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History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
History of Biotech and Biotech Applications
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History of Biotech and Biotech Applications

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  • 1. History of Biotech andHistory of Biotech and Biotech ApplicationsBiotech Applications BIT 120BIT 120 Source for History Information:Source for History Information: www.accessexcellence.orgwww.accessexcellence.org
  • 2. History of BiotechnologyHistory of Biotechnology  The term "The term "biotechnologybiotechnology" was coined in 1919 by Karl" was coined in 1919 by Karl Ereky, an Hungarian engineerEreky, an Hungarian engineer  Traditional biotechnology has been used for thousandsTraditional biotechnology has been used for thousands of years to produce improved food and health careof years to produce improved food and health care products. Today, modern biotechnology enables us toproducts. Today, modern biotechnology enables us to develop improved products more safely and moredevelop improved products more safely and more rapidly than ever before.rapidly than ever before.  Biotechnology in one form or another has flourishedBiotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times.since prehistoric times.
  • 3. ExamplesExamples  Examples:Examples:  they could plant their own crops and breed theirthey could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology.own animals, they learned to use biotechnology.  The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine,The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese oror that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermentingyogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study ofsolutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnologybiotechnology
  • 4. Examples cont’dExamples cont’d  When the first bakers found that they could make aWhen the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker,soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists.they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists.  The first animal breeders, realizing that differentThe first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost byphysical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in themating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.manipulations of biotechnology.
  • 5. DefinitionDefinition  Definition:Definition: What then is biotechnology? the termWhat then is biotechnology? the term "biotechnology" refers to the use of living organisms or their"biotechnology" refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the humanproducts to modify human health and the human environment.environment.  Other definitions: 1.Other definitions: 1. •Biotechnologists use engineering and•Biotechnologists use engineering and science to create new products from biologically based rawscience to create new products from biologically based raw materials, such as vaccines or foods. They also develop factorymaterials, such as vaccines or foods. They also develop factory processes to reduce pollution or treat waste products.processes to reduce pollution or treat waste products.  ••2.2. Biotechnology uses living cells and materials produced byBiotechnology uses living cells and materials produced by cells to create pharmaceutical, diagnostic, agricultural,cells to create pharmaceutical, diagnostic, agricultural, environmental, and other products to benefit society.environmental, and other products to benefit society.
  • 6. Periods of Biotechnology History:Periods of Biotechnology History:  Pre- 1800: Early applications and speculationPre- 1800: Early applications and speculation  1800-1900: Significant advances in basic1800-1900: Significant advances in basic understandingunderstanding  1900-1953: Genetics1900-1953: Genetics  1953- 1976: DNA research, science explodes1953- 1976: DNA research, science explodes  1977- present: modern biotechnology1977- present: modern biotechnology
  • 7. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  6000 BC6000 BC  Yeast was used to make beer by Sumerians and Babylonians.Yeast was used to make beer by Sumerians and Babylonians.  4000 BC4000 BC  The Egyptians discovered how to bake leavened bread usingThe Egyptians discovered how to bake leavened bread using yeast.yeast.  420 BC420 BC  Socrates (470? - 399 BC), the Greek philosopher, speculated onSocrates (470? - 399 BC), the Greek philosopher, speculated on why children don't always resemble their parents.why children don't always resemble their parents.  320 BC320 BC  Aristotle (384 - 322 BC), told his students that all inheritanceAristotle (384 - 322 BC), told his students that all inheritance comes from the father.comes from the father.
  • 8. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1000 AD1000 AD  Hindus observed that certain diseases may "run in the family."Hindus observed that certain diseases may "run in the family." Spontaneous GenerationSpontaneous Generation is the dominant explanation thatis the dominant explanation that organisms arise from non-living matter. Maggots, for example,organisms arise from non-living matter. Maggots, for example, were supposed to arise from horsehair.were supposed to arise from horsehair.  1630 AD1630 AD  William HarveyWilliam Harvey concluded that plants and animals alikeconcluded that plants and animals alike reproduce in a sexual manner:–reproduce in a sexual manner:–egg isolated in 1800’segg isolated in 1800’s  1660-1675 AD1660-1675 AD  Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) in this period used a microscopeMarcello Malpighi (1628-1694) in this period used a microscope to study blood circulation in capillaries, described the nervousto study blood circulation in capillaries, described the nervous system as bundles of fibers connected to the brain by the spinalsystem as bundles of fibers connected to the brain by the spinal cord,.cord,.
  • 9. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1673 AD1673 AD  Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723), He was the first scientistAnton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723), He was the first scientist to describe protozoa and bacteria and to recognize that suchto describe protozoa and bacteria and to recognize that such microorganisms might play a role in fermentation.microorganisms might play a role in fermentation.  17011701  Giacomo Pylarini in Constantiople practiced "inoculation"--Giacomo Pylarini in Constantiople practiced "inoculation"-- intentionally giving children smallpox to prevent a serious caseintentionally giving children smallpox to prevent a serious case later in life. Inoculation will compete with "vaccination"--anlater in life. Inoculation will compete with "vaccination"--an alternative method that uses cowpox rather than smallpox as thealternative method that uses cowpox rather than smallpox as the protecting treatment--for a century.protecting treatment--for a century.  Gave too much and some children diedGave too much and some children died
  • 10. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18091809  Nicolas Appert devised a technique using heat to can andNicolas Appert devised a technique using heat to can and sterilize foodsterilize food  18271827  The worldwide search for the elusive mammalian egg ended withThe worldwide search for the elusive mammalian egg ended with the first observation of canine eggs.the first observation of canine eggs. Remember 1630 andRemember 1630 and William HarveyWilliam Harvey  18501850  ONE OF MY FAVORITESONE OF MY FAVORITES Ignaz Semmelweis usedIgnaz Semmelweis used epidemiological observations to propose the hypothesis thatepidemiological observations to propose the hypothesis that childbed fever can be spread from mother to mother bychildbed fever can be spread from mother to mother by physiciansphysicians. He tested the hypothesis by having physicians wash. He tested the hypothesis by having physicians wash their hands after examining each patient. He became despised bytheir hands after examining each patient. He became despised by the medical profession and lost his job.the medical profession and lost his job.
