aberdeen 7 Chemistry 2 Psychology 2 Not categorised 3 St Andrews 2 Not categorised 2 Aston 1 Not categorised 1 Bangor 1 School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Systems 1 Bath 11 Materials Science and Engineering 10 Not categorised 1 Birkbeck College 1 Chemistry 1 Birmingham 13 School of Metallurgy and Materials 6 School of Physics and Astronomy 3 Birmingham R&D Ltd 1 Manufacturing and Mech Eng 1 School of Earth Sciences 1 Not categorised 1 Bradford 1 Not categorised 1 Bristol 17 Interface Analysis Centre 2 Bristol Safety Systems Research Centre 2 Mech Engineering 1 Earth Sciences 1 Materials 2 Not categorised 9 Brunel 4 Brunel Institute for Power Systems 2 including Chair in Power Systems Electronic and Computer Engineering 1 Not categorised 1 45
  • 47. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Cambridge 6 Material Science and Metallurgy 3 Chem Engineering 1 Chemistry 1 BP Research Centre 1 Cardiff 6 Chemistry 4 Psychology 2 Central Lancashire 1 Centre for Materials Science 1 City 3 City Centre for Software Reliability 1 Centre for Measurement & Information in Medicine 1 Not categorised 1 Cranfield 1 Not categorised 1 Dundee 1 Biological Sciences 1 East Anglia 1 Environmental Science 1 Edinburgh 5 Chemistry 3 Geology and Geophysics 1 Not categorised 1 Glasgow 6 Physics and Astronomy 1 Civil Engineering 1 Not categorised 4 Greenwich 1 Mech Engineering 1 Heriot-Watt 2 Civil and Offshore Engineering 1 Not categorised 1 46
  • 48. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Imperial College 17 Centre for Analytical Research in the Environment 1 Materials 2 T H Huxley School of the Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering 3 Applied Modelling and Computation 3 Civil & Environmental Engineering 1 Mechanical Engineering 1 Not categorised 6 Keele 1 Earth Sciences 1 Kings College 2 Not categorised 2 Lancaster 7 Engineering 1 Physics 1 Maths and Statistics 1 Centre for the Study of Environmental Change 2 Not categorised 2 Leeds 5 Chem Engineering BNFL International Centre in Particle Technology – 1 overarching contract supporting a range of projects Fuel and Energy 1 Geography Department and Business School 1 Research Support Unit 1 Not categorised 1 Leicester 11 Centre for Enterprise 2 Microbiology and Immunology 2 Space Research Centre 2 Not categorised 5 Liverpool 7 Biological Sciences 2 Electrical Engineering 1 Chemistry 2 Not categorised 2 47
  • 49. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Loughborough 8 Chemistry 6 Institute of Polymers, Materials and Engineering 1 Not categorised 1 Manchester 15 Chemistry 2 including BNFL Centre of Excellence in Radiochemistry – 1 overarching contract supporting a range of projects Earth Sciences and Chemistry 1 School of Engineering 7 including a visiting Professor of Design Not categorised 5 DeMontfort 1 Chemistry 1 Newcastle 5 Civil Engineering 2 Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 1 Not categorised 2 Nottingham 7 School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering 2 Manufacturing, Engineering and Operations Management 1 Not categorised 4 Oxford 7 Materials 5 Not categorised 2 Portsmouth 1 Psychology 1 Queen’s, Belfast 6 Chemistry 3 Not categorised 3 Queen Mary and Westfield 1 Chem Engineering 1 48
  • 50. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Salford 7 Research Institute for Design Manufacture and Marketing 1 Materials 1 Physics 1 Salford Science Research Institute 1 Chemical Engineering Unit 1 Not categorised 2 Sheffield 5 Civil and Structural Engineering 2 Not categorised 3 Sheffield Hallam 3 Division of materials and Environmental Engineering 1 Not categorised 2 Southampton 9 Chemistry 1 Civil and Environmental Engineering 1 Oceanography Centre 1 Not categorised 6 South Bank 2 Not categorised 2 Staffordshire 1 Computing 1 Strathclyde 5 Statistics and Modelling Science 1 Physics and Applied Physics 1 Strathclyde Centre for Electrical Power Engineering 1 Mechanical Engineering 1 Not categorised 1 Surrey 2 Centre for Environmental Strategy 1 Department of Physics 1 Sussex 1 Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science 1 49
  • 51. UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT NUMBER OF CONTRACTS Swansea 4 Physics 2 Materials Engineering 1 Not categorised 1 UMIST 11 Physics 1 Dept of Instrumentation & Analytical Science 1 Mech Engineering 3 Corrosion Protection Centre 3 Not categorised 3 UCL 2 IC consultants 1 Chem Engineering 1 Warwick 3 Physics 1 Not categorised 2 West of England 2 Centre for Applied Sciences 1 Not categorised 1 Wolverhampton 1 School of Applied Science 1 York 1 Chemistry 1 50
  • 52. APPENDIX 3 OECD COUNTRY REPORT ON EDUCATION IN THE NUCLEAR FIELD: UNITED KINGDOM 51
  • 53. OECD COUNTRY REPORT ON EDUCATION IN THE NUCLEAR FIELD UNITED KINGDOM There are no longer any nuclear specific undergraduate courses in the UK. Yet, over the period surveyed, 1990 - 1998, the number of undergraduates reported as having a nuclear content in their university education has remained at least constant and has possibly slightly increased. The paradox is explained by the extent of the nuclear content of the courses. Whilst the survey does not adequately reveal this, it seems that this has declined with time and it is unlikely that any undergraduate programme in the UK could now claim any appreciable nuclear content. Thus despite apparently healthy numbers, it seems that the knowledge pool in nuclear sciences is decreasing at the undergraduate level. Further, because the student population has increased over this period, the percentage of students studying nuclear sciences, to any extent, may well have fallen. Both at the master’s and doctorate levels, the number of students pursuing nuclear courses has slightly increased over the period. Master’s programmes are where the main specialisation into disciplines of relevance to the nuclear industry is focused. What the survey does not show is that research council funding for post-graduate work in the nuclear area is getting steadily more