ASPIRA ASSOCIATION HEALTH CAREERS STAFF
Dr. Rafael Baez
Health Careers Counselor
ASPIRA of Puerto Rico
Jorge Torres
Health...
ASPIRA HEALTH CAREERS PROGRAM MANUAL
FOR
HEALTH CAREERS COUNSELORS
PREPARED BY:
Hilda Crespo
Director of Education and Fed...
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL...............................................................................
iii
XI. PARTICIPANT FOLLOW-UP..................................................................................64
XII. ROL...
1
I. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
This manual is intended as a reference document to assist ASPIRA with linkages and
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:
• General educational recommendations for preparing for the health professions;
• Strategies to enabl...
8
II. PAST EFFORTS AND ACTIVITIES
During the past 35 years, ASPIRA has developed numerous programs which address
the educa...
9
Puerto Rico.
In summary, the following are the characteristics which describe ASPIRA's capability
for promoting the heal...
10
III. SUMMARY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS
Health Professions:
Allopathic Medicine Osteopathic Medicine
Chiro...
11
Associate's Degree
Cardiovascular Technology Occupational Therapy Asst.
Clinical Dietetic Technician Ophthalmic Medical...
12
IV. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A. The Need for Latinos in the Health Professions
The need for effective intervention programs...
13
2. Educational Data
Educational data show that Hispanic dropout rates are among the highest in the
nation and they have...
14
l Minority students who participate in high school or college science and math
enrichment programs are more likely to b...
15
TABLE 1. 1994 MINORITY MCAT SCORES
MAINLAND
PUERTO
RICAN
BLACK AMERICAN
INDIAN
MEXICAN
AMERICAN
Physical
Sciences
6.7 5...
16
V. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROGRAM
The primary characteristic of the ASPIRA National Health Careers program is a
structu...
17
The collaboration should be mutually developed and agreed upon. Ideally, it should be
followed up with a formally writt...
18
TABLE 2. THE NATIONAL HEALTH CAREERS MODEL SAMPLE
SECONDARY SCHOOL CORE CURRICULUM OUTLINE
9TH GRADE 10TH GRADE 11TH GR...
19
VI. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES
ASPIRA began the Health Careers Program as a response to the critical need within
the Hispanic c...
20
VII. TARGET POPULATION
The target population for the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program consists
primarily of Latin...
21
TABLE 3. TARGET GROUP TO BE SERVED BY THE HEALTH CAREERS
PROGRAM
1994-95 Program Year
DEMOGRAPHICS NUMBER PERCENT
Total...
22
documentation. Then, selection of students will be made based on the criteria presented in
Table 4.
TABLE 4. ELIGIBILIT...
23
TABLE 5. NONACADEMIC VARIABLES
l Positive self-concept
l Recognition and handling of racism
l Realistic self-appraisal
...
24
VIII. PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Table 6 contains an overview of recruitment, entry-facilitating, and financial aid
disseminati...
25
TABLE 6. OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES, Continued
FACILITATING
ENTRY
ACTIVITIES
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OUTCOME TIME
NEEDS
ASSESSME...
26
EXPLORATORY
TRIPS
PLACEMENT To assist in the placement of
students in medical and health
professions schools
100% of th...
27
A. Recruitment Activities (September - June)
1. Goal
The goal of this phase is to recruit approximately 400 (80 per sit...
28
community-based organizations. In addition, information will be disseminated
at meetings of various Latino and minority...
29
_ Send thank you letters to presenters
3. Resources
l College campuses and medical schools and/or educational instituti...
30
B. Needs Assessment (September - August)
1. Goal
The goal of this phase is to determine participants'
areas of need as ...
31
the participants' educational potential; and study habits inventories.
2. Action Steps
_ Develop or select needs assess...
32
C. Counseling Activities (September - August)
1. Goal
The goal of this phase is to provide meaningful counseling experi...
33
Academic counseling is provided before the beginning of each semester so that the
student obtains the necessary informa...
34
_ Send invitation letters to speakers
_ Send announcements to program participants about the workshops
_ Develop fliers...
35
D. Financial Aid Information Dissemination (October - February)
1. Goal
The goal of this phase is to disseminate financ...
36
c. Financial Aid Counseling
Financial aid counseling is provided to all program participants throughout the
program yea...
37
_ Send announcements to program participants
_ Develop information packets on financial aid
_ Develop evaluation forms
...
38
E. Learning Skills Workshops (September - November and January -April)
The goal of this phase is to assist students in
...
39
l To improve the student's ability to follow instructions for academic work in
order to recall, comprehend, analyze, su...
40
2. Action Steps
_ Identify speaker(s) to lead workshop
_ Arrange for appropriate dates and locations for the conference...
41
l Health Career brochures, medical and health professional schools
information
l Admissions applications
l Slide projec...
