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  • 1. SANTA CLARA VALLEY MODEL UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE XXXVII I want to give a great IAEA welcome to all the delegates participating in this year’s SCVMUN conference! My name is Jesse Matthew Ortega, a second year UC Riverside Biological Sciences major with emphasis on Education, and I will be your head chair for this year’s IAEA committee. I have been with MUN going on four years. Two years have been as a delegate attending SCVMUN, BMUN, and NHSMUN conferences. I also had the pleasure of co- chairing for IAEA in last year’s SCVMUN. For those of you who know me or had been in IAEA last year, I have a very lax personality. This stems from being a video gamer couch potato and I apologize for not being overly strict in advance. However, I do take committee seriously, so please have fun but don’t disrespect your chairs or fellow delegates. Lets all keep our hands to ourselves and away from our WMDs. Since all the hostile IAEA topics have been overdone, maybe this year we can all finally get along and sing in the classroom holding hands. If any of you are that optimistic, I think you fail to realize that this is the UN. Happy delegating! Dear Delegates, my name is Albert Le, and I am pleased to meet you all at this year's conference. This is my first year with the Santa Clara Model United Nations, but not my first experience with the Model UN. I previously attended the Far West Model UN as a delegate from San Jose State University. I just recently graduated with a BA in Political Science and minors in Biology and Chemistry. I'm also in the process of applying to Dental School. The two things are unrelated to each other, but let's just say I have multiple career goals. Currently, I am the head program coordinator for the Asian Pacific American Leadership Institute (APALI) and the Executive Director and Instructor with the Far East Dragon Lion Dance Association, Inc. I like anything with a good story and all forms of art, whether it be spoken or unspoken. If you have any questions, please email us. For the first topic on Clinical PET and MNMs, email Jesse Ortega at jorte002@student.ucr.edu. Questions about the other topic on PLiM can be answered by Albert Le at owl8ird@aol.com. We are always ready to help our delegates. You never know what help you are missing out on unless you ask. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - If I like animals will I like clinical PET? Is liking SNM a bad thing? Is CT imaging a counter terrorism optical device? Why can’t I have larger doses of FDG? Why can’t most physicians read? The following synopsis on Clinical PET and Molecular Nuclear Medicine will answer these questions and more. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Nuclear Power Plant Life Management An increasing number of older nuclear power plants (NPPs) in IAEA Member States over the past few decades have prompted leading countries recently to make the costly decision to build new ones. However, plant ageing management has gained increasing attention over the last decades, which is an attractive option that will increase safe operation, availability, and reliability of plants. The benefits of employing plant life management (PLIM) are the same as those in favor of using nuclear power: not only does the cost of electricity become cheaper but also the impact on reducing fossil burning greenhouse gas emissions is sustained. The IAEA´s latest projections estimate global nuclear-generated electricity growth to 2030 to be between 25
  • 2. SANTA CLARA VALLEY MODEL UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE XXXVII and 93 per cent. At the high end, this amounts to an average growth rate of about 2.5% per year. "We certainly do not today have a renaissance in construction but we very much do have a renaissance in interest," commented Mr. McDonald, one of the representatives present. At the close of 2006, the 435 operating nuclear reactors located in 30 countries provided about 15% of total electricity worldwide. Seeing this increasing trend for more energy, preservation of older power plants is almost a necessity. In his address to the symposium, IAEA Deputy Director General for Nuclear Energy Yury Sokolov stressed the importance and need for such effective plant life management. "This is especially important as the world's fleet of 439 nuclear power plants has been operating, on average, for more than 20 years," he said. "Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically for 30 or 40 years, it is quite feasible that many nuclear power plants will be able to operate in excess of their design lives," he added. Extending the operational life span of nuclear power plants is commonly referred to in the industry plant life management or PLiM. This has been gaining increased attention over the past decade from regulators and operators alike, who considers a PLiM programme as an effective tool to safely and cost effectively manage ageing effects in systems, structures, and components. PLiM helps to facilitate decisions concerning when and how to repair, replace or modify SSCs in an economically optimized way, while assuring that a high level of safety is maintained. The long term operation of NPPs is influenced by a number of factors, including economic considerations, the socio-economic environment including public acceptance, changes in regulatory requirements, the availability of necessary technical infrastructure to maintain and service the systems structures and components (SSCs) of NPPs, and preserving the knowledge of qualified personnel. To deal with the issues of ageing NPP SSCs, human resources and other technical issues of NPP life assurance, as well as reliable and economic operation, NPP life management programmes are being implemented in many countries at the present. Though in general this topic is being addressed at a number of meetings and conferences, it is thought that it would be appropriate for the IAEA to take the lead in organizing a major symposium on the subject. With proper management, vigilance and safety enhancements, nuclear power plants can operate beyond their typical design lifespan of 30-40 years. With 18 of the 31 reactors now being built located in Asia and more in the planning, Asian nations are at the forefront of the renewed interest in nuclear power generation according to the findings of a newly-released IAEA report. The "Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power for the period up to 2030" report identifies countries such as Japan, South Korea, China and India as the center of the present global nuclear power expansion. Commenting on the report findings, IAEA Nuclear Energy Analyst Alan McDonald said that factors such as growing energy demand, energy security and environmental concerns are driving the Asian nuclear power expansion. The symposium, organized by the IAEA, in cooperation with China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) and China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), will focus on topical issues affecting nuclear power PLiM. Some 35 countries and 5 international organizations are being represented in the four-day event which will also emphasize the role of PLiM programmes in assuring safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. In particular, the symposium will aim to: provide a forum for information exchange on national and international policies, regulatory practices and safety culture; demonstrate effective strategies, including applications in an ageing
