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International Atomic Energy Agency
Records and Record Keeping
ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL
EXPOSURE DUE TO INTAKE OF
RADIONU...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records and Recordkeeping – Unit
Objectives
The objective of this unit is to provide a ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records and Recordkeeping – Unit Outline
 Introduction
 Dose Management System
 Reco...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Introduction
International Atomic Energy Agency
Recordkeeping is used to:
Demonstrate compliance with legal
regulations.
Assist in work...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Recordkeeping is used to :
Evaluate exposure trends.
Develop effective monitoring proce...
International Atomic Energy Agency
If exposure assessment is required
Individual monitoring is not required for
workers re...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records
Dosimetry records should include details of
internal and external dose assessme...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records
In making records of dose assessments it is
important to establish the recordin...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Dose Management System
International Atomic Energy Agency
Setting up a Dose Management System
Suggested structure if the DMS
is used by a large I...
International Atomic Energy Agency
General structure of a Dose
Management System
B. Sites
C. Workers
A. Establishment/
Emp...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Employer identification elements
Name
Employer code number
Contact
Street and number or...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Employer work activity categories
Industry
Nuclear fuel
Research
Medical applications
S...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record system elements to identify the
worker
Full name
A unique number (i.e. SSN)
Sex
...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Occupational categories of
individual workers
Medical diagnostic radiology
Unsealed sou...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Computer based systems are widely
used for record keeping
Computer based data processin...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Computer based systems are widely
used for record keeping
Either a PC or central comput...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Recommended Record Content
International Atomic Energy Agency
Dosimetry records contain various kinds of
information:
Information to identify the wor...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Measurement techniques
 Date, time and duration of measurement
 Detector(s), measurem...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Measurement results
 Activities of all radionuclides found should be
recorded together...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records include:
Evaluations of anomalous dose;
Any special dose limits imposed on the ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Supporting documentation should be
maintained
 Working procedures and practices
 Trai...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Laboratory records should include:
 Unambiguous identification of the sample,
includin...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Laboratory records should include:
 Analytical procedure(s) employed and the
correspon...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Laboratory records should include:
 Measured activity for each radionuclide,
together ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Laboratory records should include:
 Comments on the analysis that may be helpful
in th...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Laboratory records should include:
 Whether or not the result exceeds a specified
deri...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Records may also include
Historical data
Dates relating to personal and exposure
inform...
International Atomic Energy Agency
A gap in the dose record?
The record keeping system should allow the
introduction of do...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record keeping for workplace monitoring
 Workplace monitoring results are unlikely
to ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record keeping for workplace monitoring
 Proper interpretations of workplace
monitorin...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Workplace records should include a
variety of information
 Records should include the ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Workplace records should include a
variety of information
 Records should also be kept...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record Access and Retention
International Atomic Energy Agency
The employer should:
Provide workers access to information in
their own exposure record...
International Atomic Energy Agency
When a worker asks for his/her record,
Usually through his employer
A simplified versio...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Retention and use of records depend
on local and national situation
Used by management ...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Dose reporting may be required to:
Employer (radiation safety
officer/management)
Radia...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record retention
Exposure records for each worker shall be
preserved;
During the worker...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record retention
Workplace monitoring, calibration of survey
instrument;
5 years
Occupa...
International Atomic Energy Agency
Record retention
The employer should:
When employment stops, make arrangements
for rete...
International Atomic Energy Agency
References
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMI...
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International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Record Keeping

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  • Record keeping has several purposes. First, it is intended to demonstrate compliance with dose limits and legal regulations. Records can be used to assist in work planning (worker allocation) and demonstrate the effectiveness of ALARA. They provide data for analysis of dose distribution and evaluation exposure of trends. The record keeping process helps to develop effective monitoring procedures and programmes, provide data for medical and/or legal purposes, and can provide data for epidemiological studies.
  • Records must be maintained if exposure assessment is required. Individual monitoring is not required for workers regularly working in a supervised area or entering a controlled area only occasionally, however, occupational exposure should be assessed, on the basis of the results of workplace monitoring or individual monitoring.
  • Records should include details of both the external and internal dose assessment using individual and workplace monitoring results.
    EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY - The minimum level of detection should be used as the recording level, i.e. results below that level should be recorded as zero.
    INTERNAL DOSIMETRY - The recording level applied to the measured results avoids the unnecessary effort of difficult and time-consuming assessment of trivial intakes.