  • 11. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18561856  Karl Ludwig discovered a technique for keeping animal organsKarl Ludwig discovered a technique for keeping animal organs alive outside the body, by pumping blood through them.alive outside the body, by pumping blood through them.  In contrast to the ideas of Justis Liebig,In contrast to the ideas of Justis Liebig, Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur (1822 -(1822 - 1895)1895) asserted that microbes are responsible for fermentation.asserted that microbes are responsible for fermentation. 18591859  Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882) hypothesized that animal) hypothesized that animal populations adapt their forms over time to best exploit thepopulations adapt their forms over time to best exploit the environment, a process he referred to as "natural selection." Asenvironment, a process he referred to as "natural selection." As he traveled in the Galapagos Islands,he traveled in the Galapagos Islands, he observed how thehe observed how the finch's beaks on each island were adaptedfinch's beaks on each island were adapted to their foodto their food sources.sources.
  • 12. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18631863  Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur invented the process of pasteurization,invented the process of pasteurization, heating wine sufficiently to inactivate microbes (thatheating wine sufficiently to inactivate microbes (that would otherwise turn the "vin" to "vin aigre" or "sourwould otherwise turn the "vin" to "vin aigre" or "sour wine") while at the same time not ruining the flavor ofwine") while at the same time not ruining the flavor of the wine.the wine.  Anton de Bary proved that a fungus causes potatoAnton de Bary proved that a fungus causes potato blight. A challenge for scientists during this period wasblight. A challenge for scientists during this period was to discern whether a microbe was the cause of, or theto discern whether a microbe was the cause of, or the result of, a disease.result of, a disease.
  • 13. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18651865  Gregor MendelGregor Mendel (1822 - 1884), an Augustinian monk, presented(1822 - 1884), an Augustinian monk, presented his laws of heredity to the Natural Science Society in Brunn,his laws of heredity to the Natural Science Society in Brunn, Austria. Mendel proposed that invisible internal units ofAustria. Mendel proposed that invisible internal units of information account for observable traits, and that theseinformation account for observable traits, and that these "factors" - which later became known as genes - are passed from"factors" - which later became known as genes - are passed from one generation to the next. Mendel's work remained unnoticed,one generation to the next. Mendel's work remained unnoticed, languishing in the shadow of Darwin's more sensationallanguishing in the shadow of Darwin's more sensational publication from five years earlier, until 1900, when Hugo depublication from five years earlier, until 1900, when Hugo de Vries, Erich Von Tschermak, and Carl Correns publishedVries, Erich Von Tschermak, and Carl Correns published research corroborating Mendel's mechanism of heredity.research corroborating Mendel's mechanism of heredity.  ..
  • 14. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  PasteurPasteur investigated silkworm disease andinvestigated silkworm disease and established that diseases can be transmitted fromestablished that diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another.one animal to another.  Joseph Lister began using disinfectants such asJoseph Lister began using disinfectants such as phenol (=carbolic acid) in wound care andphenol (=carbolic acid) in wound care and surgery assurgery as PasteurPasteur developed the germ theory ofdeveloped the germ theory of diseasedisease
  • 15. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18681868  Davaine used heat treatment to cure a plant ofDavaine used heat treatment to cure a plant of bacterial infection.bacterial infection.  Fredrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist, successfullyFredrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist, successfully isolated nuclein, a compound that includesisolated nuclein, a compound that includes nucleic acid, from pus cells obtained fromnucleic acid, from pus cells obtained from discarded bandages.discarded bandages.  18701870  W. Flemming discovered mitosis.W. Flemming discovered mitosis.
  • 16. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18711871  DNA was isolated from the sperm of trout found inDNA was isolated from the sperm of trout found in thethe Rhine River.Rhine River.  1873-61873-6  Robert Koch investigated anthrax and developed techniques toRobert Koch investigated anthrax and developed techniques to view, grow, and stain organisms. He then photographed them,view, grow, and stain organisms. He then photographed them, aided by Gram, Cohn, and Weigart.aided by Gram, Cohn, and Weigart.  18801880  Studying fowl cholera,Studying fowl cholera, PasteurPasteur published his work onpublished his work on "attenuated" or weakened strains of organisms that could not"attenuated" or weakened strains of organisms that could not cause disease but protected against severe forms of the samecause disease but protected against severe forms of the same disease.disease.
  • 17. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1881 ANTRAX1881 ANTRAX  Robert Koch described bacterial colonies growing onRobert Koch described bacterial colonies growing on potato slices, on gelatin medium, and on agar medium.potato slices, on gelatin medium, and on agar medium. Nutrient agar became a standard tool for obtaining pureNutrient agar became a standard tool for obtaining pure cultures and for identifying genetic mutants. This iscultures and for identifying genetic mutants. This is considered by T.D. Brock to be the single mostconsidered by T.D. Brock to be the single most important discovery in the rise of microbiology.important discovery in the rise of microbiology.  Pasteur used attenuation to develop vaccines against thePasteur used attenuation to develop vaccines against the bacterial pathogens of fowl cholera and anthrax; thisbacterial pathogens of fowl cholera and anthrax; this was a founding moment in immunology and openedwas a founding moment in immunology and opened new areas in the field of preventive medicine.new areas in the field of preventive medicine.