difficult to obtain. If the viability of some postgraduate activity became critical, it could disappear very quickly. There would then be a knock-on effect in that associated elements of some undergraduate courses would also cease. Whilst one university introduced a new master’s programme in Radiometrics, together with a new Radio-chemistry training laboratory, and another introduced an undergraduate module on Nuclear Radiation Chemistry other universities witnessed cutbacks. A graduate nuclear engineering course closed, reductions in practical teaching because of staff reductions and financial restraint were reported and some universities have had to internally restructure to bring a number of nuclear subjects into a single school. The overall trend is for universities to reduce or even cease their support for nuclear related courses. This is linked to the consolidation of the industry as it focuses on operating existing plant and power stations more efficiently rather than on building new plant and stations. However, through their promotional efforts, by maintaining close links with the industry and by broadening the content of their courses to appeal to a wider audience, several universities have managed to maintain their position against the trend. The survey did not cover non-nuclear programmes that provide good quality, although non-specialised, graduates and post graduates for the industry. A number of research areas provide PhDs or post doctoral fellows for the more challenging aspects of nuclear R&D such as Materials Science, Metallurgy, Ceramics etc. The numbers graduating in engineering subjects (Civil, Mechanical etc) has remained relatively constant whilst the number of postgraduates in these subjects has sizeably increased. 52
  • 54. Taken overall, there is a substantial number of well-qualified engineers emanating from British universities and available, therefore, to the nuclear industry. The number of university staff involved in teaching nuclear subjects is hard to define precisely because of the way the data were provided by the various respondents but it does appear to be generally declining. There is a significant peak in the 51-60 age bracket with nearly as many in this bracket and above as there are below age 50. Whilst many of the facilities in universities are over 30 years old, most will be available for the foreseeable future. These include radio-chemistry laboratories, radiation measuring laboratories, a cyclotron, a dynamitron and radioecology facilities. However, hot cell facilities are only available in two universities and both facilities are likely to close around 2000. The survey records only one research reactor as having closed but in reality many were closed in the 1980’s and early 1990’s. Britain now has only one research reactor, which is expected to be available until at least 2010. Details of the employment destinations of students who had taken a course with a nuclear content are less than complete. Nevertheless, there are sufficient data to show that a high percentage of the students from the master’s programmes entered the industry, as did at least half of those who pursued doctoral programmes. This contrasts with data for graduates from nuclear related courses which shows little more than one tenth entering the industry. However, the graduate population is an order of magnitude higher than the post-graduate population. In any event, supply will be regulated by demand from the industry. With no design development and the industry contracting and becoming ever cost conscious, recruitment is currently at a low level. Historically the nuclear industry commanded the best brains because it offered the best resources and facilities and enjoyed the privilege of being at the cutting edge of technical development. Now the perception of many potential graduates to the industry is negative. They do not see the industry as being in the forefront of technical innovation but more as a dinosaur. Although not evident in the survey, concerns are beginning to be voiced by the industry about the availability of appropriately qualified people. With respect to recruitment, the efforts made by UK industry have followed what might be called traditional patterns i.e. the principal mechanisms for attracting young people have been good salaries and working conditions and the prospects for secure employment. In addition companies also offer comprehensive training programmes and continuous professional development. The public relations activities companies use to raise their profile are not specifically geared to recruitment but certainly help it.. Examples are educational initiatives, from primary school through to university, newspaper and television advertising and exhibitions. 53
  • 55. Once employed, companies offer training schemes to support both broad-based knowledge and specific skills development. Training is designed for both new graduates and experienced staff with the aim of increasing the competence of the trainees in their specific function within the organisation. Although a wide range of courses is being operated with a strong focus on individual company needs, much training is in response to regulatory requirements. Companies fund their own in-house training. The age peak of trainers is between 40 and 50, which is consistent with companies using experienced staff for training purposes. Overall, the number of trainers seems to have remained fairly constant. As with the universities, most of the facilities are quite old but have a good projected life span. Facilities are maintained according to specific need and include hot cells, radiochemistry laboratories and radiation measuring laboratories. The industry also has access to the sole remaining research reactor. Industry-academic collaborations are mainly in support of doctoral and post-doctoral research of direct interest to the sponsoring company. There is also some support for master’s programmes and contributions to undergraduate programmes. International