  • In making records of dose assessments it is important to establish the recording levels of monitoring programmes. A large amount of the data accumulated in monitoring programmes is of only transitory value. Monitoring results are easy to obtain, but the assessment procedure is complex and very often the implied doses are small.
  • Setting up a Dose Record and Information System – DMS.
    A suggested structure if the DMS is used by a large Individual Monitoring Service, serving a significant number of customers. For smaller services, simpler structures may suffice. The DMS structure assumes three levels:
    A. The establishment (employer, customer)
    B. The site
    C. The individual
  • A number of elements are needed to provide employer identification in a DMS:
    ·Name
    ·Employer code number
    ·Contact
    ·Street and number or PO Box
    ·Postal code
    ·Town
    ·Country
    ·Bank account number
    ·Telephone number
    ·Category of establishment
  • Several work categories may be used in a DMS:
    ·Hospitals
    ·Dentists
    ·Veterinary practitioners
    ·Private medical practitioners
    ·Universities
    ·Nuclear research reactors
    ·Nuclear power stations
    ·Nuclear fuel fabrication
    ·Nuclear fuel reprocessing
    ·Nuclear waste management
    ·General industry
    ·National and government inspectorates
    ·Defense
    ·Other
  • Suggested record system elements needed to identify the worker include:
    ·Full name
    ·A unique number (i.e. SSN)
    ·Sex
    ·Date of birth
    ·Employer (link to)
    ·Site (link to)
    ·Date of work commencement with present
    ·Employer
    ·Date of termination with present employer
    ·Classification: Employer work activity
    Classification: Worker occupational category
  • It will be necessary to establish occupational categories of individual workers:
    ·Medical diagnostic radiology
    ·Unsealed sources, including nuclear medicine and biochemistry
    ·Non-destructive investigation
    ·Sealed sources
    ·Various X-ray units
    ·Nuclear reactors
    Various activities
  • Computer based systems are widely used for record keeping. Computer based data processing has shown tremendous improvement. Hard- and software have are available at very moderate prices. Except when small numbers are involved, computer based systems offer a great advantage over manual processing.
  • Either a PC or central computer system can be used. "Ready-to-go" software packages are readily available. However, setting up a records system may not be simple.
  • Dosimetry records contain various kinds of information: Information to identify the worker.
    Measurements of internal dose, such as Committed Effective Dose.
    Measurements of external dose
    Personal dose equivalent, HP(10)
    Personal dose equivalent, HP(0.07)
  • Measurement techniques
    This should include:
    date, time and duration of measurement
    detector(s), geometry of measurement, shielding
    calibration
    method of the peak evaluation
    detection limits for radionuclides of interest ( and for 40K). When a mixture of a large number of radionuclides is expected, the detection limits for the most important radionuclides should be calculated.
  • Activities of all radionuclides found should be recorded together with their uncertainties. When the radionuclides of interest have not been found, the detection thresholds should be calculated from actual measured spectra of the subject and recorded as calculated from actual spectra measured from the subject. When the average body content of a large group of people (members of the public, professionals in some special cases) is of interest, insignificant activities of radionuclides of interest (peak areas below the detection threshold) and negative values should be recorded.
    When recording uncertainties of the activities of radionuclides found, it is practical to separate counting uncertainties and uncertainties of another origin. Some of them are very difficult to estimate, especially uncertainties caused by the unknown distribution of the radionuclide in the human body. It is recommended to estimate and record extreme values of the distribution.
    Measurement records should be stored in accordance with national legal and regulatory requirements. Long-term storage of the measured spectra with and without the subject present enables reevaluation of a measurement at any time.
  • Records include: Evaluations of anomalous dose; Doses allocated for lost or damaged dosimeters or samples; Information about the material and radionuclides involved in any previous known or suspected significant intakes;
  • Supporting documentation that is common to a number of samples and/or analyses should also be maintained, including:
    Working procedures and practices,
    Training records and qualifications of analysts,
    Quality assurance procedures,
    Quality control data such as background trends and estimates of MDA,
    Equipment calibration procedures and records,
    Traceability of standard sources.
  • The minimum information maintained in the records should include:
    Unambiguous identification of the sample, including type of sample and worker or location from which it was obtained.
    Documentation of the custody of the sample from collection to analysis.
    Dates and times of sample collection and analysis
    Sample mass and/or volume.
  • The minimum information maintained in the records should include:
    Analytical procedure(s) employed and the corresponding MDA(s).
    Identification of the counter or analytical instrument used and calibration information.
    Raw measurement data including:
    gross and background counts in regions of interest or complete spectra
    chemical yield and
    calculation of final result.
