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Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology (1,6 MB)

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  • 1. 1 Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology Andrej Stritar “Jožef Stefan” Institute Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia IAEA Seminar, Ankara, 1-3 November 2001
  • 2. Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology • This is very broad subject! • What should I be talking about? – Need for the research and knowledge? – Decrease of governmental support for nuclear? – Negative public perception? – Grey hear of us? – No interest among young people? – Safety concerns because of the loss of competence?
  • 3. Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology • Why could I speak about that? • I am – Head of the Nuclear Training Centre at – “Jožef Stefan” Institute in Ljubljana • I am also – President of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia – President-elect of the European Nuclear Society • …and I have substantial experience in co- operating with IAEA and other organizations
  • 4. Slovenia, the smallest nuclear country K o p e r P o s t o j n a C e l j e L j u b lj a n a N o v o M e s t o K o e v j e Z a g r e b M a r ib o r K r a n j B l e d N o v a G o r i c a T r i e s t e A d r i a ti c S e a K l a g e n f u r t H R I A H
  • 5. How come we are Nuclear? • Used to be Yugoslavia • Nuclear program started in 1950 • Nuclear Institutes were formed in: – Belgrade – Zagreb – Ljubljana – “Jožef Stefan” Institute
  • 6. Jožef Stefan Institute • First it was only nuclear • In 1966 TRIGA reactor constructed • It is still operable
  • 7. Jožef Stefan Institute • In mid sixties need for nuclear has changed • End of financing by federal government • Restructuring was a must! • NEW RESEARCH FIELDS WERE INTRODUCED
  • 8. Jožef Stefan Institute today T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h y s ic s T h in F ilm s a n d S u r f a c e s S o lid S t a t e P h y s ic s R e a c t o r P h y s ic s E x p e r im e n t a l P a r t ic le P h y s ic s P h y s ic s A u t o m a t io n , B io c y b e r n e t ic s a n d R o b o t ic s C o m p u t e r A u t o m a t io n a n d C o n t r o l O p e n S y s t e m s a n d N e t w o r k s C o m p u t e r S y s t e m s D ig it a l C o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d N e t w o r k s I n t e l lig e n t S y s t e m s E l e c t r o n ic s a n d IT P h y s ic a l a n d O r g a n ic C h e m is t r y I n o r g a n ic C h e m is t r y a n d T e c h n o lo g y C e r a m ic s B io c h e m is t r y a n d M o le c u la r B io lo g y E n v ir o n m e n t a l S c ie n c e s C h e m i s t r y a n d B io c h e m i s t r y R e a c t o r E n g in e e r in g T R I G A N u c le a r T r a in in g C e n t r e E n e r g y E f f ic ie n c y C e n t r e R e a c t o r T e c h n iq u e s a n d E n e r g y D ir e c t o r About 740 employees, out of that 300 PhDs
  • 9. Jožef Stefan Institute today About 100 in nuclear T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h y s ic s T h i n F i lm s a n d S u r f a c e s S o l id S t a t e P h y s ic s R e a c t o r P h y s ic s E x p e r im e n t a l P a r t ic l e P h y s i c s P h y s ic s A u t o m a t io n , B io c y b e r n e t i c s a n d R o b o t ic s C o m p u t e r A u t o m a t i o n a n d C o n t r o l O p e n S y s t e m s a n d N e t w o r k s C o m p u t e r S y s t e m s D i g it a l C o m m u n i c a t io n s a n d N e t w o r k s I n t e ll ig e n t S y s t e m s E le c t r o n ic s a n d IT P h y s ic a l a n d O r g a n i c C h e m is t r y I n o r g a n i c C h e m is t r y a n d T e c h n o lo g y C e r a m i c s B i o c h e m is t r y a n d M o le c u l a r B io lo g y E n v ir o n m e n t a l S c ie n c e s C h e m is t r y a n d B io c h e m is t r y R e a c t o r E n g i n e e r i n g T R I G A N u c l e a r T r a i n in g C e n t r e E n e r g y E f f i c ie n c y C e n t r e R e a c t o r T e c h n iq u e s a n d E n e r g y D ir e c t o r
  • 10. Jožef Stefan Institute financing • Institute – ~80% from research projects • Nuclear part – ~50% from research projects • Nuclear Training Centre – 0% from the state budget
  • 11. Why do we need nuclear research? • NPP Krško • Medicine applications • Industrial applications • Support to regulatory bodies
  • 12. NPP Krško • Westinghouse PWR • Two loop • 656 MWe • Commercial operation 1983
  • 13. NPP Krško role in Slovenian electricity supply Hydro 31% Fossil 43% NPP 26% Power 2395 MW Hydro 28% Fossil 34% NPP 38% Energy 11475 GWh
  • 14. Nuclear Education and Training • Slovenia never had undergraduate nuclear education • 2 Graduate Schools • 4-6 Ms.C. per year • Training for NPP Krško well developed What is the difference between education and training? You probably don’t react if your child comes from school and says: “We had education about sex today.” You react differently if he says: “We had training in sex today!”