  • 18. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  18841884  ROBERT KOCH STATED HIS "POSTULATES" FORROBERT KOCH STATED HIS "POSTULATES" FOR TESTING WHETHER A MICROBE IS THE CAUSALTESTING WHETHER A MICROBE IS THE CAUSAL AGENT OF A DISEASEAGENT OF A DISEASE..  Pasteur developed aPasteur developed a rabies vaccinerabies vaccine..  Christian Gram described the differential staining technique forChristian Gram described the differential staining technique for bacteria known as the Gram stain.bacteria known as the Gram stain.  Gregor Mendel died after 41 years of meticulously studying theGregor Mendel died after 41 years of meticulously studying the heredity "factors" of pea plants. Having received no scientificheredity "factors" of pea plants. Having received no scientific acclaim during his lifetime, he said not long before his death,acclaim during his lifetime, he said not long before his death, "My time will come.""My time will come."
  • 19. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1900 - 1953 - Converging on DNA1900 - 1953 - Converging on DNA  1900 MENDEL’S WORK FINALLY TOOK ON1900 MENDEL’S WORK FINALLY TOOK ON IMPORTANCEIMPORTANCE  The science of genetics was finally born whenThe science of genetics was finally born when Mendel'sMendel's workwork was rediscovered by three scientists - Hugo DeVries, Erich Vonwas rediscovered by three scientists - Hugo DeVries, Erich Von Tschermak, and Carl Correns - each one independentlyTschermak, and Carl Correns - each one independently researching scientific literature for precedents to their ownresearching scientific literature for precedents to their own "original" work."original" work.  1902 HUMAN GENETICS BORN1902 HUMAN GENETICS BORN  Walter Stanborough Sutton stated that chromosomes are pairedWalter Stanborough Sutton stated that chromosomes are paired and may be the carriers of heredity. He suggested that Mendel'sand may be the carriers of heredity. He suggested that Mendel's "factors" are located on chromosomes."factors" are located on chromosomes.
  • 20. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1905 X AND Y CHROMOSOMES RELATED TO1905 X AND Y CHROMOSOMES RELATED TO GENDERGENDER  Edmund Wilson and Nellie Stevens proposed the idea thatEdmund Wilson and Nellie Stevens proposed the idea that separate X and Y chromosomes determine sex. They showedseparate X and Y chromosomes determine sex. They showed that a single Y chromosome determines maleness, and twothat a single Y chromosome determines maleness, and two copies of the X chromosome determine femaleness.copies of the X chromosome determine femaleness.  1905-19081905-1908  William Bateson and Reginald Crudell Punnett, along withWilliam Bateson and Reginald Crudell Punnett, along with others, demonstrated that some genes modify the action of otherothers, demonstrated that some genes modify the action of other genes.genes.  19061906  Paul Erlich investigated atoxyl compounds and discovered thePaul Erlich investigated atoxyl compounds and discovered the beneficial properties of Salvarsan - the first chemotherapeuticbeneficial properties of Salvarsan - the first chemotherapeutic agent.agent.
  • 21. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19071907  Thomas Hunt Morgan began his work with fruit flies that willThomas Hunt Morgan began his work with fruit flies that will prove that chromosomes have a definite function in heredity,prove that chromosomes have a definite function in heredity, establish mutation theory, and lead to a fundamentalestablish mutation theory, and lead to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of heredity.understanding of the mechanisms of heredity.  1909 MENDEL’S LAWS TO ANIMALS1909 MENDEL’S LAWS TO ANIMALS  Wilhelm Johannsen coined the terms 'gene' to describe theWilhelm Johannsen coined the terms 'gene' to describe the carrier of heredity; 'genotype' to describe the genetic constitutioncarrier of heredity; 'genotype' to describe the genetic constitution of an organism; and 'phenotype' to describe the actual organism,of an organism; and 'phenotype' to describe the actual organism, which results from a combination of the genotype and thewhich results from a combination of the genotype and the various environmental factors.various environmental factors.
  • 22. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1910 BASIS OF MODERN GENETICS1910 BASIS OF MODERN GENETICS  Thomas Hunt Morgan proved that genes are carried onThomas Hunt Morgan proved that genes are carried on chromosomes, establishing the basis of modern geneticschromosomes, establishing the basis of modern genetics.. With his co-workers, he pinpointed the location of various fruitWith his co-workers, he pinpointed the location of various fruit fly genes on chromosomes, establishing the use of Drosophilafly genes on chromosomes, establishing the use of Drosophila fruit flies to study heredity..fruit flies to study heredity..  19111911  Thomas Hunt Morgan explained the separation of certainThomas Hunt Morgan explained the separation of certain inherited characteristics that are usually linked as caused by theinherited characteristics that are usually linked as caused by the breaking of chromosomes sometimes during the process of cellbreaking of chromosomes sometimes during the process of cell division. Morgan began to map the positions of genes ondivision. Morgan began to map the positions of genes on chromosomes of the fruit fly.chromosomes of the fruit fly.
  • 23. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19121912  Lawrence Bragg discovered that X-rays can be used toLawrence Bragg discovered that X-rays can be used to study the molecular structure of simplestudy the molecular structure of simple crystalline substances.crystalline substances. 19181918  Herbert M. Evans found (incorrectly) that human cellsHerbert M. Evans found (incorrectly) that human cells contain 48 chromosomescontain 48 chromosomes..  1924 EUGENICS IN THE UNITED STATES1924 EUGENICS IN THE UNITED STATES  Politicians encouraged by the eugenics movement passed thePoliticians encouraged by the eugenics movement passed the U.S. Immigration Act of 1924, limiting the influx of poorlyU.S. Immigration Act of 1924, limiting the influx of poorly educated immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe on theeducated immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe on the grounds of suspected genetic inferiority.grounds of suspected genetic inferiority.
