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- Mr. Se Joon Yoon, Director of KONICOF

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  • Since 1980s, Korea has achieved remarkable outcomes in nuclear R&D fields. These have been mainly achieved by KAERI, my institute. In 1981, we started the localization of PHWR fuel, and in 1987 attained it. Consequently, we accomplished PWR fuel localization in 1990, and then succeeded in PWR system design technology self-reliance in 1996, so called Korean standard nuclear power plant, KSNPP. KSNPP is now called OPR1000. Its full name is Optimized Power Reactor, and its capacity is 1000MWe. The first KSNPP was constructed in 2001. We developed APR1400 in 2001 through national project. APR1400 is 1400MWe PWR and an evolutionary type of OPR1000. The first construction of APR1400 will be expected in 2010. Furthermore we develop SMART for export and also develop Gen IV nuclear energy systems of SFR and VHTR. They will be constructed in the future.
  • As shown in this slide, we have 6 major project for developing advanced nuclear reactor systems and fuels. SFR for effective LWR spent fuel management, VHTR for mass production of Hydrogen energy, SCWR for mass production of nuclear power after current LWR, SMART for export, APR1400 and APR+ for near-term evolutionary nuclear power plant to replace current OPR1000 plant, and finally advanced LWR fuel for higher burning-up and capability of load-following operation. (SFR) Regarding SFR development, we already finished the development of conceptual design of KALIMER-600 in 2006. KALIMER-600 is Korean SFR concept, which is being developed as one of the Gen IV systems. For SFR development, we have a goal to complete the pre- conceptual design of Gen IV SFR. To do this, we will establish indigenous core, fuel & system concept by 2009, and verify computer code by 2011. (VHTR) We also have conducted Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration program. Through key technology development and demonstration of plant design by 2015, the demo plant will be constructed and operate in 2020. After the demonstration of nuclear hydrogen technology, we expect commercialized nuclear hydrogen production in 2030. Now we are going to develop TRISO fuel & design technology for VHTR. (SCWR) Regarding SCWR development, we are now performing a feasibility evaluation by 2009. This study is to evaluate its technical and economical feasibility and replace-ability of current LWR plants. (SMART) For SMART development, we already completed a basic design of its nuclear steam supply system by 2002, and have a plan to verify and validate its safety and get its standard design certificate from KINS, Korea nuclear regulator, by 2012. (Advanced fuel> Regarding Advanced LWR fuel development, we are carrying out R&Ds to increase burn-up to 70 thousands MWd/tU, and to endure under power up over 20%, and to decrease fuel pellet centerline temperature by more than 30%.
  • KINS has been developing this program since the early of 1990 ’ s. This program is a kind of mandatory training program for KINS staff and mainly focused on the development of regulatory capability for in-house personnel. Through this program, KINS staff acquire the skills, attitude, and knowledge necessary for nuclear & radiation safety regulation. Most important course of this program is an Inspector certification program. Inspector certification is required by the Order of MEST. This program mainly consists of the 4 week program for new inspectors And the 1 week refresh program every 3 years. In addition, there are many basic and professional courses For in-house personnel in each specific fields. I will skip the details on this program.
  • Moving on, this is our recent training status. A 4 week training course for North Korea was held in 2002 in the area of regulatory system, general procedures and documents for safety review and inspection on Nuclear Power Plants. This course was developed as a part of Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) project. A 2 week training course on decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities was held in 2006 for Iraq. Last year, another training course was developed for Indonesian regulatory staff in the area of nuclear safety regulation in basic.. In addition, IAEA training courses and workshops were held 2 or 3 times every year. And basic course to introduce the nuclear safety regulation in Korea for fellows and experts from other countries were held 5 times last year.


