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International Atomic Energy Agency Records and Record Keeping

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  • 1. International Atomic Energy Agency ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE DUE TO INTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDES Records and Record Keeping
  • 2. Records and Recordkeeping – Unit Objectives The objective of this unit is to provide a review of the need for a complete system of records for the internal dosimetry, including information details on calibration, measurements, and quality assurance. The unit describes the full range of information elements that comprise a complete records system, with recommendations on access and retention. At the completion of the unit, the student should understand how to approach establishing a records system, what information is included, and the principles of access and retention. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 3. Records and Recordkeeping – Unit Outline  Introduction  Dose Management System  Recommended Record Content  Record Access and Retention International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 4. Introduction International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 5. Recordkeeping is used to:  Demonstrate compliance with legal regulations.  Assist in work planning (worker allocation).  Demonstrate the effectiveness of ALARA.  Provide data for analysis of dose distribution. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 6. Recordkeeping is used to :  Evaluate exposure trends.  Develop effective monitoring procedures and programmes.  Provide data for medical and/or legal purposes.  Provide data for epidemiological studies. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 7. Exposure records must be maintained  If exposure assessment is required  Individual monitoring is not required for workers regularly working in a supervised area or entering a controlled area only occasionally, however,  Occupational exposure should be assessed, on the basis of the results of workplace monitoring or individual monitoring. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 8. Records Dosimetry records should include details of internal and external dose assessment using individual and workplace monitoring results Internal Dosimetry - Recording level applied to the measured results avoids the unnecessary effort for assessment of trivial intakes External Dosimetry - The minimum level of detection should then be used as the recording level, i.e. record results below that level as zero International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 9. Records  In making records of dose assessments it is important to establish the recording levels of monitoring programmes  A large amount of the data accumulated in monitoring programmes is of only transitory value International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 10. Dose Management System International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 11. Setting up a Dose Management System  Suggested structure if the DMS  is used by a large Individual Monitoring Service,  serving a significant number of customers  For smaller services, simpler structures may suffice  The DMS structure assumes three levels: A. The establishment (employer, customer) B. The site C. The individual International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 12. General structure of a Dose Management System A A. Establishment/ Employer B B B B B. Sites C. Workers International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 13. Employer identification elements  Name  Employer code number  Contact  Street and number or PO Box  Postal code  Town  Country  Bank account number  Telephone number  Category of establishment International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 14. Employer work activity categories  Industry  Nuclear fuel  Research  Medical applications  Safety and prevention  Transport  Safeguards Note - Within these categories, there are several practises International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 15. Record system elements to identify the worker  Full name  A unique number (i.e. SSN)  Sex  Date of birth  Employer (link to)  Site (link to)  Date of work commencement with present  Date of termination with present employer  Classification: Employer work activity  Classification: Worker occupational category International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 16. Occupational categories of individual workers  Medical diagnostic radiology  Unsealed sources, including nuclear medicine and biochemistry  Non-destructive investigation  Sealed sources  Various X-ray units  Nuclear reactors  Various activities International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 17. Computer based systems are widely used for record keeping  Computer based data processing has shown tremendous improvement  Hard- and software are available at very moderate prices  Except when small numbers are involved, computer based systems offer a great advantage over manual processing International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 18. Computer based systems are widely used for record keeping  Either a PC or central computer system can be used  "Ready-to-go" software packages are readily available  However, setting up a records system may not be simple International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 19. Recommended Record Content International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 20. Dosimetry records contain various kinds of information:  Information to identify the worker  Measurements of internal dose, e.g. Committed Effective Dose  Measurements of external dose  Personal dose equivalent, HP(10)  Personal dose equivalent, HP(0.07) International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 21. Measurement techniques  Date, time and duration of measurement  Detector(s), measurement geometry, shielding  Calibration  Method of the data analysis  Detection limits for radionuclides of interest (and for 40K)  For mixtures of radionuclides, detection limits for the most important radionuclides International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 22. Measurement results  Activities of all radionuclides found should be recorded together with their uncertainties  For null results, detection thresholds calculated from measured spectra of the subject  When recording uncertainties of radionuclide activities found, it may be useful to separate counting uncertainties and other uncertainties International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 23. Records include:  Evaluations of anomalous dose;  Any special dose limits imposed on the worker;  Records of formal declarations of pregnancy, any revocations of such declarations, and notifications of the conclusion of a pregnancy International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 24. Supporting documentation should be maintained  Working procedures and practices  Training records and qualifications of analysts  Quality assurance procedures  Quality control data such as background trends and estimates of MDA  Equipment calibration procedures and records  Traceability of standard sources International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 25. Laboratory records should include:  Unambiguous identification of the sample, including:  Type of sample  Worker or location from which it was obtained  Documentation of the custody of the sample from collection to analysis  Dates and times of sample collection and analysis  Sample mass and/or volume International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 26. Laboratory records should include:  Analytical procedure(s) employed and the corresponding MDA(s).  