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  1. 1. ASPIRA ASSOCIATION HEALTH CAREERS STAFF Dr. Rafael Baez Health Careers Counselor ASPIRA of Puerto Rico Jorge Torres Health Careers Counselor ASPIRA of New York Luis Duarte Health Careers Counselor ASPIRA of Illinois Miguel Rosa Health Careers Counselor ASPIRA of New Jersey Denise Roman Health Careers Coordinator ASPIRA of Pennsylvania Nadine Cid Manager, Health Careers Program The ASPIRA Association, Inc. National Office Hilda Crespo Director of Education and Federal Affairs The ASPIRA Association, Inc. National Office
  2. 2. ASPIRA HEALTH CAREERS PROGRAM MANUAL FOR HEALTH CAREERS COUNSELORS PREPARED BY: Hilda Crespo Director of Education and Federal Affairs Nadine Cid Manager, Health Careers Program Revised 1996
  3. 3. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL..................................................................................1 II. PAST EFFORTS AND ACTIVITIES..........................................................................3 III. SUMMARY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS......................5 IV. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.....................................................................................6 A. The Need for Latinos in the Health Professions................................................6 V. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROGRAM............................................................10 A. Academic Curriculum (School-Based)............................................................11 VI. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES........................................................................................13 VII. TARGET POPULATION..........................................................................................14 A. Selection Criteria and Eligibility Requirements...............................................15 VIII. PROGRAM ACTIVITIES..........................................................................................18 A. Recruitment Activities.....................................................................................20 B. Needs Assessment...........................................................................................23 C. Counseling Activities......................................................................................25 D. Financial Aid Dissemination............................................................................29 E. Learning Skills Workshops.............................................................................32 F. Application Process Workshop.......................................................................35 G. Mentoring........................................................................................................38 H. Medical/Health Professions Schools Conferences..........................................41 I. Parental Information Workshops....................................................................44 J. Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Summer Programs....................................................47 K. Interview Skills Workshop..............................................................................49 L. Critical Thinking and Reading Development Seminars...................................51 M. Health Professions School Exploratory Trips.................................................53 N. ASPIRA Health Careers Club.........................................................................55 O. Placement........................................................................................................57 IX. EVALUATION PROCEDURE..................................................................................59 A. Purpose of Evaluation Plan.............................................................................59 B. Scope of Work................................................................................................60 C. Summative Evaluation....................................................................................61 X. DATA COLLECTION...............................................................................................63
  4. 4. iii XI. PARTICIPANT FOLLOW-UP..................................................................................64 XII. ROLES OF PROGRAM COORDINATORS/COUNSELORS.................................66 XIII. INTERNAL PROGRAM RESOURCES....................................................................69 XIV. ROLES OF SCHOOLS AND COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS.........................70 A. External Linkages............................................................................................70 B. Internal Linkages.............................................................................................72 C. Advisory Council............................................................................................76 XV. PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AT NATIONAL LEVEL.........................................77 APPENDIX A: SAMPLE SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES.......................................A-1 APPENDIX B: FINANCIAL AID RESOURCE GUIDE..........................................B-1 APPENDIX C: REPORTING FORMS.....................................................................C-1
  5. 5. 1 I. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL This manual is intended as a reference document to assist ASPIRA with linkages and co lla bo rat ive arr an ge me nts wi th hi gh sc ho ols , ins tit uti on
  6. 6. 2 s of hi gh er ed uc ati on , he alt h pr of es sio ns sc ho ols , an d
  7. 7. 3 ot he r or ga niz ati on s to m oti va te stu de nts to wa rd a ca re er
  8. 8. 4 in th e he alt h pr of es sio ns. Th e ma nu al co ve rs an arr ay of ac
  9. 9. 5 ad em ic an d no na ca de mi c ser vic es es se nti al to ret ain in g La
  10. 10. 6 tin o an d ot he r mi no rit y stu de nts in he alt h pr of es sio ns fie
  11. 11. 7 lds inc lu di ng : • General educational recommendations for preparing for the health professions; • Strategies to enable students to become outstanding candidates for health and allied health professions programs; • Student follow-up procedures; and • A procedure for evaluating program outcomes. A major factor in the success of this program will be the implementation of strong national and local linkages with secondary schools, higher education institutions, health professions institutions and associations, parents, and other community-based organizations. We hope that the user will find this manual helpful in creating an effective program to promote the health professions among Latino and other minority youth. The user is encouraged to refer to the manual for information as needed. Personnel involved in program implementation activities are urged to use the manual as a source of information to modify and enhance the program at the local level. While the National Office and funding sources provide technical assistance, ultimate responsibility for the program's success relies on the ongoing efforts of ASPIRA Associate Offices.