  • 1. Introduction to KONICOF & Nuclear Energy in Korea Dec. 3. 08
  • 2. KONICOF Korea Energy Review KINAC INSS Nuclear Technology Development in Korea Table of Contents RCA Regional Office International R&D Programs Involvement KONICOF Working Towards the Future I II V III IV VII VI VIII
  • 3. Energy Situation of Korea
    • Top 10 Energy Consumer in the World
      • 7 th in Oil Consumption
    • Weak Energy Security
      • ~ 97% overseas energy dependence
      • High dependence on the Middle East Asian oil (~70%)
    • Large CO 2 Emission
      • 10 th largest emitter of CO 2 in the world
    (BP Statistical review 2007) Transition to New Energy Paradigm is required (2007 key world energy statistics, Published 2005) I. Korea Energy Review Rank Energy Consumption (MTOE/y) Oil Consumption (Million Tonnes) 1 USA 2,340 USA 938.8 2 China 1717 China 349.8 3 Russia 647 Japan 235.0 4 India 537 Russia 128.5 5 Japan 530 German 123.5 6 Germany 345 India 120.3 7 France 276 Korea 105.3 8 Canada 272 … 9 UK 234 … 10 Korea 214 …
  • 4. Seoul
    • Ulchin #1∼6
    • Kori #1∼4
    • Shin Kori #1, 2
    • Wolsong #1∼4
    • Shin Wolsong #1,2
    • Yonggwang
    • #1∼6
    Site In Operation Under Const. Total Kori 4 (3,137) 2 (2,000) 6 (5,137) Wolsong 4 (2,779) 2 (2,000) 6 (4,779) Yonggwang 6 (5,900) - 6 (5,900) Ulchin 6 (5,900) - 6 (5,900) Total 20 (17,716) 4 (4,000) 24 (21,716) (Unit: MW) (As of the end of 2006)
    • In Operation
    • Under Construction
    39.0% (148,749) 17.9% (68,109) 4.4% (16,766) Total : 380,963GWh Electricity Generation 1.4% (5,231) Nuclear Coal Gas Oil Hydro Status of Nuclear Power Plants 36.5% (139,170) I. Korea Energy Review
  • 5. < 2005 Electric Capacity > Hydro Nuclear Fossil Contribution of Nuclear Energy I. Korea Energy Review
  • 6. Atomic Energy Commission KAERI KINAC KINS KONICOF KHNP KNFC KOPEC DOOSAN Prime Minister MOFAT (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade) MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) Nuclear Safety Commission MEST (Ministry of Education Science & Technology) Disarmament and Nonproliferation Division President Fabrics of Korea Nuclear Entities I. Korea Energy Review KHNP : Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power KOPEC : Korea Power Engineering Company KNFC : Korea Nuclear Fuel DOOSAN : Doosan Heavy Industries and construction KAERI : Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute KINS : Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety KINAC : Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control KONICOF : Korea Nuclear International Cooperation Foundation
  • 7. II. Nuclear Technology Development in Korea Construction of Sodium cooled Liquid Metal Reactor & VHTR For Hydrogen Production Reactor APR1400 Reactor Construction 2010 APR1400 Reactors Technology Development 2001 Present PWR Fuel Indigenization 1990 1987 PHWR Fuel Indigenization PHWR Fuel Indigenization Started 1981 KSNPP Construction 1995 2010 SMART Pilot Plant Construction PWR System Design Technology Self-Reliance FOREIGN SUPPLIER-RELIANCE SELF-RELIANCE INDUSTRIALIZATION 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 1970s First NPP (turnkey) 1971 Research Rector “ HANARO ” (95)
  • 8. II.Nuclear Technology Development in Korea
    • OPR1000 (KSNP)
    • EPR
    • AP1000
    • APR1400
    • SMART
    Next Generation Reactor Development
  • 9. II.Nuclear Technology Development in Korea
    • Medium size integrated reactor
    • Electricity production & sea water desalination
    • Complete basic design of nuclear steam supply system (’02)
    • Complete conceptual design of KALIMER-600 (’06)
    • Develop Gen-IV pre-conceptual design
    • Establish indigenous core, fuel & system concept by 2009
    • Verify computer code by 2011
    • Increase burn-up up to 70,000 MWd/tU
    • Endurance under power up over 20%
    • Decrease fuel pellet centerline temp. by more than 30%
    Advanced Fuel
    • Start to develop APR1400 (’92)
    • Start to construction of Shin-Kori unit 3&4 (’07)
    • Develop APR+ key tech. by 2009
    • Develop APR+ detail design from 2010
    APR-1400/APR+ SCWR
    • Perform feasibility evaluation by 2009
    • Develop TRISO fuel & design tech. for VHTR
    Nuclear Hydrogen Advanced Reactor & Fuel
  • 10.
    • Develop a 330 MWt reactor for electricity and desalination
    • Provide oversea markets expected to be 500-1,000 units by 2050
    SMART Properties II. Nuclear Technology Development in Korea SMART Concepts SMART
  • 11.
    • The first time Turn-key export project to the
    • Netherland
    • Competing with AREVA(France) and INVAP(Argentine)
    • for the final selection of a tender in 2009
    • Korean tender consortium : KAERI, KOPEC, Doosan
    • Heavy Industrial Co., Daewoo Construction Co.