Identification of the counter or analytical instrument used  Calibration information  Raw measurement data including;  Gross and background counts in regions of interest or complete spectra  Chemical yield and  Calculation of final result International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 27. Laboratory records should include:  Measured activity for each radionuclide, together with estimated the uncertainty  Uncertainty should specify;  Whether it is due to counting statistics only or to a total propagated error, and  Number of standard deviations (or errors) it represents  All measurement results should be recorded, even if less than MDA or negative International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 28. Laboratory records should include:  Comments on the analysis that may be helpful in the interpretation of the results, such as;  Difficulties encountered in the procedure  Unusual properties or circumstances of the sample, e.g.  Was the sample collected for special monitoring  Was an unusual interference noted or  Was a more sensitive analytical method requested International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 29. Laboratory records should include:  Whether or not the result exceeds a specified derived recording or investigation level  Identity of the analyst(s)  Copies of reports issued International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 30. Records may also include  Historical data  Dates relating to personal and exposure information  Text relating to personal and exposure information  Lifetime dose to date, only if required by national regulation International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 31. A gap in the dose record?  The record keeping system should allow the introduction of doses estimated or assessed by an authorized person.  These doses may need to be flagged so that they can be distinguished from official dose measurements. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 32. Record keeping for workplace monitoring  Workplace monitoring results are unlikely to be useful in dose assessment, unless assessment is made at the time as part of the monitoring programme  Substantial information will be required about the worker location, and the type of work during the monitoring period International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 33. Record keeping for workplace monitoring  Proper interpretations of workplace monitoring results in terms of individual exposures may not be possible merely by later review of records.  Routine records of workplace monitoring will usually be used more to demonstrate good housekeeping than for assessment of the individual exposure. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 34. Workplace records should include a variety of information  Records should include the designation and location of controlled and supervised areas  Records should also include identification of instruments used and the individual performing the survey International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 35. Workplace records should include a variety of information  Records should also be kept of radiation surveys, including,  Date  Time  Location  Radiation levels measured, and  Comments relevant to measurements made International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 36. Record Access and Retention International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 37. The employer should:  Provide workers access to information in their own exposure records;  Provide access to the exposure records by the supervisor of the health surveillance programme, the Regulatory Authority and the relevant employer; and  Facilitate the provision of copies of workers' exposure records to new employers International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 38. When a worker asks for his/her record,  Usually through his employer  A simplified version of the full dose record is appropriate Partly because the transcript may contain unrecognizable computer terminology  On termination of employment, a summary of the dose record may be given to the worker  Covers the period of last employment and dose information transferred from previous employment International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 39. Retention and use of records depend on local and national situation  Used by management in  maintaining and improving design and operation, and  in achieving and demonstrating compliance  Records may also be used in litigation or for other medical or legal reasons - this influences the retention period International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 40. Dose reporting may be required to:  Employer (radiation safety officer/management)  Radiation worker  Local safety inspector  Medical officer  National legal authorities/inspectorates. International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 41. Record retention Exposure records for each worker shall be preserved;  During the worker's working life and  Afterwards at least until the worker attains or would have attained the age of 75 years, and  For not less than 30 years after the termination of the work involving occupational exposure International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 42. Record retention  Workplace monitoring, calibration of survey instrument;  5 years  Occupational exposure of worker, calibration of personal monitoring equipment;  Until the worker is or would be 75 years of age and 30 years after cessation of work International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 43. Record retention The employer should:  When employment stops, make arrangements for retention of exposure records by the Regulatory Authority, or a State registry, etc, as appropriate; and  Maintain the appropriate confidentiality of records International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 44. References FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Occupational Radiation Protection, Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.1, ISBN 92-0-102299-9 (1999). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides, Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2, ISBN 92-0-101999-8 (1999). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Indirect Methods for Assessing Intakes of Radionuclides Causing Occupational Exposure, Safety Guide, Safety Reports Series No. 18, ISBN 92- 0-100600-4 (2002). INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Direct Methods for Measuring Radionuclides in the Human Body, Safety Series No. 114, IAEA, Vienna (1996). INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Direct Determination of the Body Content Of Radionuclides, ICRU Report 69, Journal of the ICRU Volume 3, No 1, (2003). International Atomic Energy Agency