ENU 6659 Intro

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ENU 6659 Intro

  1. 1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of (injected) radio- labeled pharmaceuticals
  2. 2. Emission Tomography 3D nuclear medicine imaging • SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography • PET: positron emission tomography
  3. 3. # PET systems / pop. million# PET systems / pop. million 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CA TX NY FL IL PA OH MI GA NJ NC IMV 2005/2006 Market Summary ReportIMV 2005/2006 Market Summary Report
  4. 4. •Bone scan •Tc-99m •anterior/posterior views
  5. 5. Nuclear medicine (PET and SPECT) provides images related to the body’s Function (physiology) compared with x-ray images that are related to the body’s Anatomy (physical properties)
  6. 6. Brain metabolism imaging w/ PET
  7. 7. Normal Perfusion defect Myocardial Perfusion Imaging w/ SPECT
  8. 8. PET Brain ImagesPET Brain Images
  9. 9. Alzheimer’s Disease with PETAlzheimer’s Disease with PET normal diseased
  10. 10. Molecular Imaging µmoles / min / ml of tissue
  11. 11. F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) (PET metabolism tracer)(PET metabolism tracer)
  12. 12. Advances in SPECT gamma camerasAdvances in SPECT gamma cameras 1980 1985 1990 dual head (fixed 180) single head triple head (fixed 120)
  13. 13. 1990 1995 2000 Advances in SPECT gamma camerasAdvances in SPECT gamma cameras dual head (fixed 90) dual head (variable angle) triple head (variable angle)
  14. 14. SPECT InstrumentationSPECT Instrumentation
  15. 15. transmission emission No collimator
  16. 16. transmission emission With collimator
  17. 17. AnnihilationAnnihilation (simple)(simple) conservation of momentum: before: system at rest; momentum ~ 0 after: two photons created; must have same energy and travel in opposite direction. conservation of energy before: 2 electrons, each with a rest mass of 511keV after: 2 photons, each with 511keV. γ γ β− β+ decay via positron emission electron/positron annihilation annihilation photon annihilation photon PET PhysicsPET Physics
  18. 18. Coincidence EventCoincidence Event ±τ Annihilation location
  19. 19. Time-of-Flight PETTime-of-Flight PET Annihilation location d1 d2 ∆t = (d2-d1)/c ∆t x = ∆t·c/2 Detector midpoint x = 2x/c
  20. 20. PET InstrumentationPET Instrumentation
  21. 21. PET/CTPET/CT
  22. 22. PET PET/CT
  23. 23. ET Detectors (i.e. Cameras)ET Detectors (i.e. Cameras) Needs:  High count rate capability (short T1/2 emitters)  Efficiency (511 keV)  Energy resolution (scatter rejection)  Low cost
  24. 24. Detector MaterialsDetector Materials Scintillators • NaI • BGO • LSO Semiconductors • CdZnTe
  25. 25. Cardiac perfusion imaging:Cardiac perfusion imaging: Attenuation effectsAttenuation effects Without attenuation correction With attenuation correction

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