    연구로 설계 ( 안 ) II. Nuclear Technology Development in Korea Research Reactor-PALLAS Project
  • 12.
    • Help promotion of international nuclear energy cooperation activities of Korean government, research institutions, and private sector undertakings.
    • Implement and coordinate international cooperation projects and activities such as collaborative R&D, meetings, experts exchange, information sharing, etc.
    Objectives III. KONICOF (Established in 2004)
  • 13. Activities (1)
    • Bilateral Cooperation
      • U.S.A, Canada, France, Germany, UK, Spain, Japan, Russia, China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Australia, Belgium, Turkey, Egypt, Czech, Romania, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Brazil, Argentine, Chile (22 countries)
    • Joint Committees
      • USA, France, Canada, Japan, Russia, UK, China, Australia, Vietnam, Chile (10 countries)
  • 14.
    • Multilateral Cooperation
      • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
      • Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA)
      • Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) - Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)
      • International Nuclear Regulators Association (INRA)
      • Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)
      • World Nuclear University (WNU)
    Activities (2) III. KONICOF
  • 15. Cooperation with developing countries
    • Technology transfer and infrastructure development for the use of nuclear technology
      • Provide opportunities to learn nuclear technology practices in Korea to scientists and policymakers
      • Implement technical cooperation programs with IAEA
    • Assistance to develop future generation human resources
      • Provide long-term and short-term training courses at academic institutes in Korea
      • Provide tours to nuclear facilities in Korea for oversea students
  • 16. Information exchange and publicity
    • Exchange Information with the international agencies such as IAEA, OECD/NEA
    • Provide information and news on nuclear related issues and events in Korean and English through the web-site
  • 17.
    • Assurance of non-diversion of nuclear materials, items and technologies for the military purposes
    • Confidence building for peaceful nuclear activities
    • Active participation on international cooperation
    • Transparency and credibility enhancement through maintaining a strong national nuclear control system
    Peaceful uses of nuclear energy and related technology IV. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and control, KINAC (Established in 2004) Goal of National Nonproliferation Policy
  • 18. Korea Nonproliferation Policy Bases
    • Joint Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula(1992)
    • - To remove the danger of nuclear war on the Korean peninsula, the ROK and the DPRK declared:
      • Prohibition of testing, construction, production, acquisition, possession, deployment and use of nuclear weapons
      • Use of nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes
      • No possession of reprocessing or enrichment facilities
    • Four Principles on the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (2004)
      • Korea reaffirms that it does not have any intension of developing or possessing nuclear weapons
      • Korea will firmly maintain its principle of nuclear transparency , and will strengthen its cooperation with the international community to this end.
      • Korea will faithfully abide by international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation
      • With the confidence of the international community, Korea will expand the peaceful use of nuclear energy
  • 19. Activities
    • Verify and assess major nuclear activities and administer import/export control system for trigger lists
    • Develop safeguards technology and physical protection technologies
    • Support the government in developing appropriate policies on nonproliferation and nuclear control
  • 20. V. International Nuclear Safety School, INSS (Established in 2007)
    • Inspector Certification Program
      • Nuclear facilities safety management, radiation safety management, QA, and radiological emergency preparedness
    • Inspector competency program (1 week)
    • New inspector qualification program (4 weeks)
    Regulatory Competency Program
  • 21. V. INSS
    • Training for Iraq in 2006
      • - Decommissioning & decontamination (2 weeks)
    • Training for Indonesia in 2007
      • - Safety regulation in general and OPR-1000 system (4 weeks)
    • International Training Courses
      • - IAEA training courses and workshops
      • - Basic courses on nuclear safety regulation (1~2 weeks)
    International Training Exercised
  • 22. VI. RCA Regional Office (Established in 2002)
    • Promote peaceful use of nuclear technologies to assist regional and national needs
    • Implement the directives of the RCA Member States as agreed upon at the Meetings of National RCA Representatives
    Responsibilities Activities
    • Oversee RCA projects implementation
    • Provide inputs from member countries to the IAEA RCA office and vice versa
  • 23.