  12. 12. 8 II. PAST EFFORTS AND ACTIVITIES During the past 35 years, ASPIRA has developed numerous programs which address the educational needs of the Latino community. The most successful program developed by ASPIRA has been the National Health Careers Program. Since its inception in 1970, the ASPIRA National Health Careers program has been instrumental in placing 1,051 students in health professions schools and allied health programs. The program as described in this manual continues to address the need to increase the number of Hispanics, Blacks, and other underrepresented groups in the health professions. The ASPIRA National Health Careers Program was developed as an initiative to address the urgent need in the Latino and other minority communities for medical and health practitioners. The program was first launched by ASPIRA of New York in 1970 with a seed grant ($10,000) from the Klingenstein Foundation. In 1971, the program was able to expand with the support of the National Urban Coalition, which awarded the program an additional $75,000. In 1974, ASPIRA received a grant from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institutes of Health to implement a National Health Careers Program at all of the Associate Offices. Over the 1974-93 period, grants received from the Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) of the Public Health Service, The Pew Charitable Trusts Fund, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation allowed ASPIRA to expand the program considerably. With this funding, ASPIRA was able to dedicate a considerable amount of resources toward preparing minority students to enter the health professions. It enabled ASPIRA to consolidate its program into a comprehensive health careers network of services for students from high school through health professions school. Today, ASPIRA's National Health Careers Program has expanded to provide services in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and
  13. 13. 9 Puerto Rico. In summary, the following are the characteristics which describe ASPIRA's capability for promoting the health professions: l Significant experience working with Latino youth and demonstrated sensitivity to the educational aspirations of Latino and other minority students; l An established network of local community-based affiliates which provide direct health careers development services to Latino and other minority high school and college students; l Experience with private sector and foundation funding of programs which promote the health careers among Latino and other minority high school and college students; l A track record of establishing partnerships, coalitions, and consortia with parents, national and local organizations, universities, medical schools, and school districts in the promotion of health careers among Latino and other minority students; l Ability and willingness to commit personnel and financial resources to implement educational counseling programs directed toward increasing educational achievement of Latino students; and l Organizational leadership that reflects the characteristics of the Latino population served through the program and demonstrates cultural and linguistic sensitivity.
  14. 14. 10 III. SUMMARY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS Health Professions: Allopathic Medicine Osteopathic Medicine Chiropractic Pharmacy Clinical Psychology Podiatric Medicine Dentistry Public Health Health Administration Social Work (Medical/Clinical) Optometry Veterinary Medicine Allied Health Professions: Master's Degree Audiology Physical Therapy Medical Illustrator Social Work Nutrition Speech Pathology Bachelor's Degree Audiology Medical Illustration Biomedical Engineering Medical Record Adminstration Blood Bank Technology Medical Technology Cardiovascular Technology Microbiology Technology Community Health Education Nuclear Medicine Technology Corrective Therapy Occupational Therapy Cytogenic Counseling Perfusion Cytotechnology Physical Therapy Dental Hygiene Primary Care Physician Asst. Diagnostic Medical Sonography Radiation Therapy Technology Dietetics Radiography Emergency Medical Technology Recreation Therapy (Paramedic) Rehabilitation Counseling Health Physics Respiratory Therapy Health Services Administration Sanitary Sciences (environmental health) Histologic Technology
  15. 15. 11 Associate's Degree Cardiovascular Technology Occupational Therapy Asst. Clinical Dietetic Technician Ophthalmic Medical Technology Cytotechnology Optometric Technology Dental Assisting Orthopedic Technology Dental Hygiene Orthotic/Prosthetic Dental Laboratory Technology Perfusion EKG/EEG Technology Physician Assistant Emergency Medical Technology Physical Therapy Assisting Histologic Technology Radiologic Technology Medical Assisting Respiratory Therapy Medical Laboratory Technology Respiratory Therapy Technician Medical Records Technology Sanitary Sciences Technology Medical Technology Surgical Technology Nuclear Medicine Technology Note: Nursing is not an eligible profession for support under HCOP.
  16. 16. 12 IV. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM A. The Need for Latinos in the Health Professions The need for effective intervention programs for increasing Latino representation in the medical and health professions is well-documented. 1. Physician Work Force and Education Data Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the U.S. Census Bureau indicate that African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are seriously underrepresented in the medical and health professions fields as well as health professions institutions. Current data on Latinos indicates the following: l According to the 1990 U. S. Census, Latinos comprise 10% of the total population. In the field of health, however, Hispanics represent only 4.9% of all physicians, 1.7% of dentists, 5.3% of health administrators and nutritionists, 2.9% of registered nurses, and 2.8% of Public Health Service employees (Bureau of the Census, 1990); l In the fall of 1994, Hispanics represented only 6.2% of students enrolled in medical education; 3.2% in colleges of nursing, and 3.5% in Osteopathic Medical Schools (Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), November, 1994); l Less than three percent (2.5%) of medical faculties in American Medical Schools are Hispanic. Of these, 0.3% are Mexican American, 0.7% are Puerto Rican, and 1.5% are Other Hispanics (AAMC, November, 1993); and l There are 7,000 staff members in the 12 medical centers currently performing clinical trials with National Cancer Institute (NCI) grants. Of these faculty, 23 are Hispanic. Not one of these centers has a Hispanic oncologist (Hispanic Health, August, 1991).