  • The minimum information maintained in the records should include:
    Measured activity for each radionuclide analysed, together with its estimated uncertainty
    The uncertainty should specify:
    Whether it is due to counting statistics only or to a total propagated error, and
    The number of standard deviations (or errors) it represents
    All measurement results should be recorded, even if less than MDA or negative.
  • The minimum information maintained in the records should include:
    Any comments on the analysis that may be helpful in the interpretation of the results, such as
    difficulties encountered in the procedure
    unusual properties or circumstances of the sample, e.g.,
    whether or not the sample was collected for special monitoring,
    if an unusual interference was noted or
    if a more sensitive analytical method was requested).
  • The minimum information maintained in the records should include:
    Whether or not the result exceeds a specified derived recording or investigation level.
    Identity of the analyst(s).
    Copies of reports issued.
  • Dose records contain various kinds of information: Historical data; Dates relating to personal and exposure information; and Text relating to personal and exposure information.
  • When there is a gap in the dose record, the record keeping system should allow the introduction of doses estimated or assessed by an authorized person. These doses may need to be flagged so that they can be distinguished from official dose measurements.
  • Record keeping for workplace monitoring. Workplace monitoring results are unlikely to be useful in dose assessment, unless assessment is made at the time as part of the monitoring programme. Substantial information will be required about the worker location, and the type of work during the monitoring period.
  • Proper interpretations of workplace monitoring results in terms of individual exposures may not be possible merely by later review of records. Routine records of workplace monitoring will usually be used more to demonstrate good housekeeping than for assessment of the individual exposure.
  • Records should include the designation and location of controlled and supervised areas. Records should also include identification of instruments used and the individual performing the survey.
  • Records should also be kept of radiation surveys, including, date, time, location, radiation levels measured, and any comments relevant to measurements made.
  • When considering access and retention, employers should provide workers access to information in their own exposure records; Provide access to the exposure records by the supervisor of the health surveillance programme, the Regulatory Authority and the relevant employer; Facilitate the provision of copies of workers' exposure records to new employers.
  • When a worker asks for his/her record, usually through his employer, a simplified version of the full dose record is appropriate, partly because the transcript may contain unrecognizable computer terminology. On termination of employment, a summary of the dose record may be given to the worker. The record should cover the period of last employment and dose information transferred from previous employment.
  • Retention and use of records depend on local and national situation. Records are used by management in maintaining and improving design and operation, and in achieving and demonstrating compliance. Records may also be used in litigation or for other medical or legal reasons - this influences the retention period. Records need not include the original samples, dosimeters, monitoring films etc.
  • It may be necessary to report doses to: the Employer (radiation safety officer/management); the Radiation worker; the Local safety inspector; the Medical officer; and the National legal authorities/inspectorates.
  • Exposure records for each worker shall be preserved; During the worker's working life and Afterwards at least until the worker attains or would have attained the age of 75 years, and For not less than 30 years after the termination of the work involving occupational exposure.
  • Records for workplace monitoring, calibration of survey instrument should be retained for at least 5 years. Records on the occupational exposure of worker, calibration of personal monitoring equipment; should be held until the worker is or would have been 75 years of age and 30 years after cessation of work.
  • When employment stops, the employer should make arrangements for retention of exposure records by the Regulatory Authority, or a State registry, etc, as appropriate; and Maintain the appropriate confidentiality of records.
  • Transcript of "International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Record Keeping"

    1. 1. International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Record Keeping ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE DUE TO INTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDES
    2. 2. International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Recordkeeping – Unit Objectives The objective of this unit is to provide a review of the need for a complete system of records for the internal dosimetry, including information details on calibration, measurements, and quality assurance. The unit describes the full range of information elements that comprise a complete records system, with recommendations on access and retention. At the completion of the unit, the student should understand how to approach establishing a records system, what information is included, and the principles of access and retention.
    3. 3. International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Recordkeeping – Unit Outline  Introduction  Dose Management System  Recommended Record Content  Record Access and Retention
    4. 4. International Atomic Energy Agency Introduction
    5. 5. International Atomic Energy Agency Recordkeeping is used to: Demonstrate compliance with legal regulations. Assist in work planning (worker allocation). Demonstrate the effectiveness of ALARA. Provide data for analysis of dose distribution.
    6. 6. International Atomic Energy Agency Recordkeeping is used to : Evaluate exposure trends. Develop effective monitoring procedures and programmes. Provide data for medical and/or legal purposes. Provide data for epidemiological studies.