collaboration is limited to some EU activities and a small programme through the European Nuclear Society. Two universities cite the Frederic Joliot summer school, and its fellowships, as a source of inter-organisational collaboration and both are involved in its management through the Executive Board. Successive privatisation programmes have removed the provision of energy from government control and strategic planning is now led by market forces. There is not seen to be any national need to make provision for the future availability of nuclear energy, nor of the requirement for a technological infrastructure for it. With both the industry and government unable or unwilling to offer support, resources and particularly human resources, are not being replaced. In several universities facilities and courses have been closed or severely restricted due to retired staff not being replaced. The necessary specialist skills in areas such as radiation protection and radiochemistry are currently being maintained at adequate levels, primarily by diversifying the customer base for such activities in the universities. Where diversification is not possible, courses and research have ceased as the industry has become more cost conscious. The notable exception is safety research, considered essential by the industry and the regulator. Nuclear education is not yet at crisis point in the UK but it is certainly under stress. The needs of the industry, both in terms of recruitment and research, have declined as it has reached maturity and as it seeks to be more competitive in a deregulated energy 54
  • 56. sector. No new power stations are being built and none are planned for the foreseeable future. In this context it is natural that nuclear education should have declined. However, it is crucial that the area of nuclear education is sufficiently robust and flexible to support the industry as it evolves. The concern is that the decline in nuclear education is such that it may not be able to do this. Because of that concern, one company, BNFL, is working with universities to establish a centre of excellence in nuclear chemistry so that it will be able to preserve its core competence in this area. Support will be given for doctoral and post-doctoral programmes with research and training being carried out both at the universities and at the company’s new facilities. Graduate and master’s programmes will be encouraged to use the facilities so that there will be a pool of appropriately qualified people available to the industry. The inescapable conclusion is that the future prospects for nuclear education in the United Kingdom are not good. In line with the market-led approach to the energy sector, there is no central planning. Accordingly, there is no one with an overall view capable of making provision for the availability of innovative nuclear technologies, and the people to develop them, should they be needed to help meet energy demand and quality of life issues in the future. 55
  • 57. APPENDIX 4 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HSE STUDY 2000 56
  • 58. STUDY OF NUCLEAR EDUCATION IN THE UK As a result of the OECD meeting in Budapest, in October 1999, the HSE has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the provision of nuclear education in the UK. Although some information already exists on the teaching of nuclear and nuclear- related subjects, it is neither comprehensive nor up to date. The HSE is, therefore, conducting this study to obtain a more detailed picture of the current situation. If your university is involved in teaching nuclear, or nuclear related subjects, it would be most helpful and very much appreciated, if you could answer the questions overleaf. If you feel that colleagues, either in your Department or elsewhere, are better placed to provide the information, then please forward this questionnaire to them. If you are not currently teaching any nuclear or nuclear related subjects but intend to in the near future, please give as much information as you can and clearly indicate the proposed start date of the course. Please return the questionnaire, within the next month if at all possible, to Chris Squire either by e-mail to chrisalice@talk21.com or by post to 15 Croftgate, Fulwood, Preston, PR2 8LS. Thank you for your help and co-operation. Name: University: Department: 57
  • 59. Please use a separate form to give details of each course, rather than amalgamating information. 1. What is the title of the nuclear course/series of lectures being delivered and the number of hours? 2. Approximately how many students attend per annum? 3. Is the course compulsory or an optional module? 4. Is it examined? 5. In which department is the course delivered? 6. At what level is the course delivered, undergraduate or post-graduate? If undergraduate what year(s), if post-graduate MSc, MA, MPhil or PhD? 58
  • 60. 7. What is the title of the degree of which the nuclear course is a component? 8. Approximately what percentage of the degree does the nuclear course constitute? 9. Taking account of popularity with students, support by the industry, support by funding bodies, availability of teaching staff etc what do you estimate the life expectancy of the nuclear course to be? 10. What specialist facilities for teaching nuclear subjects (e.g. hot cell, radiochemistry lab etc) does your university have? How old are they? What is their projected life expectancy? Facility Age Life expectancy 11. Do you have access to such specialist facilities elsewhere? If so what are they and where are they located? Facility Location Life expectancy 59
  • 61. 12. Do the students on the nuclear course do any practical work? If so approximately how many hours? 13. Do you foresee the teaching of nuclear subjects in your university expanding, contracting or remaining about the same over the next 5 years? 14. Any other information that you feel would be helpful in depicting the status of nuclear education. 60

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