  17. 17. 13 2. Educational Data Educational data show that Hispanic dropout rates are among the highest in the nation and they have remained high throughout the past two decades. For secondary education, the dropout rate is 35% for Hispanics compared to 9% for non-Hispanic whites. For postsecondary education, Hispanics have the lowest enrollment rate of any group in higher education. Approximately 20% of Hispanic high school graduates were enrolled in college, compared with 39% for Whites and 31% for Blacks. Moreover, Hispanics who enroll in college are more likely to enroll in a 2-year college than White or Black students. In 1992, 52% of Hispanic college students were enrolled in 2-year community colleges compared to 36% of White and 36% of Black students. Hispanics are also least likely to complete four or more years of college. In 1990 their college completion rate was 9.2% compared to 22% for non-Hispanic Whites. Furthermore, a very small number of Hispanic students who complete bachelor's degrees pursue graduate and professional programs (Dropout Rates in the United States: 1991, Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, September 1992). In a 1987 report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation came to several conclusions relative to minority preparation for medical education. Among these were the following: l Having minority physicians as role models and mentors is key to minority medical student's successful professional attainment;
  18. 18. 14 l Minority students who participate in high school or college science and math enrichment programs are more likely to be accepted into medical school than non-participants; yet, a great many potential applicants -- especially Hispanics -- do not have the experience of such programs; l Too few Black high school and college students take advanced science and math courses. Math and science skills directly affect performance on the standardized tests that are gatekeepers to higher education. Intervention programs can improve standardized test scores; l Minority applicants for medical school are three times more likely to come from families with annual incomes under $15,000 than are their majority counterparts; and l Other non-academic factors such as poor guidance counseling and insufficient career information contribute greatly to the loss of minorities from the pool of potential medical students. 3. Test Results Low test scores contribute to limited Latino access to the health professions. This is highlighted by recent data from the New Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) which indicates that Black and Latino students score low on the MCAT (Table 1). There are many views and explanations for the discrepancy on MCAT performance between these groups. Nonetheless, the Black and Hispanic applicant pool remains small relative to the need for more Black and Latino physicians to address the health needs of these communities and to achieve more parity among minority physicians in the United States.
  19. 19. 15 TABLE 1. 1994 MINORITY MCAT SCORES MAINLAND PUERTO RICAN BLACK AMERICAN INDIAN MEXICAN AMERICAN Physical Sciences 6.7 5.9 7.2 7.2 Biological Sciences 6.8 5.9 7.4 7.5 Verbal Reasoning 6.4 6.1 7.6 7.3 Total GPA 3.01 2.88 3.07 3.02 Source: AAMC Student and Applicant Information Management Systems (SAIMS) 1994 Applicant file. Additionally, current educational policies and practices overlook the social, linguistic and cultural differences of Hispanics. In their book Linguistic and Cultural Influences on Learning Mathematics, researchers Cocking and Mestre found that students whose primary language is not English perform lower on standardized tests than their English-proficient peers. While the disparities have been attributed to the difficulties language minority students encounter with English, other factors, such as economic disadvantage and alienation from mainstream American society, have also been suggested as reasons for the disparities. Thus, exemplary programs are needed not only to address academic concerns but also to address the effects of language related isolation.
  20. 20. 16 V. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROGRAM The primary characteristic of the ASPIRA National Health Careers program is a structured, yet flexible, nationally coordinated approach to assist in promoting the health professions among Latino and other minority students. This program offers a framework for expanding the number of Latinos who enter and complete health professions academic programs. While national in scope, its execution is at the local level. The program is designed to mobilize federal, state, and local resources for Latino and other minority students at an early stage of their educational development. It focuses on 12th grade through college level students at a time when their potential talents can be recognized and pursued and their aspirations to careers in the health professions can be stimulated. The participation and support of counselors, teachers, principals, faculty, and academic advisors is crucial to the effectiveness of the program. It is essential that program personnel maintain ongoing communication with school personnel to ensure the highest level of coordination between the program and the school curriculum. The program activities must be viewed as supplemental to the core school curriculum, not a replacement of it. ASPIRA program personnel must establish collaborative agreements with schools where counselors, teachers and principals welcome community participation as partners in the educational process. When conditions are less than ideal, program personnel must identify individual counselors supportive of the program mission and seek their active support. Without the support of school personnel, program personnel will achieve only limited success. They will serve as the vital link between the ASPIRA Health Careers program and the schools and institutions. In development of collaborative relationships, ideally the Chief Executive Officer of the ASPIRA Office should make contact with one of the executive offices of the institution.
  21. 21. 17 The collaboration should be mutually developed and agreed upon. Ideally, it should be followed up with a formally written contract detailing the extent of collaboration and terms for each party. A. Academic Curriculum (School-Based) There is no one designated secondary school-based core curriculum in conjunction with the health professions education program. However, ASPIRA staff are urged to establish partnerships with schools seeking to raise achievement standards of participating students to levels considerably higher than average. Each participating school should be encouraged to design a challenging core curriculum which will help prepare participating students for a successful college experience. Student exposure to the available health career options will be accomplished primarily through the supplemental community-based academic enrichment curriculum and the non-academic support elements of the program offered by ASPIRA. Table 2 contains a sample secondary school core curriculum outline which may be used as a discussion guide to enhance the school-based curriculum at the high school level.