  • 3. SANTA CLARA VALLEY MODEL UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE XXXVII management and PLiM programme; provide key elements and good practices related to the safety aspects of ageing, ageing management and long term operation; Identify the progress made in ageing management and PLiM processes since the first international symposium; and help Member States further develop their PLiM programmes based on the latest technology available. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Questions to think about and answer: *What is your country’s policy on extending the life usage of older nuclear plants? * Should we just invest in making newer plants? * If so, how are we to dispose of the older models? * Which of the older models are best to keep maintained? Which aren’t? * How should we keep power plants running in case of an emergency? * How often will these plants be maintained and for how long will this be effective? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Websites Used <www.iaea.org> <www.jnm.com> <interactive.snm.org> <www.radiologyinfo.org> <www.clinicalpet.com> <www.un.org> <www.osti.gov>
  • 4. SANTA CLARA VALLEY MODEL UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE XXXVII Clinical PET and Molecular Nuclear Medicine In the past century alone, the world has seen amazing scientific breakthroughs in terms of medical procedures and equipment. Doctors have not yet gained the knowledge or technology to completely cure the most devastating health ailments, infections, and cancers. Therefore, the sooner a patient’s problem is detected the faster a medical professional can administer treatment, which will in turn have more successful results. However, helping patients discover any medical problems before they reach a critical and untreatable state is limited by the technological devices available and the educated staff to run such machines. For the advancement of medical technology and lengthening of the human lifespan, the world will need more expedite diagnosis for earlier detection of physical problems. The International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) sees great potential in the subfield of radiology known as molecular nuclear medicine. The general concept of nuclear medicine includes a radioactive substance known as a radiopharmaceutical. The molecule itself acts as a tracer, which emitting radioactive particles that penetrate and map out the physical map of the body. The process of radioactive mapping for organ structure is similar to that of x-rays for bone structure. This alternate use for nuclear radiation is fairly recent and has previously gone uninvestigated by the IAEA. Therefore, it is of great importance to help facilitate the growth of this new medical procedure through collaboration and research. Due to the recent development of this branch of medical technology, the variety of machines that utilize nuclear medicine procedures are few in number. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the most used diagnostic tool utilizing radiopharmaceuticals. PET images help demonstrate the chemistry of organs and other tissues by calculating the metabolic activity at a particular point. Since cancerous cells have higher metabolic rates, these images are useful in revealing abnormal activity in the body. The downside to the PET is that this device does not display precise body anatomy. The counterpart of PET is known as Computer Tomography (CT). CT scanning utilizes an almost opposite approach in terms of the diagnostic image. A CT scan will accurately display body anatomy in the expense of information about cellular activity. The little research the IAEA has available on this subject shows that the current objective of the medical world is to bring together two separate machines that utilize the nuclear medicine procedure. Since the innovations of PET and CT are complementary, physicians have created a machine that will produce both simultaneously known as the clinical PET/CT. This new tool will utilize a new radioactive molecule, flurodeoxyglucose or FDG, that produces gamma rays after injection into the bloodstream. Society will benefit from the duality of both PET and CT with accurate imaging of both body anatomy and cellular activity. Patients will be able to receive accurate and expedite results to help better prepare and plan for their medical future. However, the IAEA has noticed a great decline in the amount of available physicians even capable of reading these diagnostic images. To ensure that patients who undergo the procedure of PET, CT, or the new innovation of PET/CT, there needs to be enough trained physicians to translate the results into viable information that will aid the patient. Three of four new units purchased for image diagnosis are PET/CT hybrids, which is a machine with an even fewer amount of qualified physicians to read the results. The PET/CT is a device that is being hastily
  • 5. SANTA CLARA VALLEY MODEL UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE XXXVII incorporated into practice without the trained staff to professionally run it. The root problem for this lack of education is due to the fact that current medical pathways fail to incorporate proper training for this machine. Organizations such as the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) have tried to provide an open informational database for use between medical organizations throughout the world. However, the IAEA finds that with the support of member states we can find a solution that will help benefit the general welfare of the world. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Questions to think about and answer: * What is your country’s view on advancing practices of nuclear medicine? * If you are a third world country, think of ways to help incorporate this technology into your country. Would your country benefit from this new technology? * How can the successful countries help integrate this technology into less fortunate countries? * What machine(s) promise(s) the most benefit? * How are we to counter the lack of educated professionals? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Websites Used <www.iaea.org> <www.jnm.com> <interactive.snm.org> <www.radiologyinfo.org> <www.clinicalpet.com> <www.un.org> <www.osti.gov>