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    Download the Presentation - Office of the Vice President for ... Download the Presentation - Office of the Vice President for ... Presentation Transcript

    • Stem Cells: Myths, Facts, and Ethics Xinyu Zhao PhD Assistant Professor UNM School of Medicine Department of Neuroscience
    • The ethical hot spots of stem cell research
      • Human embryonic stem cells isolated from blastocyst stage human embryos
      • Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells.
    • Part I: The myths and facts of stem cell research Part II: The ethics of stem cell research
      • Definition of stem cells:
      • Self-renewal
      • Multi-potency
    • Lineage restricted Limited self-renewal Totipotent Totipotent Totipotent
    • Differences between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells
      • They have different self-renewal capabilities
        • Embryonic stem cells: near indefinite self-renewal
        • Adult stem cells: limited self-renewal
      • They have different differentiation potentials
        • . Embryonic stem cells: differentiate into all cell types in an organism
        • Adult stem cells: differentiate into restricted cells types.
      • They differ in how they respond to external stimuli
        • Embryonic stem cells are readily to change upon stimulation
        • Adult cells emphasize on stability and need to be activated by cues, e.g. injuries.
    • Pluripotent ES cells Source of ES cells
    • Human ES cells Human blastocyst Inner cell mass Mouse fibroblasts feeder layer
    • Differentiation ES cells
    •  
    • Applications of Human pluripotent stem Cells
      • Basic Knowledge of Human Development
      • Models of Human Disease
      • Transplantation-Cell Replacement
      • Drug Development
      • Organogenesis
    • Scientific Challenges of Using Human ES Cells:
      • Challenges to cell-replacement and organ transplantation therapies:
      • Lack of cell type specific differentiation
      • Possible tumor formation
      • Immune rejection by recipients
      • Challenges to ES cells as models for studying human diseases
      • Do not know the genes responsible for the diseases
      • Can not create the mutations corresponding to human diseases
    • The ethical hot spots of stem cell research
      • Human embryonic stem cells isolated from blastocyst stage human embryos
      • Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells.
    • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
      • For establishing and studying models of human diseases
      • For generating patient-specific cells/organs for transplantation and repair
    • Therapeutic Cloning: Organogenesis
    • Human ES Cells: Studying the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Disease Therapeutic cloning: Studying Mechanisms of Diseases Example: ALS
    • Mark Denham & Richard Mollard D B E C F A
    • Not This
    • The ethical hot spots of stem cell research
      • Human embryonic stem cells isolated from blastocyst stage human embryos
      • Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells.
    • induced pluripotent cells (iPSC) A combination of several genes can re-program skin fibroblasts into pluripotent cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka Cell 2007, Yu Science 07, Cowan Science 07, Wernig Nature 07, Okita Nature 07)
      • Why iPSC can not replace ESC research:
      • Studying ESCs is critical for understanding iPSCs
      • iPSCs are induced by cancer genes therefore hinder their use for therapies
      “ Reprogramming”
    • The ethical hot spots of stem cell research
      • Human embryonic stem cells isolated from blastocyst stage human embryos
      • Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells.
    • People in the US affected by diseases that may be helped by stem cell research
      • Condition Number of Persons Affected
      • Cardiovascular diseases 58 Million
      • Autoimmune diseases 30 Million
      • Diabetes 16 Million
      • Osteoporosis 10 Million
      • Cancer 8.2 Million
      • Alzheimer's disease 4 Million
      • Parkinson's disease 1.5 Million
      • Burns (severe) 0.3 Million
      • Spinal cord injuries 0.25 Million
      • Birth defects 150,000 (per year)
      • Total 128.4 Million
      • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      • Data from the Patients' Coalition for Urgent Research, Washington, DC (according to Perry, Ref. 267).
    • The 1st ethical hot spot of stem cell research
      • Human embryonic stem cells isolated from blastocyst stage human embryos
      “ In the case of embryonic stem cell research, the end that scientists hope to achieve is the relief of human suffering. That this is a humanitarian and worthy end is not in dispute. The controversy is about the means, namely, the consumption of donated embryos.” -- ISSCR website on stem cell ethics
      • Cloning by somatic nuclear transfer
      • International Guideline for Stem Cell Research (by ISSCR Stem Cell Ethics Committee):
      • Reproductive cloning is prohibited!!!
      The 2nd ethical hot spot of stem cell research
    • The 3rd ethical hot spot of stem cell research
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells.
        • Protection of human subjects
        • Informed consent
        • Protection of genetic identity.
    • Other Related Ethical Issues
      • Ethical issues in human clinical trials
          • Informed consent of patients
          • Protection of human subjects.
          • Protection of human genetic and cellular materials
      • Creating human/animal hybrid stem cells
      • Ethical issues in animal research.
      • Honest and integrity in biomedical research
    • How can scientists ensure ethical conduct in stem cell research
      • Education for researchers
        • Routine emphasis by principle investigators
        • Emphasis by funding agencies
        • Classes and seminars
      • Education for the public
        • Understand the importance of research
        • Understand that scientists are under ethical guidance
      • Communication and open dialogue
        • Understand each others’ opinion
        • Reach a rationale common ground.
      • Last step: Legal reinforcement
    • Useful Resources
      • National Institute of Health resource for stem cells (http://stemcells.nih.gov)
      • International Society for Stem Cell Research: “ Guidelines for the Conduct of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research (www.isscr.org)”
      • National Academy of Science: “Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research” (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309096537)
      • On March 9, 2009, President Obama issued Executive Order 13505, entitled "Removing Barriers to Responsible Research Involving Human Stem Cells."
    • Thank you !