  22. 22. 18 TABLE 2. THE NATIONAL HEALTH CAREERS MODEL SAMPLE SECONDARY SCHOOL CORE CURRICULUM OUTLINE 9TH GRADE 10TH GRADE 11TH GRADE 12TH GRADE COURSE/TERMS COURSE/TERMS COURSE/TERMS COURSE/TERMS English 2 English 2 English 2 English 2 Foreign Language1 2 Foreign Language1 2 Foreign Language1 2 Foreign Language1 2 Math2 2 Math2 2 Math2 2 Math2 2 Science3 2 Science3 2 Science3 2 Science3 2 Social Studies4 2 Social Studies4 2 Social Studies4 2 Social Studies4 2 Physical Education 2 Physical Education 2 Physical Education 2 Physical Education 1 Computer Science 2 Fine Arts: music, art, performing art 1 Fine Arts: music, art, performing art 1 Hygiene 1 1 Japanese, Spanish, French, German, Russian, and Arabic 2 Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry, and Calculus 3 Chemistry, Physics, Botany, Biology, and Zoology 4 Latino Studies, African-American Studies, etc.
  23. 23. 19 VI. PROGRAM OBJECTIVES ASPIRA began the Health Careers Program as a response to the critical need within the Hispanic community for more health professionals. There is still an urgent need for more Hispanic health providers who will serve not only the Hispanic community but also the general population. The following objectives have been established by the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program and are congruent with Health Careers Opportunity Program purposes: l RECRUITMENT - For each program year, ASPIRA will target 400 Hispanic and other underrepresented high school seniors and college students interested in: medicine, optometry, osteopathy, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatry, public health, and allied health professions. l FACILITATE ENTRY - Over a three year period, the ASPIRA Health Careers Program will facilitate the entry of 150 college students into health professions schools. These students will participate in a series of activities designed to increase their competitiveness for entry into these schools. Additionally, 250 students will enter undergraduate institutions to begin preparation in the pre-health professions education. l FINANCIAL AID INFORMATION DISSEMINATION - During each program year, ASPIRA will disseminate financial aid information to all program participants and their parents through individual counseling and workshops. ASPIRA projects that 80% of all the program participants who are placed into post-secondary and health profession schools will receive financial aid.
  24. 24. 20 VII. TARGET POPULATION The target population for the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program consists primarily of Latino students. However, efforts are being made to encourage other underrepresented students to participate in the program. During the program period, ASPIRA will recruit, motivate, and select 400 students (80 per site) who demonstrate enthusiasm and willingness to learn and benefit from the program. Program participants will be selected from a pool of high school seniors and college students, as indicated in Table 3. Participants will primarily be residents of the metropolitan areas in which ASPIRA offices are located (Newark, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois; Philadelphia, PA; New York, New York; and Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico).
  25. 25. 21 TABLE 3. TARGET GROUP TO BE SERVED BY THE HEALTH CAREERS PROGRAM 1994-95 Program Year DEMOGRAPHICS NUMBER PERCENT Total Students to be Served 530 100% Total Males 164 30% Total Females 366 69% Total African Americans 20 3% Total Hispanic Americans 503 94% Total High School Seniors 163 30% Total Post High School/Pre-College 30 5% Total College Students 463 87% Total Students from Metropolitan Residential Areas 424 80% Total Students from Low Income Background1 377 71% 1 Low income is defined as individuals who come from families with annual incomes below a level based on low-income thresholds according to family size, published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and adjusted annually for changes in the Consumer Price Index, and by the Secretary for use in health professions programs. A. Selection Criteria and Eligibility Requirements The first step in the selection process is to identify those youth who 1) demonstrate potential and could most benefit from the program; and 2) are most willing and able to take advantage of the program. Second, the students must fill out an intake form and provide appropriate
  26. 26. 22 documentation. Then, selection of students will be made based on the criteria presented in Table 4. TABLE 4. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA l U.S. citizenship or permanent residency l High school senior (or its equivalent) l Demonstrated interest in exploring and/or pursuing a career in allied health or health professions l Demonstrated minimum grade point average of 2.5 in major with an overall average of 2.0 l Information gathered on student income level and degree to which the student comes from an environment that has inhibited the acquiring of knowledge and skills required to enroll in and graduate from a health professions school Data from AAMC indicate that while minority grade point averages and test scores have improved significantly in recent years, minority students are still likely to have lower scores than majority students. One way in which ASPIRA will ensure that promising students participate in the program is to consider non-academic criteria in conjunction with grades and test scores. In the selection process, the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program will utilize non-academic variables in predicting minority student success. As identified by Sedlack and Brooks, the nonacademic variables are presented in Table 5.
