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Chapter 2 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR LIFE
2.0 -- INTRODUCTION TO BASIC CHEMISTRY
1. molecular biology
2. bioremediation [f...
2.2 USING RADIOISOTOPES TO TRACK CHEMICALS AND SAVE LIVES
1. Tracers
2. carbon-14 to work out Calvin cycle, dating the pas...
2.4 IMPORTANT BONDS IN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
A. Chemical Bonds
1. electron shells, valence electrons, noble gases
B. Ionic ...
2.5 PROPERTIES of WATER
A. H-bonding [fig. 2.13b]
B. Polarity of the Water Molecule [fig. 2.13a]
a. hydrophyllic (polar) s...
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Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations for life

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Transcript of "Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations for life"

  1. 1. Chapter 2 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR LIFE 2.0 -- INTRODUCTION TO BASIC CHEMISTRY 1. molecular biology 2. bioremediation [fig. 2.1] 2.1 -- REGARDING ATOMS A. Structure of Atoms 1. Matter 2. elements 3. elements in organisms [table 2.1] 4. trace elements 5. atom 6. subatomic particles [fig. 2.3] 7. nucleus - protons and neutrons 8. electrons 9. atomic number and mass number 10. B. Isotopes–Variant Forms of Atoms 1. Isotopes 2. radioisotopes
  2. 2. 2.2 USING RADIOISOTOPES TO TRACK CHEMICALS AND SAVE LIVES 1. Tracers 2. carbon-14 to work out Calvin cycle, dating the past 3. nuclear medicine 4. Scans of thyroid gland (Fig. 2.4) 5. Positron Emission Tomography (Pet scan) (Fig. 2.5) 2.3 WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ATOM BONDS WITH ATOM? A. Electrons and Energy Levels 1. Energy - ability to do work 2. Chemical Properties 3. Electrons occupy orbitals [fig. 2.7]neutral atom 4. Shell (Bohr) model [fig. 2.8] 5. octet rule [fig. 2.8] 6. Chemical bonds B. From Atoms to Molecules 1. Molecule 2. Compound. a. chemical formula b. structural formula c. structural isomers 3. chemical bookkeeping [fig 2.9] 4. mixture
  3. 3. 2.4 IMPORTANT BONDS IN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES A. Chemical Bonds 1. electron shells, valence electrons, noble gases B. Ionic Bonding [fig. 2.10] 1. electron donors and acceptors 2. ions (anions and cations) 3. dissociation C. Covalent Bonds [fig. ] A. single, double, and triple bonds B. polar covalent bonds C. nonpolar B. Hydrogen bonds [figs. 2.11, 2.12]
  4. 4. 2.5 PROPERTIES of WATER A. H-bonding [fig. 2.13b] B. Polarity of the Water Molecule [fig. 2.13a] a. hydrophyllic (polar) substances: attracted to water b. Hydrophobic (nonpolar): cluster together, insoluble in water C. Resists changes in temperature (temperature stabilization) [specific heat – calorie] D. resists changes in state: high specific heat E. less dense as solid than liquid [fig. 2.14] F. Adheres and is Cohesive [fig. 2.15] G. universal solvent [fig. 2.16] - hydration H. transports polar molecules; facilitates chemical reactions 2.6 ACIDS, BASES, and BUFFERS A. pH scale [fig. 2.17] 1. Acid - proton donor (H+ ) 2. base (alkali) proton acceptor (usually hydroxyl ion OH- ) 3. pH values 4. acid deposition (rain) [fig. 2.18] B. Buffers 1. resist pH changes 2. accept or donate H ions 3. Buffer system consists of a weak acid and salt of acid or weak base and salt of base 4. homeostasis of blood C. Salts 1. Acid + Base --> Salt + Water

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