  • 24. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19261926  Thomas Hunt Morgan published 'The theory of theThomas Hunt Morgan published 'The theory of the gene', the culmination of work on the physical basis forgene', the culmination of work on the physical basis for Mendelian genetics based on breeding studies andMendelian genetics based on breeding studies and optical microscopy.optical microscopy.  Hermann Muller discovered that X-rays induceHermann Muller discovered that X-rays induce genetic mutations in fruit flies 1,500 times moregenetic mutations in fruit flies 1,500 times more quickly than under normal circumstances.quickly than under normal circumstances. ThisThis discovery provided researchers with a way to inducediscovery provided researchers with a way to induce mutations, an important tool for discovering whatmutations, an important tool for discovering what genes do on their own.genes do on their own.
  • 25. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19281928  Fredrick Griffiths noticed that a rough type ofFredrick Griffiths noticed that a rough type of bacterium changed to a smooth type when an unknownbacterium changed to a smooth type when an unknown "transforming principle" from the smooth type was"transforming principle" from the smooth type was present. Sixteen years later, Oswald Avery identifiedpresent. Sixteen years later, Oswald Avery identified that "transforming principle" as DNA.that "transforming principle" as DNA.  Alexander Fleming noticed that all the bacteria in aAlexander Fleming noticed that all the bacteria in a radius surrounding a bit of mold in a petrie dish hadradius surrounding a bit of mold in a petrie dish had dieddied. The age of penicillin thus began, although it. The age of penicillin thus began, although it would be almost 15 years before it was madewould be almost 15 years before it was made available to the community for medicinal use.available to the community for medicinal use.
  • 26. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19381938  Proteins and DNA were studied in various labs with X-Proteins and DNA were studied in various labs with X- ray crystallography.ray crystallography.  The term "molecular biology" was coined.The term "molecular biology" was coined.  1941 ONE GENE ONE ENZYME1941 ONE GENE ONE ENZYME  George Beadle and Edward Tatum experimented withGeorge Beadle and Edward Tatum experimented with Neurospora, a mold that grows on bread in the tropics,Neurospora, a mold that grows on bread in the tropics, developing the "one-gene-one-enzyme" hypothesis:developing the "one-gene-one-enzyme" hypothesis: each gene is translated into an enzyme to perform taskseach gene is translated into an enzyme to perform tasks within an organism.within an organism.
  • 27. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19431943  The Rockefeller Foundation, collaborating with theThe Rockefeller Foundation, collaborating with the Mexican government, initiated the Mexican AgriculturalMexican government, initiated the Mexican Agricultural Program. This was the first use of plant breeding asProgram. This was the first use of plant breeding as foreign aid.foreign aid.  1943-19531943-1953  Cortisone was first manufactured in large amounts.Cortisone was first manufactured in large amounts. KIND OF A FIRST BIOTECH PRODUCTKIND OF A FIRST BIOTECH PRODUCT  19441944  Waksman isolatedWaksman isolated streptomycinstreptomycin, an effective antibiotic, an effective antibiotic for TB.for TB.
  • 28. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19451945  The U.N. Food and Agriculture OrganizationThe U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)(FAO) was formed in Quebec, Canada.was formed in Quebec, Canada.  1945 - 19501945 - 1950  CELLS GROWN IN LABCELLS GROWN IN LAB Isolated animal cellIsolated animal cell cultures were grown in laboratories.cultures were grown in laboratories.  19471947  Barbara McClintockBarbara McClintock first reported on "transposablefirst reported on "transposable elements" - known today as "jumping genes." Theelements" - known today as "jumping genes." The scientific community failed to appreciate thescientific community failed to appreciate the significance of her discovery at the time.significance of her discovery at the time.
  • 29. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19501950  Erwin Chargaff found that in DNA the amountsErwin Chargaff found that in DNA the amounts of adenine and thymine are about the same, asof adenine and thymine are about the same, as are the amounts of guanine and cytosine. Theseare the amounts of guanine and cytosine. These relationships are later known asrelationships are later known as "Chargaff's"Chargaff's Rules"Rules" and serve as a key principle for Watsonand serve as a key principle for Watson and Crick in assessing various models for theand Crick in assessing various models for the structure of DNA.structure of DNA. AT ABOUT THE SAME;AT ABOUT THE SAME; GC ABOUT THE SAMEGC ABOUT THE SAME
  • 30. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1953 - 1976: Expanding the Boundaries of DNA1953 - 1976: Expanding the Boundaries of DNA ResearchResearch  The discovery of the structure of DNA resulted in anThe discovery of the structure of DNA resulted in an explosion of research in molecular biology and genetics,explosion of research in molecular biology and genetics, paving the way for the biotechnology revolution.paving the way for the biotechnology revolution.  19531953  Nature magazine publishedNature magazine published James Watson'sJames Watson's and Francisand Francis Crick's manuscript describing the double helix structureCrick's manuscript describing the double helix structure of DNA.of DNA.
  • 31. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19531953  Gey developed the HeLa human cell line.Gey developed the HeLa human cell line. HENRIETTA LACKS- DIED IN 1951 OFHENRIETTA LACKS- DIED IN 1951 OF CERVICAL CANCER- MOTHER OF 5-CERVICAL CANCER- MOTHER OF 5- HER CELLS FIRST SHOWN TO GROWHER CELLS FIRST SHOWN TO GROW OUTSIDE THE BODY FOR EXTENDEDOUTSIDE THE BODY FOR EXTENDED PERIODS- USED TO DEVELOP THEPERIODS- USED TO DEVELOP THE POLIO VACCINEPOLIO VACCINE
  • 32. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1957 CENTRAL DOGMA OF DNA- HOW DNA1957 CENTRAL DOGMA OF DNA- HOW DNA MAKES A PROTEINMAKES A PROTEIN  Francis Crick and George Gamov worked out theFrancis Crick and George Gamov worked out the "central dogma," explaining how DNA functions to"central dogma," explaining how DNA functions to make protein.make protein.  19591959  Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod established theFrancois Jacob and Jacques Monod established the existence of genetic regulation - mappable controlexistence of genetic regulation - mappable control functions located on the chromosome in the DNAfunctions located on the chromosome in the DNA sequence - which they named the repressor and operon.sequence - which they named the repressor and operon.
