Jasmina Vujic

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  • Jasmina Vujic

    1. 1. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Department of Nuclear Engineering RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS - STRATEGIC VISION Jasmina Vujic Professor and Chair May 16, 2006 North American Young Generation in Nuclear Annual Workshop
    2. 2. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Strategic Vision & Objective Our objective is to be the preeminent provider of nuclear engineering education at the undergraduate, graduate and post- graduate level and to perform world-class research across all nuclear engineering disciplines, utilizing the resources available within the University and through our unique National Laboratory partnerships. Our scientific and technical research competency ensures continual enhancement of our educational ability and serves the University of California, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nation, with the knowledge base required for management and technical oversight of the national security laboratories and advanced nuclear energy research.
    3. 3. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley NE DEPARTMENT HISTORY • Established in 1959 by Prof. Thomas Pigford (suggestion came from Glean Seaborg and Edward Teller) • 1959 - 1964, Prof. Pigford served as the first Chairman of the NE Department (he has two more terms as Department Chair: 1974-1979, and 1984-1988) • Former Department Chairs: Prof. Hans Mark (1964-69), Prof. Lawrence Grossman (1969-74), Prof. Don Olander (1980-84), Prof. T. Kenneth Fowler (1988-94), Prof. William Kastenberg (1995-2000), and Prof. Per Peterson (2000-2005) • Current Chair: • Prof. Jasmina Vujic (2005- )
    4. 4. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley U.C. Berkeley Dept. of Nuclear Engineering 1967 TRIGA Mark III pool-type reactor •Department operated 1 MW TRIGA Mark III pool-type research reactor from early 1960s until 1991. •Currently NE Department operates the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS) - the largest D-T source of 14 MeV neutrons (2E11 n/s/mA).2E11 n/s/mA). •In addition, we have a subcritical assembly - to be upgraded to accelerator driven subcritical assembly. Ion Source Acceleration Column Horiz. Steering QuadrupoleBending Magnet Vert. Steering Target Target Room
    5. 5. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Vacuum Hydraulics Experiment (VHEX) 2005 • Fusion energy chamber research at UC Berkeley Impulse load calibration underway UCB 0 ms 11 ms 22 ms 34 ms
    6. 6. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley (the only NE program in the UC system) • UCB Nuclear Engineering Faculty: – Joonhong Ahn (radioactive waste management) – Ehud Greenspan (fission and fusion advanced reactor design) – Bruce Hasegawa (medical imaging instrumentation; computed tomography; nuclear medicine; small animal imaging) – Daniel Kammen (renewable energy, technology/energy policy) – William Kastenberg (risk assessment, risk management, reactor design) – Ka-Ngo Leung (plasma source and ion beam development) – Ed Morse (applied plasma physics: fusion technology: microwaves) – Donald Olander (nuclear fuels and materials) – Per Peterson (heat transfer, fluid mechanics, inertial fusion) – Stan Prussin (nuclear chemistry, bionuclear engineering) – John P. Verboncoeur (computational plasma physics) – Jasmina Vujic (neutronics, nuclear reactor core analysis and design, bionuclear applications) – Brian Wirth (Radiation damage in structural metals and alloys; computational materials science)
    7. 7. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley NE DEPARTMENT RESEARCH AREAS • Applied Nuclear Physics • Bionuclear and Radiological Physics • Energy Systems and the Environment • Ethics and the Impact of Technology on Society • Fission Reactor Analysis • Fuel Cycles and Radioactive waste • Fusion Science and Technology • Laser, Particle Beam, and Plasma Technologies • Nuclear Materials and Chemistry • Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics • Risk, Safety, and Large-Scale Systems Analysis
    8. 8. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Student Data 1995-2005 • NE Majors-increase in number of undergraduate (58) & grad majors (55) • Steady growth in % of women, (28% female students) • Rise in # of applications, rise in # of US applicants (89 freshman app for F’06) • 100% funding for graduate students - fellowship, research, labs • Currently: 11 PhD students supported by LBNL, 8 PhD students supported by LLNL NE Majors, 1995 - 2005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year (fall semester) Undergraduates Graduate Students Post-graduate employment of Nuclear Engineering MS and PhD graduates - F99 - Sp05 (66 total) Nuclear Industry Industry (other than nuclear) Continue for PhD Other research Postdoctoral position National laboratory
    9. 9. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley The next decade holds promise for finding solutions of major, grand-challenge problems UCBNE Students at Yucca Mountain, January 2001
    10. 10. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Workshops for High School Science Teachers • The workshops are hosted by the NE department and sponsored by the Northern California Chapter of the Health Physics Society and the Northern California Section of the American Nuclear Society. • Its goals, are to enhance the teachers’ understanding and provide them with hands-on activities for their classrooms. Each teacher received a Geiger counter. • One day, six hour workshop has been organized for last 6 years with over 150 high school science teachers attending. • Visits to LBNL and LLNL are also provided!