    7. 7. International Atomic Energy Agency If exposure assessment is required Individual monitoring is not required for workers regularly working in a supervised area or entering a controlled area only occasionally, however, Occupational exposure should be assessed, on the basis of the results of workplace monitoring or individual monitoring. Exposure records must be maintained
    8. 8. International Atomic Energy Agency Records Dosimetry records should include details of internal and external dose assessment using individual and workplace monitoring results Internal Dosimetry - Recording level applied to the measured results avoids the unnecessary effort for assessment of trivial intakes External Dosimetry - The minimum level of detection should then be used as the recording level, i.e. record results below that level as zero
    9. 9. International Atomic Energy Agency Records In making records of dose assessments it is important to establish the recording levels of monitoring programmes A large amount of the data accumulated in monitoring programmes is of only transitory value
    10. 10. International Atomic Energy Agency Dose Management System
    11. 11. International Atomic Energy Agency Setting up a Dose Management System Suggested structure if the DMS is used by a large Individual Monitoring Service, serving a significant number of customers For smaller services, simpler structures may suffice The DMS structure assumes three levels: A. The establishment (employer, customer) B. The site C. The individual
    12. 12. International Atomic Energy Agency General structure of a Dose Management System B. Sites C. Workers A. Establishment/ Employer A B B B B
    13. 13. International Atomic Energy Agency Employer identification elements Name Employer code number Contact Street and number or PO Box Postal code Town Country Bank account number Telephone number Category of establishment
    14. 14. International Atomic Energy Agency Employer work activity categories Industry Nuclear fuel Research Medical applications Safety and prevention Transport Safeguards Note - Within these categories, there are several practises
    15. 15. International Atomic Energy Agency Record system elements to identify the worker Full name A unique number (i.e. SSN) Sex Date of birth Employer (link to) Site (link to) Date of work commencement with present Date of termination with present employer Classification: Employer work activity Classification: Worker occupational category
    16. 16. International Atomic Energy Agency Occupational categories of individual workers Medical diagnostic radiology Unsealed sources, including nuclear medicine and biochemistry Non-destructive investigation Sealed sources Various X-ray units Nuclear reactors Various activities
    17. 17. International Atomic Energy Agency Computer based systems are widely used for record keeping Computer based data processing has shown tremendous improvement Hard- and software are available at very moderate prices Except when small numbers are involved, computer based systems offer a great advantage over manual processing
    18. 18. International Atomic Energy Agency Computer based systems are widely used for record keeping Either a PC or central computer system can be used "Ready-to-go" software packages are readily available However, setting up a records system may not be simple
    19. 19. International Atomic Energy Agency Recommended Record Content
    20. 20. International Atomic Energy Agency Dosimetry records contain various kinds of information: Information to identify the worker Measurements of internal dose, e.g. Committed Effective Dose Measurements of external dose Personal dose equivalent, HP(10) Personal dose equivalent, HP(0.07)
    21. 21. International Atomic Energy Agency Measurement techniques  Date, time and duration of measurement  Detector(s), measurement geometry, shielding  Calibration  Method of the data analysis  Detection limits for radionuclides of interest (and for 40 K)  For mixtures of radionuclides, detection limits for the most important radionuclides
    22. 22. International Atomic Energy Agency Measurement results  Activities of all radionuclides found should be recorded together with their uncertainties  For null results, detection thresholds calculated from measured spectra of the subject  When recording uncertainties of radionuclide activities found, it may be useful to separate counting uncertainties and other uncertainties
    23. 23. International Atomic Energy Agency Records include: Evaluations of anomalous dose; Any special dose limits imposed on the worker; Records of formal declarations of pregnancy, any revocations of such declarations, and notifications of the conclusion of a pregnancy
    24. 24. International Atomic Energy Agency Supporting documentation should be maintained  Working procedures and practices  Training records and qualifications of analysts  Quality assurance procedures  Quality control data such as background trends and estimates of MDA  Equipment calibration procedures and records  Traceability of standard sources
    25. 25. International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratory records should include:  Unambiguous identification of the sample, including: Type of sample Worker or location from which it was obtained  Documentation of the custody of the sample from collection to analysis  Dates and times of sample collection and analysis  Sample mass and/or volume
    26. 26. International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratory records should include:  Analytical procedure(s) employed and the corresponding MDA(s).  Identification of the counter or analytical instrument used  Calibration information  Raw measurement data including; Gross and background counts in regions of interest or complete spectra Chemical yield and Calculation of final result
    27. 27. International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratory records should include:  Measured activity for each radionuclide, together with estimated the uncertainty  Uncertainty should specify; Whether it is due to counting statistics only or to a total propagated error, and Number of standard deviations (or errors) it represents  All measurement results should be recorded, even if less than MDA or negative
    28. 28. International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratory records should include:  Comments on the analysis that may be helpful in the interpretation of the results, such as; Difficulties encountered in the procedure Unusual properties or circumstances of the sample, e.g.  Was the sample collected for special monitoring  Was an unusual interference noted or  Was a more sensitive analytical method requested
    29. 29. International Atomic Energy Agency Laboratory records should include:  Whether or not the result exceeds a specified derived recording or investigation level  Identity of the analyst(s)  Copies of reports issued
    30. 30. International Atomic Energy Agency Records may also include Historical data Dates relating to personal and exposure information Text relating to personal and exposure information Lifetime dose to date, only if required by national regulation
    31. 31. International Atomic Energy Agency A gap in the dose record? The record keeping system should allow the introduction of doses estimated or assessed by an authorized person. These doses may need to be flagged so that they can be distinguished from official dose measurements.