  • 33. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19621962  Watson and Crick shared the 1962Watson and Crick shared the 1962 Nobel PrizeNobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine with Mauricefor Physiology and Medicine with Maurice Wilkins. Unfortunately,Wilkins. Unfortunately, Rosalind FranklinRosalind Franklin,, whosewhose work greatly contributed to the discoverywork greatly contributed to the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, diedof the double helical structure of DNA, died before this date, and the Nobel Prize rules dobefore this date, and the Nobel Prize rules do not allow a prize to be awarded posthumouslynot allow a prize to be awarded posthumously
  • 34. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1966 GENETIC CODE CRACKED1966 GENETIC CODE CRACKED  The genetic code was "cracked". MarshallThe genetic code was "cracked". Marshall Nirenberg, Heinrich Mathaei, and Severo OchoaNirenberg, Heinrich Mathaei, and Severo Ochoa demonstrated that a sequence of threedemonstrated that a sequence of three nucleotide bases (a codon) determines each ofnucleotide bases (a codon) determines each of 20 amino acids.20 amino acids.
  • 35. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19671967  ArthurArthur KornbergKornberg conducted a studyconducted a study using one strandusing one strand of natural viral DNA to assemble 5,300 nucleotideof natural viral DNA to assemble 5,300 nucleotide building blocks. Kornberg's Stanford group thenbuilding blocks. Kornberg's Stanford group then synthesized infectious viralsynthesized infectious viral DNA.DNA.  19701970  ONCOGENESONCOGENES Peter Duesberg and Peter Vogt,Peter Duesberg and Peter Vogt, virologists at UCSF, discovered the first oncogene in avirologists at UCSF, discovered the first oncogene in a virus. This SRC gene has since been implicated in manyvirus. This SRC gene has since been implicated in many human cancershuman cancers
  • 36. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1972 FIRST RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULE1972 FIRST RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULE  Paul BergPaul Berg isolated and employed a restriction enzyme to cutisolated and employed a restriction enzyme to cut DNA. Berg used ligase to paste two DNA strands together toDNA. Berg used ligase to paste two DNA strands together to form a hybrid circular molecule. This was the firstform a hybrid circular molecule. This was the first recombinant DNArecombinant DNA molecule.molecule.  1972 NIH GUIDELINES FOR RECOMBINANT DNA1972 NIH GUIDELINES FOR RECOMBINANT DNA  In a letter to Science, Stanford biochemist Paul Berg and othersIn a letter to Science, Stanford biochemist Paul Berg and others called for the National Institutes of Health to enact guidelinescalled for the National Institutes of Health to enact guidelines for DNA splicing.. Their concerns eventually led to the 1975for DNA splicing.. Their concerns eventually led to the 1975 Asilomar Conference.Asilomar Conference.
  • 37. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1973 AMES TEST1973 AMES TEST  Bruce Ames, a biochemist at UC Berkeley, developed a test toBruce Ames, a biochemist at UC Berkeley, developed a test to identify chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames Test becomes aidentify chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames Test becomes a widely used method to identify carcinogenic substances.widely used method to identify carcinogenic substances.  1975 RECOMBINANT DNA MORITORIUM1975 RECOMBINANT DNA MORITORIUM  A moratorium on recombinant DNA experiments was called forA moratorium on recombinant DNA experiments was called for at an international meeting at Asilomar, California, whereat an international meeting at Asilomar, California, where scientists urged the government to adopt guidelines regulatingscientists urged the government to adopt guidelines regulating recombinant DNA experimentation. The scientists insisted onrecombinant DNA experimentation. The scientists insisted on the development of "safe" bacteria and plasmids that could notthe development of "safe" bacteria and plasmids that could not escape from the laboratoryescape from the laboratory
  • 38. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1976 MORE ABOUT ONCOGENES1976 MORE ABOUT ONCOGENES  J. Michael BishopJ. Michael Bishop andand HaroldHarold VarmusVarmus, virologists at, virologists at UCSF, showed that oncogenes appear on animalUCSF, showed that oncogenes appear on animal chromosomes, and alterations in their structure orchromosomes, and alterations in their structure or expression can result in cancerous growth.expression can result in cancerous growth.  1976 RELEASE OF NIH GUIDELINES1976 RELEASE OF NIH GUIDELINES  The NIH released the first guidelines for recombinantThe NIH released the first guidelines for recombinant DNA experimentation. The guidelines restricted manyDNA experimentation. The guidelines restricted many categories of experiments.categories of experiments.
  • 39. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1977 - Present: The Dawn of Biotech1977 - Present: The Dawn of Biotech  Genetic engineering became a reality when a man-made gene wasGenetic engineering became a reality when a man-made gene was used to manufacture a human protein in a bacteria for the firstused to manufacture a human protein in a bacteria for the first time. Biotech companies and universities were off to the races,time. Biotech companies and universities were off to the races, and the world would never be the same again. In 1978, in theand the world would never be the same again. In 1978, in the laboratory oflaboratory of Herbert BoyerHerbert Boyer at the University of California at Sanat the University of California at San Francisco, a synthetic version of the human insulin gene wasFrancisco, a synthetic version of the human insulin gene was constructed and inserted into the bacteriumconstructed and inserted into the bacterium Escheria coliEscheria coli. Since. Since that key moment, the trickle of biotechnological developmentsthat key moment, the trickle of biotechnological developments has become a torrent of diagnostic and therapeutic tools,has become a torrent of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, accompanied by ever faster and more powerful DNA sequencingaccompanied by ever faster and more powerful DNA sequencing and cloning techniques.and cloning techniques.
