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ENU 6659 Intro

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  • 1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of (injected) radio- labeled pharmaceuticals
  • 2. Emission Tomography 3D nuclear medicine imaging • SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography • PET: positron emission tomography
  • 3. # PET systems / pop. million# PET systems / pop. million 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CA TX NY FL IL PA OH MI GA NJ NC IMV 2005/2006 Market Summary ReportIMV 2005/2006 Market Summary Report
  • 4. •Bone scan •Tc-99m •anterior/posterior views
  • 5. Nuclear medicine (PET and SPECT) provides images related to the body’s Function (physiology) compared with x-ray images that are related to the body’s Anatomy (physical properties)
  • 6. Brain metabolism imaging w/ PET
  • 7. Normal Perfusion defect Myocardial Perfusion Imaging w/ SPECT
  • 8. PET Brain ImagesPET Brain Images
  • 9. Alzheimer’s Disease with PETAlzheimer’s Disease with PET normal diseased
  • 10. Molecular Imaging µmoles / min / ml of tissue
  • 11. F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) (PET metabolism tracer)(PET metabolism tracer)
  • 12. Advances in SPECT gamma camerasAdvances in SPECT gamma cameras 1980 1985 1990 dual head (fixed 180) single head triple head (fixed 120)
  • 13. 1990 1995 2000 Advances in SPECT gamma camerasAdvances in SPECT gamma cameras dual head (fixed 90) dual head (variable angle) triple head (variable angle)
  • 14. SPECT InstrumentationSPECT Instrumentation
  • 15. transmission emission No collimator
  • 16. transmission emission With collimator
  • 17. AnnihilationAnnihilation (simple)(simple) conservation of momentum: before: system at rest; momentum ~ 0 after: two photons created; must have same energy and travel in opposite direction. conservation of energy before: 2 electrons, each with a rest mass of 511keV after: 2 photons, each with 511keV. γ γ β− β+ decay via positron emission electron/positron annihilation annihilation photon annihilation photon PET PhysicsPET Physics
  • 18. Coincidence EventCoincidence Event ±τ Annihilation location
  • 19. Time-of-Flight PETTime-of-Flight PET Annihilation location d1 d2 ∆t = (d2-d1)/c ∆t x = ∆t·c/2 Detector midpoint x = 2x/c
  • 20. PET InstrumentationPET Instrumentation
  • 21. PET/CTPET/CT
  • 22. PET PET/CT
  • 23. ET Detectors (i.e. Cameras)ET Detectors (i.e. Cameras) Needs:  High count rate capability (short T1/2 emitters)  Efficiency (511 keV)  Energy resolution (scatter rejection)  Low cost
  • 24. Detector MaterialsDetector Materials Scintillators • NaI • BGO • LSO Semiconductors • CdZnTe
  • 25. Cardiac perfusion imaging:Cardiac perfusion imaging: Attenuation effectsAttenuation effects Without attenuation correction With attenuation correction

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