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Dr. Ferrari's power poin

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  • 1. Using Chemistry in Medicine Norman Ferrari, MD West Virginia University School of Medicine
  • 2. West Virginia University Eberly College of Arts and Sciences Bennett Department of Chemistry Lecture 2008 Professor and Senior Associate Dean Board Certified in two specialties Pediatrics Internal Medicine
  • 3. How did I get there ……. • Completed the 24th grade – 8 primary, 4 high school, 4 college, 4 med school, 4 residency • Years 13 to 16 were studying chemistry • Years 17 to 24 refining my use of chemistry • Beyond the 24th grade – Using chemistry to improve health of patients – Using chemistry to prepare future physicians
  • 4. Medical Education • Long process • College experience – At least 90 credit hours – 44 hours are for specific content – 16 hours are chemistry • 8 each of inorganic and organic • Doctoral Degree – 4 years • Post graduate Residency Training – Specialty specific – 3 years to 8 years
  • 5. Question • What is the most important academic preparation for a career in medicine ?
  • 6. Requirements for admission to MD Programs …….. • Chemistry is the most required undergraduate subject area – Inorganic and Organic
  • 7. Requirements for admission to MD programs ……. • Do NOT require Chem – Northwestern – SIU – U Miss – KC – NEOCOM – U Cincinatti – U Penn – MUSC • Do NOT require Org Ch – Northwestern – SIU – U Miss – KC – U Cincinnati – U Penn – MUSC Have NO course requirements NEOCOM does require Org Ch and Physics
  • 8. Requirements for admission to MD programs …. • MCAT ……… PS section – 4 schools do not require MCAT • U Miss – KC • Dartmouth • Brown • Meharry
  • 9. MCAT results ………. • MCAT ……… PS section • U Miss – KC [no data] • Dartmouth 8 to 15, mean 11 • Brown 8 to 15, mean 12 • Meharry 5 to 12, mean 7
  • 10. MCAT results • Scores for schools that do not require Chem – Northwestern …….. 12 – SIU …………………. 10 – U Miss – KC ……… NR – NEOCOM …………. 9 – U Cincinnati ………. 11 – U Penn ……………. 12 – MUSC ……………… 9
  • 11. Uses of Chemistry in Practice of Medicine • Stoichiometry • Electrochemistry • Gas laws and diffusion • Solubility • Kinetics • Acid-Base • Metals • Nuclear Chemistry
  • 12. Stoichiometry • Management of fluids and electrolytes • Solutions – Normal Saline: 154 mEq Na+ / L – D10W: 10% glucose solution • Volume of fluids – 100 cc/Kg/day for first 10 Kg …… • Electrolytes – Current concentrations to needed concentrations
  • 13. Electrochemistry • Na+ ions have higher concentrations outside cell membrane via Na+/K+ pump • Electrical gradient across the cell membrane of -70 mV • Nerve conduction and action potentials
  • 14. Gas laws and diffusion • O2 and CO2 diffuse in alveoli in lungs and the capillary beds in tissues until they reach equilibrium
  • 15. Solubility • Will certain chemicals be able to diffuse through the cell membrane lipid bilayer • How will the concentration of chemicals (drugs) be distributed through body tissues that are aqueous verses lipid • What tissues do you want the drug to be highly concentrated …..
  • 16. Kinetics • How rapidly are chemicals we give patients degraded in the body • Half life of drugs
  • 17. Acid-Base • pH balance to maintain homestasis • Buffers in the body – HCO3 -
  • 18. Metals • Iron – Hemoglobin and O2 transport • Copper – Immune system health • Zinc – Wound healing, smell and taste
  • 19. Nuclear chemistry • Isotopes used for imaging studies – Technetium Tc99 • Emission of gamma rays • Isotopes used for therapy – Radioactive Iodine I131
  • 20. Hidden Curriculum in Chemistry • Problem solving skills • Data gathering skills • Critical thinking skills • Time management skills • Good work ethic
  • 21. In my humble opinion …… Chemistry is the most important science in the preparation for a career in medicine ……….