  • 40. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19771977  GenentechGenentech,, Inc., reports the production of the first human proteinInc., reports the production of the first human protein manufactured in a bacteria:manufactured in a bacteria: somatostatinsomatostatin, a human growth, a human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor. For the first time, ahormone-releasing inhibitory factor. For the first time, a synthetic, recombinant gene was used to clone a protein. Manysynthetic, recombinant gene was used to clone a protein. Many consider this to beconsider this to be the advent of thethe advent of the Age of BiotechnologyAge of Biotechnology..  19781978  RECOMBINANT INSULINRECOMBINANT INSULIN Genentech, Inc. and The CityGenentech, Inc. and The City of Hope National Medical Center announced the successfulof Hope National Medical Center announced the successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNAlaboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology.technology.
  • 41. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  1980 PATENTS ALLOWED1980 PATENTS ALLOWED  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in that geneticallyThe U.S. Supreme Court ruled in that genetically altered life forms can be patented a Supreme Courtaltered life forms can be patented a Supreme Court decision in 1980 alloweddecision in 1980 allowed the Exxon oil company tothe Exxon oil company to patent an oil-eating microorganismpatent an oil-eating microorganism..  Kary Mullis and others at Cetus Corporation inKary Mullis and others at Cetus Corporation in Berkeley, California, invented a technique forBerkeley, California, invented a technique for multiplying DNA sequences in vitro by, themultiplying DNA sequences in vitro by, the polymerase chain reactionpolymerase chain reaction (PCR).(PCR). PCRPCR POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONPOLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
  • 42. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19821982  Genentech, Inc.Genentech, Inc. received approval from the Foodreceived approval from the Food and Drug Administration to market geneticallyand Drug Administration to market genetically engineered human insulin. 1982 The U.S. Food andengineered human insulin. 1982 The U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationDrug Administration approves the first geneticallyapproves the first genetically engineered drug, a form of human insulin produced byengineered drug, a form of human insulin produced by bacteria.bacteria.  Michael Smith at the University of British Columbia,Michael Smith at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, developed a procedure for making preciseVancouver, developed a procedure for making precise amino acid changes anywhere in a protein.amino acid changes anywhere in a protein. SITESITE DIRECTED MUTAGENESISDIRECTED MUTAGENESIS
  • 43. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19831983  Eli Lilly received a license to make insulin.Eli Lilly received a license to make insulin.  19851985  Genetic fingerprinting enters theGenetic fingerprinting enters the court room.court room.  Cal Bio cloned the gene that encodes humanCal Bio cloned the gene that encodes human lunglung surfactant proteinsurfactant protein, a major step toward reducing a, a major step toward reducing a premature birth complication.premature birth complication.  Genetically engineered plants resistantGenetically engineered plants resistant to insects,to insects, viruses, and bacteria were field tested for the first time.viruses, and bacteria were field tested for the first time.  The NIH approved guidelines for performingThe NIH approved guidelines for performing experiments inexperiments in gene therapy on humans.gene therapy on humans.
  • 44. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19861986  The FDA granted a license for theThe FDA granted a license for the first recombinant vaccinefirst recombinant vaccine (for hepatitis) to Chiron Corp.(for hepatitis) to Chiron Corp.  The EPA approved the release of the first genetically engineeredThe EPA approved the release of the first genetically engineered crop,crop, gene-altered tobacco plants.gene-altered tobacco plants.  19871987  Calgene, Inc. received a patent for the tomato polygalacturonaseCalgene, Inc. received a patent for the tomato polygalacturonase DNA sequence, used to produce an antisense RNA sequenceDNA sequence, used to produce an antisense RNA sequence that can extend thethat can extend the shelf-life of fruitshelf-life of fruit..
  • 45. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19881988  Harvard molecular geneticists Philip Leder andHarvard molecular geneticists Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart awarded the first patent for aTimothy Stewart awarded the first patent for a genetically altered animal, a mousegenetically altered animal, a mouse that is highlythat is highly susceptible to breast cancer.susceptible to breast cancer.  19901990  UCSF and Stanford University were issued their 100thUCSF and Stanford University were issued their 100th recombinant DNA patent license. By the end of fiscalrecombinant DNA patent license. By the end of fiscal 1991, both campuses had earned $40 million from the1991, both campuses had earned $40 million from the patent.patent. PATENTS AND MONEYPATENTS AND MONEY
  • 46. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19901990  The first gene therapy takes place, on a four-year-old girl with anThe first gene therapy takes place, on a four-year-old girl with an immune-system disorder called ADA deficiency. The therapyimmune-system disorder called ADA deficiency. The therapy appeared to work, but set off a fury of discussion of ethics bothappeared to work, but set off a fury of discussion of ethics both in academia and in the media.in academia and in the media.  The Human Genome Project, the international effort to map allThe Human Genome Project, the international effort to map all of the genes in the human body, was launched. Estimated cost:of the genes in the human body, was launched. Estimated cost: $13 billion. 1990 Formal launch of the international Human$13 billion. 1990 Formal launch of the international Human Genome Project.Genome Project.  Publication of Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, in whichPublication of Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, in which bioengineered dinosaurs roam a paleontological theme park; thebioengineered dinosaurs roam a paleontological theme park; the experiment goes awry, with deadly results.experiment goes awry, with deadly results.
  • 47. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19921992  The U.S. Army begins collecting blood andThe U.S. Army begins collecting blood and tissuetissue samples from all new recruits as part of asamples from all new recruits as part of a "genetic dog tag" program aimed at better"genetic dog tag" program aimed at better identification of soldiers killed in combat.identification of soldiers killed in combat.  19931993  Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize inKary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for inventing the technology ofChemistry for inventing the technology of polymerase chain reaction (polymerase chain reaction (PCRPCR).).