    11. 11. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Workshops for High School Science Teachers • Science teachers from California high schools learn how to use Geiger counters by measuring radiation from different objects. • “It was definitely worthwhile,” concluded one participant from St. Francis High School in Mountain View.
    12. 12. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Unified Efforts for Nuclear Energy Futures • WHO: Government, national laboratories, industry, universities, public • HOW: Need to coordinate efforts, establish centers of excellence strategically placed across the country, close to national laboratories and universities • Flexibility in Collaboration: sharing expertise, researchers, experimental facilities, computing resources, graduate students • Flexibility in assembling multidisciplinary teams for short- and long-term team work
    13. 13. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Center for Innovative Nuclear Science and Technology (West Coast) • Multi-disciplinary multi-institutional collaboration: UCB, LBNL, LLNL, LANL, industry (?) • Global Nuclear Energy Partnership/National Security: – Energy independence and security – National security and non-proliferation – Basic nuclear science (nuclear physics and chemistry, improvement of nuclear data, determination of precise actinide cross sections) – Advanced nuclear reactor systems design and analysis – New materials development for extreme environments – Advanced fuel cycle research with impact on repository design and performance (focus on ONE repository) – High performance computing and modeling for nuclear applications – Safety assessment and licensing procedures for future passively safe NPPs – Safeguards, Security, Regulations • Flexibility in Collaboration – Sharing expertise, experimental facilities, computing resources, researchers – Educational emphasis - educating new generation of researchers
    14. 14. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Long-term Strategic Research Areas • Advanced Reactor Design, Large Systems Analysis, Simulation Methods Development, Safety and Risk Assessment • Nuclear Materials, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Repository Performance and Design • Nuclear Chemistry and Applied Nuclear Physics, Radiation Detection, Issues Related to National Security
    15. 15. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley POSSIBLE COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS • Design of an ENHS demonstration plant • Design of a LS-VHTR pilot plant • System analysis of the “ultimate” sustainable nuclear energy system consisting of Generation-IV fuel-self-sufficient reactors and non-chemical fission products separation process that cannot partition Pu or other TRU • Unbiased comprehensive comparison of Na, Pb alloy and Liquid Salt coolants for the “ultimate” fuel-self-sufficient” reactors • Assessment of feasibility of physical separation of fission products, making it impossible to partition Pu (e.g., AIROX or Archimedes Technologies process) • Assess feasibility of hydride fuel for LWR (SCWR) • Development of a very compact, ever-safe critical reactor for national security and other applications • Development of multi-dimensional intelligent nuclear design optimization methods.
    16. 16. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley SELECTED RESEARCH PROJECTS (CURRENT)
    17. 17. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley DOE adopted ENHS type reactors as one of 6 types of GEN-IV reactors30m 27m 8m 2m 3m 2m Number of Stacks = 4 Cross Section of Stack 3m 3.64m (O.D; t=0.05) 17.625m ENHS module Reactor pool Reactor Vessel Air Cooling System (RVACS) Steam generators 6.94m (I.D.) Seismic isolators Underground silo Schematic vertical cut through the ENHS reactor Replaceable Reactor module • underground silo • no pumps • no pipes • no valves • factory fueled • weld-sealed • >20 years core • no fueling on site • Module is replaced • shipping cask • Pb or Pb-Bi cooled, 125MWt /50MWe
    18. 18. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Fuel-self-sufficient core Chose: P/D = 1.36 Pu w /o = 12.2 Years 0 5 10 15 20 Eigenvalue 0.980 0.985 0.990 0.995 1.000 1.005 1.010 1.015 1.020 P/D=1.30 P/D=1.35 P/D=1.40
    19. 19. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Nearly constant core power shape Distance (cm) from core top 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Powerdensity(normalized) 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 BOL EOLRadial distance (cm) from core center 20 40 60 80 100 Powerdensity(normalized) 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 BOL EOL
    20. 20. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
    21. 21. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley • Vacancy, SIA & point defect cluster migration to & annihilation at extended microstructural defects (sinks) enhances the diffusion of solutes & impurity species - leading to nano/microstructural changes (precipitation, segregation) Point defect transport → solute & impurity diffusion QuickTime™ and a Photo decompressor are needed to see this picture. 5 nm vacancy Cu Kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simulation of Cu diffusion and precipitation
    22. 22. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley NE RESEARCH FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    23. 23. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Reactor Design and Fuel Cycle Analysis • Development of sustainable, proliferation-resistant nuclear energy system – Based on passively safe GEN-IV reactors – Close of the nuclear fuel cycle in an economical and proliferation- resistant way – Eliminate need for HLW repositories other than YMR – Offer developing countries nuclear energy with energy security and proliferation resistance • Development of high-temperature nuclear reactors for – Generation of hydrogen – High energy conversion efficiency and improved economics • Development of improved computational capability: – Multi-dimensional coupled neutronics – thermal hydraulics core design codes – Intelligent multi-dimensional nuclear design optimization methods and codes – Coupled Large Systems Analysis - advanced fuel cycle/reactor/repository
