Dr. Roentgen felt the discovery was for the benefit of mankind and not his sole property.
Images are classed as projection (whole structure) or tomographic (sectional or slice)
The letters(AP) identify the direction the x-ray beam traverses the patient. In this case the x-rays travel from anterior to posterior with the foot placed on top of the film.(AP = Anterior to Posterior)
Notice how the projection image superimposes data and does not allow for depth evaluation. This is why x-ray exams typically have 2 projections at 90 degrees. i.e.. AP and Lateral
These are the standard planes of section
Multiple separate slices are viewed to evaluate the entire data volume
An energy source is directed into a volume of tissue and a image is created of the tissue interaction.
An X-ray tube is similar to a light bulb with a filament and a current to heat the filament. There is a much higher voltage to direct the electrons from the filament at a target. This collision releases the x-ray radiation that is used to image.
These are typical body regions that plain x-ray is used to evaluate.
The x-rays can traverse tissue but can only separate the 4 basic densities noted. Water will appear of the same density as soft tissue and cannot be separated. Notice you cannot separate the blood from the heart or aorta.
Administering a contrast agent modifies the image to give more information. Typical ones are barium, an inert particulate contrast used in GI tract evaluation and Iodine, a water soluble agent which can be injected into the vascular tree.
The contrast agent will outline the structure identifying the wall, determine size and patency or obstruction. The darker density in the colon is air which has been mixed with the barium to better show the wall. Note difference in wall comparing the stomach and colon.
Iodine can be injected and is water soluble. In the blood stream, it will outline the vessel and demonstrate anatomy. Iodine is filtered by the kidney and can show information about tissue function.
The detectors count the photons that traverse the patient and use this data to assign a density to the tissue. Denser tissue would have fewer photons measured by the detectors. The numerical value determines the tissues density.
Here a radioactive drug is administered. The pharmaceutical portion has been created to localize to a type of tissue. The radioactive tag serves to identify the site of accumulation. The CAMERA measures the radiation distribution and maps it to a region.
Here the drug used collects in a specific tissue and the radioactivity allows an image and numerical counts of activity. This can be followed over time to see physiology without additional radiation exposure since the isotope has been injected there is no additional exposure for additional images.
The ultrasound hand-held probe transmits sound into the body. The absorption and reflection of the sound is used to create the image. The probe functions as the transmitter and receiver.
The data is sectional/tomographic. The planes are similar to standard CT planes. Longitudinal planes are sometimes referred to when a pure sagittal section is not obtained. Axial planes may be called transverse.
The tissue response to magnetic fields and radio wave stimulation serves as the basis of imaging. The radio wave is the source of the image.
As Clinical Anatomy
Radiology Website: http://radiology.med.sc.edu
Basement of Library
733-3295Francis Neuffer, M.D.
U.S.C. School of Medicine
Understand basics of image
Relate imaging to gross
See clinical relationship to basic
Appreciate constraints and
Develop imaging vocabulary.
WHAT IS RADIOLOGY?
Medical specialty that
supervises and interprets
Reports findings to
Separate: Normal from Abnormal
Characterize / Describe: Abnormality
Determine: Extent (stage) of disease
Suggest: Diagnosis / Differential
Recommend: Further exams / follow-up
Discovered and named by
Dr. W. C. Röentgen at
University of Würzburg, 1895
Awarded first Nobel prize for
Did not patent invention
X - RAY --- FOUR BASIC DENSITIES
Injection, ingestion, or other
placement of opaque material within
Improves visualization and tissue
Can demonstrate functional anatomy
UPPER GI--(GASTRO INTESTINAL)
RECTAL BARIUM CONTRAST
WITHOUT CONTRAST-plain or
ORAL BARIUM CONTRAST
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM – IVP
INTRAVENOUS IODINE CONTRAST
INTRAARTERIAL IODINE CONTRAST
WITHOUT CONTRAST-plain or
HIGH ENERGY PHOTON
Multiple Choice - Identify
From Digital Film Sets And
X- Ray Plain Film Scout Film Radiograph
Computed Tomography Cat Scan CT
Nuclear Medicine Nuc Med
Ultrasound Sono Sonogram
Magnetic Resonance MR MRI
You will hear and see these abbreviations used
frequently in the