  27. 27. 23 TABLE 5. NONACADEMIC VARIABLES l Positive self-concept l Recognition and handling of racism l Realistic self-appraisal l Preference for long range goals over immediate needs l Availability of a strong support system l Successful leadership experience l Demonstrated community services In reviewing non-cognitive criteria, recommendations from individuals who are familiar with the student are taken into consideration. As potential program participants are identified, ASPIRA counselors will determine whether they are eligible. The selection process occurs continuously as individual potential participants are identified.
  28. 28. 24 VIII. PROGRAM ACTIVITIES Table 6 contains an overview of recruitment, entry-facilitating, and financial aid dissemination activities. TABLE 6. OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES RECRUITMENT ACTIVITIES PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OUTCOME TIME RECRUITMENT To recruit 400 Hispanic and other underrepresented high school and college students interested in pursuing careers in the health professions 400 students will be selected to participate in the program Sept. - June COUNSELING ACTIVITIES To provide meaningful counseling experiences to students interested in entering health professions 100% of the participants will have career/academic counseling Sept. - Aug. MEDICAL/HEAL TH PROFESSIONS SCHOOL CONFERENCES To expose students to health professions schools and to assist participants in the selection of an appropriate medical/health professions school 80% of the students will attend the conferences Dec. - March *MENTORING (Optional) To expose students to health professions role models 20% of the students will be assigned a mentor Sept.- June HEALTH CAREERS CLUBS To provide a peer support mechanism where students in the program will encourage each other to succeed and continue their health professions education 80% of the students will participate in club activities Sept. - June *PHS funds cannot be used for mentoring.
  29. 29. 25 TABLE 6. OVERVIEW OF ACTIVITIES, Continued FACILITATING ENTRY ACTIVITIES PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OUTCOME TIME NEEDS ASSESSMENT To determine participants' areas of need as they relate to career counseling, financial aid, study skills, or other services 100% of the participants will have the needs assessment Sept. - Aug. LEARNING SKILLS To assist in developing study habits for 80% of the students 80% of the students will attend learning skills workshops Sept. - Nov. Jan. - April CRITICAL THINKING To encourage students to develop critical thinking skills through structured workshops 70% of the students will participate in the workshop series Oct. - Feb. APPLICATION PROCESS To assist students in applying to postsecondary institutions and medical/health professions schools 90% of the students will be assisted in this process Oct. - March MEDICAL/HEAL TH PROFESSIONS SCHOOL CONFERENCES To expose students to health professions schools and to assist participants in the selection of an appropriate medical/health professions school 80% of the students will attend the conferences Dec. - March PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT To assist parents in understanding the academic pressures on students entering medical and health professions careers 20% of the students' parents will attend this activity Oct. - Nov. PRE-MEDICAL & DENTAL SUMMER ORIENTATION PROGRAMS To provide students with information on summer academic pre-medical, pre- dental and other health sciences programs available at various postsecondary institutions and health professions schools 50% of the students will attend the orientation sessions and 30% will apply to various programs Feb. - June HEALTH PROFESSIONS SCHOOLS/ To expose students to medical and health professions schools and institutions 50% of the students will participate in the school visits Feb. - March
  30. 30. 26 EXPLORATORY TRIPS PLACEMENT To assist in the placement of students in medical and health professions schools 100% of the participants ready to apply to medical and/or health professions schools will receive direct assistance Sept. - June FINANCIAL AID DISSEMINATIO N PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OUTCOME TIME FINANCIAL AID DISSEMINATION To provide financial aid counseling to 100% of the participants through workshops or an individual basis 100% of the students will receive financial aid information Oct. - March
  31. 31. 27 A. Recruitment Activities (September - June) 1. Goal The goal of this phase is to recruit approximately 400 (80 per site) Hispanic and other underrepresented high school and college students interested in pursuing careers in health professions. a. National Level Recruitment Activities l The national office will develop generic public information packages on the program for distribution to selected local community-based organization. The program will seek recruitment opportunities via television, radio, and the print media; l National organizations which work cooperatively with ASPIRA National and its Associates will be asked to advertise the program to their constituencies. These national organizations include the National Association of School Principals, the Interamerican College of Physicians and Surgeons, Hispanic Dental Association, national education associations, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and others; and l National program staff will publicize the program at meetings, groups, and conferences of various Latino and minority organizations. b. Local Level Recruitment Activities Local program staff will: l Establish contact and provide outreach/recruitment through visits to participating schools postsecondary institutions and professional organizations; l Speak to school faculty and administrative staff, particularly science instructors and counselors, and will establish referral procedures; l Establish contact and provide outreach/recruitment through visits to participating schools postsecondary institutions and professional organizations; l Conduct recruitment visits to school and community-based health clubs; l Disseminate the program information packages to local school personnel, television, radio and print media, student groups, parents, and other
  32. 32. 28 community-based organizations. In addition, information will be disseminated at meetings of various Latino and minority community groups, conferences, and professional organizations. The local Spanish language media should be contacted to advertise the program and to provide assistance in the recruitment process; l Ask current and former program students to invite their friends and parents to recruitment sessions and special activities designed to enroll new participants; l Organize health career days at health professions schools as a means of recruiting Latino and other minority students to the health professions; l Organize health career clubs at participating high schools and colleges to foster interest in the health professions and recruit students for the program; and l Review the Med-Mar list (a medical minority applicant registry) distributed by the AAMC. ASPIRA counselors will contact Latino and other minority students residing in their service area to determine interest in program participation. 2. Action Steps _ Publicize the Health Careers program on television and radio _ Send out information and applications to students interested in health careers _ Distribute information to high school and college counselors _ Have current and former health career program participants recruit interested students _ Solicit interested institutions and organizations to serve as hosts for recruitment activities _ Arrange for appropriate dates and locations _ Ensure that dates do not conflict with other activities, vacations, etc. _ Plan meeting agenda _ Plan recruitment activities with participating institutions _ Hold recruitment workshops _ Have participants complete application form (intake form)