    24. 24. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Thermal Hydraulics • Shift toward Generation IV technologies (ESBWR and AP-1000 represent fully mature, water-cooled reactors) • Key long-term strategic directions for fission energy: » Low-pressure containment/confinement structures • Gas-cooled reactors--vented confinements • Low volatility coolants-- liquid salts, liquid metals » Long thermal time constant for reactor core heat up • Large thermal inertia from fuel and coolant • Large temperature margins to fuel damage • Elimination of complex and expensive active safety equipment » Highly efficient, high power density energy conversion • High coolant temperatures • Compact closed gas cycles • Direct thermo-chemical production of hydrogen » Flexibility to evolve rapidly • Risk-informed licensing » Flexibility to evolve to begin full recycle of actinides • Future U.S. activity in Fusion Technology is currently not predictable
    25. 25. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Risk, Safety and Systems Analysis • Development of licensing bases for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems. • Very large scale system optimization methods for integrated nuclear energy systems (sustainability, economics, safety and security/non-proliferation). • Risk analysis methods for reactors with inherently safe features. • Integration of fuel cycle analysis with reactor safety, economics and nonproliferation potential. • Development of deterministic models and the acquisition of experimental data for understanding severe accidents in NPRs • Experimental support and testing programs.
    26. 26. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Materials and Chemistry, Fuel Cycle • Push towards higher operating temperatures in Gen IV fission and fusion reactor designs place an increasing emphasis on advanced materials with improved high temperature mechanical properties, including irradiation creep and fatigue behavior in structural materials (piping, pressure vessels, cladding, heat exchangers, …). • Fusion environment, along with radioactive alpha decay in nuclear fuels and national security stockpile materials, place an increasing emphasis on understanding the damaging effects of helium on materials performance and long-term (geologic repository) aging behavior. • The use of alternate coolants demands improved knowledge and qualification of corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking behavior of current and advanced materials. • High-temperature gas cooled reactor (NGNP) requires qualification and determination of design limits for a new generation of nuclear-grade graphite core material and high- temperature, large volume pressure vessel.
    27. 27. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Why concern about radiation effects? • Materials aging and degradation is the major issue for structural alloys used in intense neutron environments in fission, fusion and accelerator based nuclear systems • Objective to predict the performance and lifetime of existing materials in neutron service and to develop higher performance longer-lived new materials • Radiation effects on ‘properties’ are controlled by the combination of many material and irradiation variables - combinatorial complexity precludes purely empirical approaches (also must extrapolate to long time behavior) • Use a multiscale approach to understanding the production of defects in materials during irradiation, their subsequent evolution in the material and effects on materials properties Reactor Cavity Cooling System Reactor Pressure Vessel Control Rod Drive Stand Pipes Power Conversion System Vessel Floors Typical Generator Refueling Floor Shutdown Cooling System Piping Cross Vessel (Contains Hot & Cold Duct) 35m(115ft) 32m(105ft) 46m(151ft) VHTR (NGNP) High burnup nuclear fuel & cladding Reactor pressure vessel embrittlement Fusion energy
    28. 28. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Multiscale modeling approach Approach: apply multiple complementary modeling, experimental and theoretical techniques at appropriate scales to determine underlying Approach: apply multiple complementary modeling, experimental and theoretical techniques at appropriate scales to determine underlying
    29. 29. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Chemistry, Applied Nuclear Physics, Radiation Detection • The low-energy nuclear physics and interaction of radiation with matter important to nuclear chemistry, nuclear technology and applications. • Fundamental nuclear physics measurements for applied purposes and the development of advanced detectors and methodologies, in addition to the application of nuclear techniques in a wide range of studies. • Design of methodologies and detection systems to counter the possible transport of special nuclear materials (national security issues) and for applications in the biomedical and radiological sciences.
    30. 30. Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Fast Neutrons High-Energy Resolution Spectrometers Fast-Neutron Spectrometers in the MeV energy range 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time of Flight DetectionEfficiency(%) Energy Resolving Power E/∆E Ideal Detector 3 He ionization chamber Recoil proportional counter Organic scintillator Cryogenic spectrometer Data from F. D. Brooks, H. Klein, Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 476 1-11 (2002)

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