  • 48. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19941994  The first genetically engineered food product, the Flavr SavrThe first genetically engineered food product, the Flavr Savr tomato, gained FDA approval.tomato, gained FDA approval.  The first crude but thorough linkage map of the human genomeThe first crude but thorough linkage map of the human genome appears.(See Science, v.265, Sep.30, '94, for the full color pull-appears.(See Science, v.265, Sep.30, '94, for the full color pull- out).out).  19951995  A new coalition of mainstream religions launched a campaignA new coalition of mainstream religions launched a campaign seeking to overturn current laws allowing the patenting of genesseeking to overturn current laws allowing the patenting of genes used for medical and research applications. The group alsoused for medical and research applications. The group also includes Jeremy Rifkin, the controversial and outspoken critic ofincludes Jeremy Rifkin, the controversial and outspoken critic of the biotechnology industry.the biotechnology industry. SHOULD PATENTS BESHOULD PATENTS BE ALLOWED?ALLOWED?
  • 49. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19961996  A new inexpensive diagnostic biosensor test for the first timeA new inexpensive diagnostic biosensor test for the first time allow instantaneous detection of the toxic strain of E. coli E. coliallow instantaneous detection of the toxic strain of E. coli E. coli strain 0157:H7, the bacteria responsible for several recent food-strain 0157:H7, the bacteria responsible for several recent food- poisoning outbreaks.poisoning outbreaks. CAN IT BE DONE FOR ANTRAXCAN IT BE DONE FOR ANTRAX OR OTHER BIOTERRORISM AGENTS?OR OTHER BIOTERRORISM AGENTS?  The discovery of a gene associated with Parkinson's diseaseThe discovery of a gene associated with Parkinson's disease provides an important new avenue of research into the cause andprovides an important new avenue of research into the cause and potential treatment of the debilitating neurological ailment.potential treatment of the debilitating neurological ailment.  Surveys indicate the public regards research into the workings ofSurveys indicate the public regards research into the workings of the human genome and gene therapy with a combination of fearthe human genome and gene therapy with a combination of fear and mistrustand mistrust
  • 50. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19971997  Researchers at Scotland's Roslin Institute report thatResearchers at Scotland's Roslin Institute report that theythey have cloned a sheep--named Dolly-have cloned a sheep--named Dolly--from the-from the cell of an adult ewe. Polly the first sheep cloned bycell of an adult ewe. Polly the first sheep cloned by nuclear transfer technology bearing a human genenuclear transfer technology bearing a human gene appears later.appears later. Nuclear transfer involves transferringNuclear transfer involves transferring the complete genetic material (the DNA containedthe complete genetic material (the DNA contained in a nucleus) from one cell into an unfertilized eggin a nucleus) from one cell into an unfertilized egg cell whose own nucleus has been removed.cell whose own nucleus has been removed.  ..
  • 51. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19981998  Two researchTwo research teams succeed in growing embryonicteams succeed in growing embryonic stem cells, the long sought grail of molecularstem cells, the long sought grail of molecular biology.biology.  Scientists at Japan's Kinki University clone eightScientists at Japan's Kinki University clone eight identical calves using cells taken from a single adultidentical calves using cells taken from a single adult cow.cow.  A rough draft of the human genome map is produced,A rough draft of the human genome map is produced, showing the locations of more than 30,000 genes.showing the locations of more than 30,000 genes.
  • 52. Biotechnology Time LinesBiotechnology Time Lines  19991999  MAD COW DISEASEMAD COW DISEASEA new medicalA new medical diagnostic test will for the first time allow quickdiagnostic test will for the first time allow quick identification of BSE/CJD a rare but devastatingidentification of BSE/CJD a rare but devastating form of neurologic disease transmitted fromform of neurologic disease transmitted from cattle to humans.cattle to humans.
  • 53. Biotechnology StatsBiotechnology Stats  Some biotech statistics:Some biotech statistics:  2001: 200,000 employees, $30 billion in revenues;2001: 200,000 employees, $30 billion in revenues; 1450 total companies and 350 public companies1450 total companies and 350 public companies  1992: 80,000 employees, $8.1 billion in revenues;1992: 80,000 employees, $8.1 billion in revenues; about same # companiesabout same # companies  Compensation in biotechnology companies isCompensation in biotechnology companies is competitive and includes incentives, such as stockcompetitive and includes incentives, such as stock option plans, 401K plans, company-wide stockoption plans, 401K plans, company-wide stock purchase plans, and cash bonus plans.purchase plans, and cash bonus plans.
  • 54. Approved Biotech ProductsApproved Biotech Products  1938: Howard Florey/Ernst Chain, Oxford U.,1938: Howard Florey/Ernst Chain, Oxford U., England isolated penicillinEngland isolated penicillin  1940-1945: Large scale production of penicillin1940-1945: Large scale production of penicillin  1943-1953: Cortisone first manufactured in large1943-1953: Cortisone first manufactured in large amountsamounts  1977: Genentech produced somatostatin (human1977: Genentech produced somatostatin (human growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor),growth hormone-releasing inhibitory factor), manufactured in bacteria. First time a recombinant genemanufactured in bacteria. First time a recombinant gene was used to clone a protein.was used to clone a protein.  1978: Harvard researchers produced rat insulin by1978: Harvard researchers produced rat insulin by recombinant DNA.recombinant DNA.