  33. 33. 29 _ Send thank you letters to presenters 3. Resources l College campuses and medical schools and/or educational institutions l Brochures and fliers on health careers program l Intake forms/applications l Information packets on the health professions l ASPIRA Health Careers Program brochures
  34. 34. 30 B. Needs Assessment (September - August) 1. Goal The goal of this phase is to determine participants' areas of need as they relate to career counseling, financial aid, study skills, or other services the progrma offers. One hundred percent of the participants will be provided with the needs assessment. Once a student has been accepted into the program, the counselor, in conjunction with the participants conducts a needs assessment. The needs assessment will focus on the following areas: l The extent of the student's knowledge of health careers and need for career exploration and counseling; l The student's knowledge about medical and health professions schools and the academic demand placed on students; l The student's awareness about financial aid opportunities; l An identification of academic weaknesses the student may need to address; and l The student's need for social, academic and financial support. The counselor utilizes the following in conducting the needs assessment: results of the ASPIRA Intake Form; personal interviews with the students; exploratory workshops on financial aid and health careers information; student self-assessment; student transcripts; recommendations from instructors or counselors who are in a position to know and assess
  35. 35. 31 the participants' educational potential; and study habits inventories. 2. Action Steps _ Develop or select needs assessment form _ Have students complete intake forms and interest inventory _ Review intake form results with students _ Conduct personal interviews _ Review student transcripts _ Consider recommendations from instructors or counselors _ Counsel students according to strengths and weaknesses 3. Resources l Facilities for workshops l Intake forms, needs assessment, and interest inventory
  36. 36. 32 C. Counseling Activities (September - August) 1. Goal The goal of this phase is to provide meaningful counseling experiences to students interested in entering health professions. One hundred percent of the participants will be provided with career and academic counselilng services. Counseling is an integral part of the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program. Academic counseling, career guidance and health professions school preation are the key counseling services offered by the ASPIRA National Health Careers Program. a. Career Guidance In order to provide maximum information to participants, the counselor, in individual and group counseling sessions, provides the participants with a broad exposure to the various careers in the health professions. Through the ASPIRA Health Careers Clubs, representatives of the various health professions are recruited to speak about their respective career areas. Special efforts are made, when possible, to invite representatives who are reflective of the ethnic composition of the target population. In addition, college admission and career counselors are invited to speak to students about the various health fields. Sessions are also held on decision making skills for career and life planning. Furthermore, the counselor collects material on the health professions schools for the students to read in the office or to take home. b. Academic Counseling
  37. 37. 33 Academic counseling is provided before the beginning of each semester so that the student obtains the necessary information to enable him/her to gain admission to a health professions school. Counselors from target postsecondary institutions and health professions schools are invited to speak to students about program requirements. c. Career Fact Sheets Career Fact Sheets will be disseminated to program participants informing them of various health professions. Student participants will learn how to: l Acquire information about career options and academic programs; l Increase their awareness of their interests, abilities and values; l Set goals and develop techniques to reach them; l Make effective decisions; l Involve their families and friends in career planning; l Make appropriate career choices; and l Identify their skills. 2. Action Steps _ Collect as much health professions information as possible to disseminate to students _ Identify academic, career guidance and health professions counselors who can assist in counseling activities _ Arrange for appropriate dates and locations of workshop meetings to discuss academics, careers, and the health professions _ Ensure that dates do not conflict with other activities, vacations, etc. _ Prepare meeting agenda _ Recruit speakers from institutions or organizations to talk about their respective areas
  38. 38. 34 _ Send invitation letters to speakers _ Send announcements to program participants about the workshops _ Develop fliers and distribute at appropriate settings _ Develop information packets for students _ Develop evaluation form _ Hold workshops _ Have participants complete evaluation forms _ Send thank you letters to presenters _ Provide for follow-up if necessary _ Meet individually with students when needed 3. Resources l Facilities for workshops l Presenters l Materials on health careers and health professions schools
  39. 39. 35 D. Financial Aid Information Dissemination (October - February) 1. Goal The goal of this phase is to disseminate financial aid information to 100% of the participants and provide financial aid counseling services through workshops or on an individual basis. a. Financial Aid Information The counselor collects information on the financial aid opportunities that are available, such as aid from the Federal, state and local governments; national and local philanthropic agencies; programs geared toward specific careers or health institutions; aid from the union or companies to which the applicant's family belongs; programs specifically geared for minority groups; etc. Each ASPIRA Associate maintains financial aid applications for dissemination to students. The ASPIRA counselors receive training on the preparation of financial aid forms and also maintain reference files on names of the contact sources for the various types of aid offered. b. Financial Aid Workshops Medical schools and college financial aid officers are invited to conduct financial aid workshops. During these sessions, students learn the differences among the various types of financial aid and how to complete the application forms. Parents are also invited to attend these sessions.