    32. 32. International Atomic Energy Agency Record keeping for workplace monitoring  Workplace monitoring results are unlikely to be useful in dose assessment, unless assessment is made at the time as part of the monitoring programme Substantial information will be required about the worker location, and the type of work during the monitoring period
    33. 33. International Atomic Energy Agency Record keeping for workplace monitoring  Proper interpretations of workplace monitoring results in terms of individual exposures may not be possible merely by later review of records.  Routine records of workplace monitoring will usually be used more to demonstrate good housekeeping than for assessment of the individual exposure.
    34. 34. International Atomic Energy Agency Workplace records should include a variety of information  Records should include the designation and location of controlled and supervised areas  Records should also include identification of instruments used and the individual performing the survey
    35. 35. International Atomic Energy Agency Workplace records should include a variety of information  Records should also be kept of radiation surveys, including, Date Time Location Radiation levels measured, and Comments relevant to measurements made
    36. 36. International Atomic Energy Agency Record Access and Retention
    37. 37. International Atomic Energy Agency The employer should: Provide workers access to information in their own exposure records; Provide access to the exposure records by the supervisor of the health surveillance programme, the Regulatory Authority and the relevant employer; and Facilitate the provision of copies of workers' exposure records to new employers
    38. 38. International Atomic Energy Agency When a worker asks for his/her record, Usually through his employer A simplified version of the full dose record is appropriate Partly because the transcript may contain unrecognizable computer terminology On termination of employment, a summary of the dose record may be given to the worker Covers the period of last employment and dose information transferred from previous employment
    39. 39. International Atomic Energy Agency Retention and use of records depend on local and national situation Used by management in maintaining and improving design and operation, and in achieving and demonstrating compliance Records may also be used in litigation or for other medical or legal reasons - this influences the retention period
    40. 40. International Atomic Energy Agency Dose reporting may be required to: Employer (radiation safety officer/management) Radiation worker Local safety inspector Medical officer National legal authorities/inspectorates.
    41. 41. International Atomic Energy Agency Record retention Exposure records for each worker shall be preserved; During the worker's working life and Afterwards at least until the worker attains or would have attained the age of 75 years, and For not less than 30 years after the termination of the work involving occupational exposure
    42. 42. International Atomic Energy Agency Record retention Workplace monitoring, calibration of survey instrument; 5 years Occupational exposure of worker, calibration of personal monitoring equipment; Until the worker is or would be 75 years of age and 30 years after cessation of work
    43. 43. International Atomic Energy Agency Record retention The employer should: When employment stops, make arrangements for retention of exposure records by the Regulatory Authority, or a State registry, etc, as appropriate; and Maintain the appropriate confidentiality of records
    44. 44. International Atomic Energy Agency References FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Occupational Radiation Protection, Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.1, ISBN 92-0-102299-9 (1999). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides, Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2, ISBN 92-0-101999-8 (1999). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Indirect Methods for Assessing Intakes of Radionuclides Causing Occupational Exposure, Safety Guide, Safety Reports Series No. 18, ISBN 92-0-100600-4 (2002). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Direct Methods for Measuring Radionuclides in the Human Body, Safety Series No. 114, IAEA, Vienna (1996). INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Direct Determination of the Body Content Of Radionuclides, ICRU Report 69, Journal of the ICRU Volume 3, No 1, (2003).
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