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“ Community colleges are prominent among the leaders in higher education in establishing indicators of institutional effectiveness, gathering benchmark data, and using findings to improve the satisfaction of students and other community constituents.” Trudy Banta, Editor’s Notes , 1995
Assessment, planning, and budget are integrated. Objectives established by departments during program review become the basis for budget allocations.
North Carolina Community College Performance Measures
Progress of Basic Skills Students
Passing Rates on Licensure/Certification Exams
Goal Completion for Completers
Employment Rate of Graduates
Performance of College Transfer Students
Passing Rates in Developmental Courses
Success rate of developmental students in subsequent college level courses
Retention, graduation rates
Business/Industry satisfaction with services provided
“ Compared to all institutions, associate of arts institutions are less likely to collect cognitive and affective data, less likely to use student-centered methods in collecting data, and less likely to conduct studies of student performance…”
3.4.1 The institution demonstrates that each educational program for which academic credit is awarded (a) is approved by the faculty and the administration, and (b) establishes and evaluates program and learning outcomes .
3.5.1 The institution identifies college-level competencies within the general education core and provides evidence that graduates have attained those competencies.
Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs
“ Evaluations of students must be conducted on a recurrent basis and with sufficient frequency to provide both the students and program faculty with valid and timely indications of the students’ progress toward and achievement of the competencies and learning domains stated in the curriculum.”
“ Each engineering technology program must have in place published educational objectives consistent with mission and with ABET criteria…”
“… Must utilize multiple assessment measures in a process that provides documented results to demonstrate that the program objectives and outcomes are being met..”
[examples include]: “student portfolios, student performance in project work and activity-based learning; national exams; employer and graduate surveys..”
Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology
“A program’s goals are a more specific expression of the programs’ intended student learning outcomes. The goals should be written using behavioral terms and should address the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. They must be measurable, preferably through the use of more than one measurement tool.”
Based on institutional, departmental/program, state, and national standards
Establish a system for directly assessing student achievement of objectives
Multiple assessments across time
including graduate and employer surveys
Collect, compile, report, and use results to improve student performance, programs, and organization
Identifying Student Outcomes Translating program goals and instructors’ intentions into instructional objectives stated in terms of student learning outcomes.
Communicating goals and objectives Beginning with some examples and the importance of verbs…
Clear, Observable Behavior (can’t measure what you can’t see)
“ Behavioral…cognitive, affective, psychomotor” Using a Framework to guide us
Taxonomy of Learning Domains
Cognitive: mental skills ( Knowledge)
Affective: growth in feelings or emotional area ( Attitudes)
Psychomotor: manual or physical skills ( Skills)
Writing Instructional Objectives There are a number of approaches to writing instructional objectives:
Mager -- Behavioral objectives
Eisner -- Expressive objectives
Gronlund -- General/specific objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives Mager proposes writing specific statements about observable outcomes that can be built up to become a curriculum (an inductive approach).
An example of a behavioral objective:
Given 3 minutes of class time, the student will solve 9 out of 10 multiplication problems of the type: 5 X 4 = _____.
Writing Behavioral Objectives Three Parts of a Behavioral Objective In an oral presentation, the student will paraphrase Dr. Martin Luther Kings's I Have a Dream address, mentioning at least 3 of the 5 major points discussed in class.
Writing Instructional Objectives Eisner proposes that not all instructional objectives should focus on outcome; some should focus on the learning process itself (expressive objectives).
Examples of expressive objectives:
Students will attend a live symphony
b. Students will use multiplication in everyday activities.
Writing Instructional Objectives Gronlund proposes starting with a general statement and providing specific examples of topics to be covered or behaviors to be observed (a deductive approach).
Gains knowledge of basic principles of radiation safety and protection.
Applies basic principles of radiation safety and protection in new situations.
#1 = the learning process rather than the learning outcome (knows, develops skills in, acquires, understands, learns). Another pitfall includes describing the learning activity: create a diorama; read seven journal articles, etc.
__ 1. Sands and prepares surface properly. (check, +/-)
Numerical rating scales
4 3 2 1 a) Uses tools correctly for each task.
Numerical rating scales with descriptors
Selects appropriate equipment.
__ Needs to be ___________________ Needs some help _____________selects proper
told what to use in selecting equipment independently
1 2 3 4 5
3 = always, 2 = sometimes, 1 = never
a) Pays attention when problems are explained.
Rubrics: Indicators of Quality Anticipates and defuses counter-arguments. All ideas flow logically. Makes novel connections which illuminate thesis. Acknowledges opposing views and addresses several aspects of them, but not always in complete manner. Logic might fail at time; argument might be unclear; might not address opposing views or states them but does not address them. Simplistic view of topic; no effort to grasp alternative views; might contain logical fallacies. Logic and argumentation Clearly relates evidence to reasons; poses new ways to think of thesis. Evidence often related to argument or reasons though not always clearly or completely explained. Evidence is often merely stated and not explained or connected to the argument. Lack of evidence or very few or very weak examples; weak attempts to relate to argument. Analysis Relevant materials support several points; reasons supported with good explanations and examples; excellent integration of quoted material. Examples and explanations support most points; some evidence does not support point or may appear not relevant. Examples and explanations support some points; points often lack evidence; quotes may be poorly integrated. Very few or very weak examples or explanations. General failure to support statements or evidence not relevant; quotes poorly integrated. Use of Evidence Ideas flow logically. Excellent transitions from point to point. Paragraphs support sold topic sentences. Generally clear and logical; may lack a few clear transitions or some paragraphs may not be clear and solid. Generally unclear; wanders or jumps from point to point; generally lacks transitions; some paragraphs without clear topics. Unclear, often because these is weak or non-existent. Transitions confusing or unclear. Few topic sentences. Structure Clearly stated, strong topic; original; insightful. Clearly stated, potentially strong topic with some revisions. Possibly vague and/or overly simplistic topic; needs considerable revision. Unclear or unidentifiable topic; Thesis Performance Level 4 Performance Level 3 Performance Level 2 Performance Level 1 Criteria
Student Assessment Plans Identify program level student learning outcomes. Identify decision points as students progress and the assessments used to make decisions. Employer survey Alumni survey Assessment such as more involved clinical experiences. Assessment such as class demonstrations, simulations, or projects. Professional skills Employer survey Alumni survey Assessment such as licensure exam. Assessment such as comprehensive exams in courses. Content knowledge Follow Up Phase 2 Phase I General Program-Level Student Learning Outcomes