    • - Radiation Technology
    • - Nuclear Medicine
    • - Safety Infrastructure
    Non Power - Gen IV - INPRO - ITER Power VII. International R&D Programs Involvement
  • 24. VII. International R&D Programs Involvement : GEN IV
    • System Integration & Assessment
      • Evaluation and assessment of outcomes of completed projects
    • Safety & Operation
      • Experiments and analytical model development for safety assessment
      • Operation and technology testing campaigns in reactors
    • Advanced Fuel
      • Development of high-burn-up fuel systems
      • Techniques for recycle fuels that contain minor actinides and possibly trace fission products
    • Component Design & BOP
      • Development of the balance of plant
      • Experimental and analytical evaluation of advanced in-service inspection and repair technologies
    SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor System)
  • 25. VII. International R&D Programs Involvement : GEN IV VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor System)
    • Design, Safety & Integration
    • Materials
    • Components
    • Fuel and Fuel Cycle
    • Hydrogen Production
    • Computational Methods Validation & Benchmarks
  • 26. VII. International R&D Programs Involvement : GEN IV SCWR (Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor System)
    • Thermal-Hydraulics and Safety
      • Heat transfer and safety database
      • Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis at prototypical SCWR conditions
    • Materials and Chemistry
      • Selection of key materials for use both in-core and out-core
      • definition of a reference water chemistry, based on materials compatibility and radiolysis behavior at supercritical conditions.
  • 27.
    • Purpose: To demonstrate scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes, an essential feature of which be achieving sustained fusion power generation (JIA Article 2).
    • Designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power for an extended period of time.
    • Q is ~10 : Fusion power is 10 times more than needed to run it.
    • Demonstrate or develop all the new technologies required for fusion power plants, except materials endurance.
    • 10 years construction, 20 years operation.
    • ITER: International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (the way in Latin)
    • ITER is a Unique Scientific, Technological and Industrial Project
    • ITER is the bridge toward a first plant that will demonstrate
    • the large-scale production of electrical power ; DEMO
    Purpose of the ITER Project VII. International R&D Programs Involvement : Korean Fusion and ITER Projects
  • 28. Fission Fusion Figure1 : A neutron hits uranium-235 atom, then uranium-235 fissions into two atoms releasing a large amount of energy Figure2 : Two nuclel, here deuterium and tritium, fuse together to form hellum, a neutron, and a large amount of energy Theory of Fission and Fusion
  • 29.
    • Overall sharing:
    • EU 5/11, other six parties 1/11 each. Overall contingency of 10% of total. Total amount: 3,578 kIUA (ITER Units of Account)
    Total procurement value : 3,021 Staff : 477 R&D : 80 Total kIUA : 3,578 (about 5,079 million Euro in 2007) Contribution of local communities in PACA Region : € 467 M European Union CN IN RF KO JP US ITER Construction Sharing (2007-2016)
  • 30. Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 1 2007 2012 2022 2036 KSTAR Operation
    • Obtain Steady State Plasma Heating, Diagnostics and Control Technologies
    • Implement the role of Test Bed for ITER Device and Technologies
    ITER Construction (2016) & Operation
    • Obtain Tokamak Fusion Reactor Device Technologies during ITER Construction
    • Build up Knowledge and Experience for Key Reactor Technologies, Plasma Operation and Control by Participating in ITER Operation
    DEMO EDA & Construction (2030’s) & Operation
    • Play a Leading Role for DEMO Design around 2020 & Construction
    • Demonstrate Electricity Production using DEMO around 2035
    KO Fusion Reactor (2040’s)
    • Complete Engineering Design for KO Fusion Reactor around 2035
    • Produce Electricity from Commercial Fusion Reactor in 2040’s
    Reactor Engineering & Technology Development (Fusion Material) 2040’s Korean Fusion Energy Development Road-Map
  • 31.
    • Total Cost of Korean Participation for ITER Project : ~1.2 billion Euro
    • Total Cost for ITER Project until 2040 : 11.23 billion Euro
      EU US Japan China Russia Korea India Construction Phase 45.46% 9.09% 9.09% 9.09% 9.09% 9.09% 9.09% Operation, Deactivation & Decommissioning Phases 34% 13% 13% 10% 10% 10% 10% ~ 2007 ~ 2016 Deactivation 281 MEuro Operation 188 kIUA/y Construction 3,577.7 kIUA ~ 2036 ~ 2040 JIA Negotiation & ITA R&D Decommissioning 530 MEuro ITER Contribution and Total Cost by Phases
  • 32. VIII. KONICOF Working Towards the Future
    • Support international activities of the government and private sector undertakings to secure future sustainable energy
    • Strengthen collaboration with international organizations and individual countries for the peaceful use of nuclear technologies
    • Contribute international efforts against misuse of nuclear materials and on nonproliferation