  • 15. W e e k ly E x a m s T h e o r e tic a l T r a in in g H ig h S c h o o l o r C o lle g e G r a d u a te I n t e r n a l E x a m W e e k ly E x a m s T r a in in g a b o u t N P P S y s t e m s I n t e r n a l E x a m 1 6 w e e k s o f S im u la t o r T r a in in g I n t e r n a l S im u la t o r E x a m O n - t h e jo b T r a in in g a n d S e lf s t u d y ( 6 m o n t h s t o 1 y e a r ) 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m A t le a s t 1 m o n th s e lf tr a in in g D u b b in g in t h e M C R ( 2 - 3 m o n t h s ) W o r k a s R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 1 y e a r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m 7 d a y S im u la t o r R e f r e s h e r S im u la t o r E x a m 1 - 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m W o r k a s R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 7 d a y S im u la to r R e f r e s h e r S im u la t o r E x a m 1 y e a r 1 - 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e 3 d a y s R a d io lo g ic a l P r o t e c t io n S t a t e E x a m 5 y e a r s 1 - 4 y e a r s W o r k a s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 7 d a y S im u la t o r R e f r e s h e r S im u la to r E x a m 1 y e a r 3 d a y s R a d io lo g ic a l P r o t e c t io n S t a t e E x a m 5 y e a r s 1 - 4 y e a r s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m W o r k a s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r ( 1 y e a r ) 1 - 2 w e e k s R e fr e s h e r C o u r s e A t le a s t 1 m o n t h s e lf t r a in in g A t le a s t 1 m o n th s e lf t r a in in g Selectionof MCR Personnel O th e r d u t ie s 4 , 5 m o n t h s 4 , 5 m o n t h s S t a t e E x a m in R P Control Room Operator Training in Slovenia Complete System
  • 16. Nuclear Training Centre
  • 17. Areas of activity • Training for Krško NPP • Radiological protection training • International courses • Public information
  • 18. Staff and organization • Only 12 people • 7 professionals • No financing from the government • NPP finances just about 2/3 of activities • We were forced to find new sources.
  • 19. Radiological protection • Commercial: – About 3000 people in Slovenia must be licensed – We are authorized to provide training
  • 20. Public Information • Central visitors centre • Well recognized • NPP approved additional funding • Funding also by the Radwaste Agency • About 7500 visitors per year
  • 21. International Training Courses Vision of our Nuclear Training Centre: To be internationally recognized as a good source of knowledge in the nuclear area
  • 22. IAEA - Outsourcing • Long History of IAEA events in Ljubljana (more than 70) • Outsourcing – a method of sharing the implementation burden for IAEA activities: – Most of organizational work is done by us.
  • 23. Outsourcing – why do it? • Challenge • Logical way towards the independent competence of our NTC • We wish to become internationally recognized • At some point we wish to become independent from IAEA
  • 24. Outsourcing - problems • Finances • Taxes • Visas • Transportation • Hotels • Insurance
  • 25. Outsourcing – crucial things • Internal implementation procedures • Three implementing crews available – (workshop coordinator, workshop administrator) • Strong cooperation with authorities • QA/QC procedures • Computerized support
  • 26. Outsourcing - results • Improved capabilities of NTC • Beneficial for everybody involved – Labor cost in Slovenia is lower than at IAEA – IAEA has more time and funds for other things
  • 27. Outsourcing – friendly advice • It is not easy… • …but it is fun! • Do it, if you find it challenging • Don't do it, if you hate organizational work…
  • 28. Outsourcing – friendly advice …because at some point you will be asking yourself why you have studied engineering, when you have to deal with bureaucrats most of your time!
  • 29. Why we have problems with the sustainability of nuclear research? • No major developments in research • Most of nuclear activities are routine • Other, more challenging technologies • No nuclear power expansion • NEGATIVE PUBLIC PERCEPTION!
  • 30. Isn’t negative perception also our fault? • We are not aware of our performance! • We most of the time just complain over bad destiny. • But facts are on our side!
  • 31. History of Primary Energy World primary energy consumption growth 1990-2000 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 comparedto1990 Coal Nuclear Oil Hydro Gas Total
  • 32. History of Primary Energy World primary energy consumption growth 1990-2000 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 comparedto1990 Coal Nuclear Oil Hydro Gas Total
  • 33. Future of Nuclear Power World NPP power - future 300 325 350 375 400 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 TW
  • 34. Turkey: Change in primary energy sources and carbon releases 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 130% 140% 150% Coal Oil Gas Hydro Ceq release
  • 35. BSEC: Change in primary energy sources and carbon releases 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% Coal Oil Gas Hydro Ceq release Nuclear
  • 36. Germany: Change in fossile fuels use, carbon releases and nuclear energy use 0% 5000% 10000% 15000% 20000% 25000% 30000% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% Coal Oil Gas Ceq release Nuclear
  • 37. World: Change in fossile fuels use, carbon releases and nuclear energy use 0% 100000% 200000% 300000% 400000% 500000% 600000% 700000% 800000% 900000% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% Coal Oil Gas Ceq release Nuclear
  • 38. Silver lining! • Energy program of president Bush. • Import of waste to Russia! • Finland – (waste repository, fifth unit) • UK • PBMR • Generation IV
  • 39. For the end • So, what to do with sustainability, education and training in nuclear? • Stress the benefits an facts to public! • Find challenging and commercial applications • Think and act globally.