  • 55. Approved Biotech ProductsApproved Biotech Products  1982: FDA approves genetically engineered1982: FDA approves genetically engineered human insulinhuman insulin  1986: Orthoclone OKT3 (Muromonab-CD3)1986: Orthoclone OKT3 (Muromonab-CD3) approved for reversal of kidney transplantapproved for reversal of kidney transplant rejection.rejection.  1986: first recombinant vaccine approved-1986: first recombinant vaccine approved- hepatitishepatitis  1987: Genentech gets approval for rt-PA (tissue1987: Genentech gets approval for rt-PA (tissue plasminogen activatior) for heart attacksplasminogen activatior) for heart attacks
  • 56. Approved Biotech ProductsApproved Biotech Products  1990: Actimmune (interferon 1b) approved for1990: Actimmune (interferon 1b) approved for chronic granulomatous diseasechronic granulomatous disease  Adagen (adenosine deaminase) approved forAdagen (adenosine deaminase) approved for severe combined immunodeficiency diseasesevere combined immunodeficiency disease  1994: first genetically engineered food the Flavr1994: first genetically engineered food the Flavr Savr tomato is approved.Savr tomato is approved.  1994: Genentech’s Nutropin is approved1994: Genentech’s Nutropin is approved (growth hormone deficiency)(growth hormone deficiency)
  • 57. Approved Biotech ProductsApproved Biotech Products  1994: Centocor’s ReoPro approved (for patients1994: Centocor’s ReoPro approved (for patients undergoing balloon angioplasty)undergoing balloon angioplasty)  Genzymes Ceredase/Cerezyme approved forGenzymes Ceredase/Cerezyme approved for Gaucher’s Disease (inherited metabolic disease)Gaucher’s Disease (inherited metabolic disease)  Recombinant GM-CSF approvedRecombinant GM-CSF approved (chemotherapy induced neutropenia)(chemotherapy induced neutropenia) • 1998: Centocor’s RemicadeTM approved1998: Centocor’s RemicadeTM approved (monoclonal antibody for Crohn’s disease)(monoclonal antibody for Crohn’s disease)
  • 58. Focus on “Famous” BiotechFocus on “Famous” Biotech Product: InsulinProduct: Insulin  Insulin:Insulin:  Insulin is a hormone, and therefore, a protein.Insulin is a hormone, and therefore, a protein.     Insulin was the first hormone identifiedInsulin was the first hormone identified (late 1920's) which(late 1920's) which won the doctor and medical student who discovered it the Nobelwon the doctor and medical student who discovered it the Nobel Prize (Banting and Best). Prize (Banting and Best).   They discovered insulin by tying a string around the pancreaticThey discovered insulin by tying a string around the pancreatic duct of several dogs. duct of several dogs.   Note that there are other hormones produced by different typesNote that there are other hormones produced by different types of cells within pancreatic islets (glucagon, somatostatin, etc) butof cells within pancreatic islets (glucagon, somatostatin, etc) but insulin is produced in far greater amounts under normalinsulin is produced in far greater amounts under normal conditions making the simple approach used by Banting andconditions making the simple approach used by Banting and Best quite successful.Best quite successful.
  • 59. Properties of InsulinProperties of Insulin  Insulin is secreted by groups of cells within theInsulin is secreted by groups of cells within the pancreas called islet cells.pancreas called islet cells.  The pancreas is an organ that sits behind the stomachThe pancreas is an organ that sits behind the stomach and has many functions in addition to insulinand has many functions in addition to insulin production.production.  The pancreas also produces digestive enzymes andThe pancreas also produces digestive enzymes and other.other.  Without insulin, you can eat lots of food and actually beWithout insulin, you can eat lots of food and actually be in a state of starvation since many of our cells cannotin a state of starvation since many of our cells cannot access the calories contained in the glucose very wellaccess the calories contained in the glucose very well without the action of insulin.without the action of insulin.
  • 60. Insulin (cont’d)Insulin (cont’d)  The first successful insulin preparationsThe first successful insulin preparations came from cows (and later pigs)came from cows (and later pigs).  The.  The pancreatic islets and the insulin proteinpancreatic islets and the insulin protein contained within them were isolated fromcontained within them were isolated from animals slaughtered for food in a similar butanimals slaughtered for food in a similar but more complex fashion than was used by ourmore complex fashion than was used by our doctor and med-student duo. doctor and med-student duo. 
  • 61. Biotech ApplicationsBiotech Applications  DiagnosticsDiagnostics  AntibodiesAntibodies  BiosensorsBiosensors  PCRPCR  TherapeuticsTherapeutics  Natural ProductsNatural Products  Foxglove:Foxglove:  digitalis: heart conditionsdigitalis: heart conditions  Yew tree- cancer agent (taxol) breast and ovarian cancersYew tree- cancer agent (taxol) breast and ovarian cancers  Endogenous Therapeutic agents – proteins produced by theEndogenous Therapeutic agents – proteins produced by the body that can be replicated by genetically engineered: tPA –body that can be replicated by genetically engineered: tPA – tissue plasminogen factor (dissolves blood clots)tissue plasminogen factor (dissolves blood clots)
  • 62. Biotech ApplicationsBiotech Applications  Biopolymers and Medical Devices- naturalBiopolymers and Medical Devices- natural substances useful as medical devicessubstances useful as medical devices  hyaluronate- an elastic, plastic like substance used to treathyaluronate- an elastic, plastic like substance used to treat arthritis, prevent postsurgical scarring in cataract surgery,arthritis, prevent postsurgical scarring in cataract surgery, used for drug deliveryused for drug delivery  adhesive substances to replace stitchesadhesive substances to replace stitches  Designer Drugs – using computerDesigner Drugs – using computer modeling to design drugs without the lab-modeling to design drugs without the lab- protein structureprotein structure
  • 63. Biotech ApplicationsBiotech Applications  Replacement Therapies- lack of productionReplacement Therapies- lack of production of normal substancesof normal substances  Factor VIII- missing in hemophiliaFactor VIII- missing in hemophilia  InsulinInsulin  Use of Transgenic Animals and PlantsUse of Transgenic Animals and Plants
  • 64. Biotech ApplicationsBiotech Applications  Gene Therapy – replace defective genes withGene Therapy – replace defective genes with functional onesfunctional ones  ADA (adenosine deaminase) deficiencyADA (adenosine deaminase) deficiency  cystic fibrosiscystic fibrosis  Immunosuppressive Therapies – used to inhibitImmunosuppressive Therapies – used to inhibit rejection (organ transplants)rejection (organ transplants)  Cancer Therapies -one method is antisenseCancer Therapies -one method is antisense technologytechnology  Vaccines – biggest break through inVaccines – biggest break through in biotechnology- prevention of diseasebiotechnology- prevention of disease

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