  40. 40. 36 c. Financial Aid Counseling Financial aid counseling is provided to all program participants throughout the program year. During the months of October through March, counseling is directed toward those students in the process of applying to postsecondary institutions and medical and health professions schools. During the remainder of the year, the ASPIRA counselor assists those Aspirantes (students served by ASPIRA) who are attending post-secondary institutions or schools of allied health so that they may continue their studies. Students get direct assistance in completing financial aid forms. In many cases, the ASPIRA Counselor becomes an advocate for the student and meets with financial aid officers so that the necessary funds for the student are made available. d. Financial Aid Fact Sheets Financial Aid Fact Sheets will be disseminated to students. The Fact Sheets will serve as a resource list on potential funders such as Federal, State, corporate and foundation supporters. The sheets will be distributed to students served through the local programs. 2. Action Steps _ Collect as much financial aid information as possible to disseminate to students and parents _ Keep file of financial aid contacts at the various health professions schools _ Invite medical schools and college financial aid officers to conduct financial aid workshops _ Arrange for appropriate dates and locations for workshops _ Ensure that dates do not conflict with other activities, vacations, etc. _ Plan meeting agenda _ Develop fliers and distribute at appropriate settings _ Send letters of invitation to speakers
  41. 41. 37 _ Send announcements to program participants _ Develop information packets on financial aid _ Develop evaluation forms _ Assist students in filling out financial aid forms _ Hold workshops _ Have participants complete evaluation forms _ Send thank you letters to presenters _ Provide for follow-up if necessary c. Resources l University and/or college, medical schools and health organizations l Presenters l Financial aid materials
  42. 42. 38 E. Learning Skills Workshops (September - November and January -April) The goal of this phase is to assist students in developing effective study habits and test-taking skills. Eighty-five percent of the students will be familiarized with the skills necessary for academic success. The Counselor works with students in the development of effective study habits. Students are given an inventory designed to assess study habits. Students will be able to recognize effective study habits as well as habits which hinder academic performance. Students participating in this workshop series will be given pre and post surveys assessing their learning skills. The purposes of the learning skills workshops are as follows: l To improve the student's ability to develop an organized strategy in preparation for a demanding pre-health curriculum. l To improve the student's reading speed, memorization techniques, time management, note taking, outlining, report preparation, critical analysis and interpretive skills. l To improve the student's ability to set study goals consistent with course objectives and individual progress; to establish surroundings and habits conducive to learning independently or with others, and to follow a schedule that accounts for both short and long term projects. l To improve the student's ability to locate and use outside resources and to incorporate knowledge from such sources into the learning process. l To improve the student's ability to develop and use general and specialized vocabularies for reading, writing, speaking, listening, computing, and studying.
  43. 43. 39 l To improve the student's ability to follow instructions for academic work in order to recall, comprehend, analyze, summarize, and report the main ideas from reading, lectures, and other academic experiences; and to synthesize knowledge and apply it to new situations. l To improve the student's ability to prepare for various types of examinations; to devise strategies for pacing, attempting or omitting questions, writing, and editing according to the type of examination; to satisfy other course objectives such as laboratory performance, class participation, simulation, and student evaluations. l To improve the student's ability to accept constructive criticism and learn from it.
  44. 44. 40 2. Action Steps _ Identify speaker(s) to lead workshop _ Arrange for appropriate dates and locations for the conference agenda _ Develop conference registration forms _ Prepare media kits and brochures _ Arrange for photographer _ Make audio-visual equipment arrangements _ Send press release at least 4 to 5 weeks before event _ Develop fliers and distribute at appropriate settings _ Acquire an ASPIRA banner _ Prepare health careers conference information packets _ Develop evaluation forms _ Send announcements to program participants and have them pre-register _ Send reminders to program participants _ Provide telephone follow-up to speakers and students _ Hold conference _ Address staffing needs for conference and delegate tasks to staff _ Have participants complete evaluation forms _ Provide health professional list for students to follow-up _ Send thank you letters to presenters _ Provide for student follow-up 3. Resources l Facilities for conference
  45. 45. 41 l Health Career brochures, medical and health professional schools information l Admissions applications l Slide projector, overhead, stapler, staples, remover, steno pads, masking tape, scotch tape, pens, pencils, marking pens, tape recorder and cassettes, name tags, batteries, conference registration forms, ASPIRA banner, tokens of appreciation for speakers (optional)

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