Basic Radiation Safety Awareness Training


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  • How can we ensure…?
    UTHSC-H limits carefully set from much experience
    Compare: other labs doing similar work
    Estimate meter + abstruse calculations
    Other calcs
    Measurement is probably best
  • esOfogal
  • TX radiation control limits
    UTHSC limits
    Dose-> depends on type, dose rate, time, area of body
    6 rem
    -> to HP: not good but not much different from 4 rem
    -> physician: not much
    -> Lawyer: depends if defense or prosecutor
    -> regulator: BAD
  • If something happened here
  • Most interesting piece of this chart is the smallest
    Only 2% to result in readily apparent biological effects
  • Basic Radiation Safety Awareness Training

    1. 1. Basic Radiation Safety Awareness Training Radiation Safety Program 713-500-5840 Environmental Health and Safety
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>History of Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural & Man-Made Background Sources of Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure Limits & Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Safe Practices with Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Effects of Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Where to Find Further Information </li></ul>
    3. 3. First Known Human Use of Uranium <ul><li>79 A D </li></ul><ul><li>Roman artisans produce yellow colored glass in mosaic mural near Naples, Italy </li></ul>
    4. 4. Radium Effects Confirmed <ul><li>1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicions develop around watch dial painters’ jaw lesions </li></ul><ul><li>Dentists diagnose lesions as jaw necrosis due to radium deposits in jaw bone </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor notes bone changes and anemia in dial painters </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is Radiation? Radiation : energy in motion Radioactivity : spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable atom Isotope : atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons Radioisotope : unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation. Approximately 5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified
    6. 6. Types of Radiation <ul><li>Non-Ionizing Radiation : Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of non-ionizing radiation: microwaves, ultraviolet light, lasers, radio waves, infrared light, and radar. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionizing Radiation : Radiation that has sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of ionizing radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Radiation Spectrum
    8. 8. Radioactive Waste Radon X-Rays Consumer Products Nuclear Power Nuclear Medicine Solar Radiation Cosmic Rays Terrestrial Radiation Food & Drink Each Other RADIOACTIVE SOURCES <ul><ul><li>    </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Terrestrial Radiation <ul><li>Common radionuclides created during formation of earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive Potassium (K-40) found in bananas, throughout the human body, in plant fertilizer and anywhere else stable potassium exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive Rubidium (Rb-87) is found in brazil nuts among other things. </li></ul></ul>Terrestrial radiation comes from radioactivity emitting from Primordial radio nuclides - these are radio nuclides left over from when the earth was created.
    10. 10. Terrestrial Radiation <ul><li>Greatest contributor is 226 Ra (Radium) with significant levels also from 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Igneous rock contains the highest concentration followed by sedimentary, sandstone and limestone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fly ash from coal burning plants contains more radiation than that of nuclear or oil-fired plants. </li></ul></ul>   
    11. 11. Let’s Compare Backgrounds <ul><li>Sea level - 30 mrem/year </li></ul><ul><li>from cosmic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 ft. altitude - 140 mrem/year </li></ul><ul><li>from cosmic radiation </li></ul>
    12. 12. Consumer Products and Radioactive Material <ul><li>There are more sources of radiation in the consumer product category than in any other. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Television sets - low energy x-rays. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke detectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some more products or services: treatment of agricultural products; long lasting light bulbs; building materials; static eliminators in manufacturing; and luminous dials of watches, clocks and compasses </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Annual Dose to the General Population From Natural and Man-made Sources
    14. 14. Annual Dose from Background Radiation Total US average dose equivalent = 360 mrem/year Total exposure Man-made sources Radon Internal 11% Cosmic 8% Terrestrial 6% Man-Made 18% 55.0% Medical X-Rays Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products 3% Other 1% 11%
    15. 15. The Anatomy of the Atom
    16. 16. Ionization Formation of a charged and reactive atom - - - - The neutral absorber atom acquires a positive charge Beta particle - Colliding coulombic fields Ejected electron
    17. 17. Ionizing radiation <ul><li>Occurs from the addition or removal of electrons from neutral atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Four main types of ionizing radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha, beta, gamma and neutrons </li></ul></ul> Alpha  Beta  Gamma (X-ray) n Neutron
    18. 18. Linear Energy Transfer
    19. 19. ALARA <ul><li>A s L ow A s R easonably A chievable </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shielding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Dose </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Time <ul><li>Less time = Less radiation exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Use RAM only when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Dry runs (without radioactive material) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify portions of the experiment that can be altered in order to decrease exposure times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shorten time when near RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining higher doses in order to get an experiment done quicker is NOT “reasonable”! </li></ul>
    21. 21. Distance <ul><li>Effective & Easy </li></ul><ul><li>Inverse Square Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubling distance from source, decreases dose by factor of four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tripling it decreases dose nine-fold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Distance = Less Radiation Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Tongs, Tweezers, Pipettes, Pliers </li></ul>
    22. 22. Shielding <ul><li>Materials “absorb” radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Proper shielding = Less Radiation Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Plexiglass vs. Lead </li></ul>
    23. 23. Shielding Examples
    24. 24. Radiation Shielding <ul><li>Shielding used where appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly reduces radiation effects </li></ul>Lead Plexiglas
    25. 25. Radiation Postings <ul><li>Radiation use will be labeled on door, work area & storage area </li></ul><ul><li>Research laboratories work with very low levels of radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Safety can check for potential contamination prior to work in a lab that uses radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><li>As a precaution: wear gloves, safety glasses and wash hands </li></ul>
    26. 26. Inappropriate Lab Attire
    27. 27. Appropriate Lab Attire <ul><li>Lab coat </li></ul><ul><li>Eye protection </li></ul><ul><li>Closed toe shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Gloves </li></ul>
    28. 28. Route of Entry for Exposure
    29. 29. Laboratory Wipe Tests <ul><li>Fill out form RS-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Draw map of laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Take wipes of surfaces (10 cm 2 ) throughout lab </li></ul><ul><li>Run wipes monthly for possible contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Document all information on form and place in Radiation Safety Binder </li></ul>
    30. 30. Common Units <ul><li>Radioactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed Dose </li></ul><ul><li>Dose Equivalent </li></ul>Units are Cool
    31. 31. Radioactivity <ul><li>Rate of Decay / Potential to Decay </li></ul><ul><li>“ Strength” </li></ul><ul><li>Curie (Ci) - 1 gram of radium disintegrates </li></ul><ul><li>3.7 X 10 10 disintegration/ second (dps) </li></ul><ul><li>Becquerel (Bq) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= 1 disintegration/second (dps) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 mCi = 37 MBq </li></ul>
    32. 32. Exposure <ul><li>Radioactivity is measured in Roentgens (R) </li></ul><ul><li>Charge produced in air from ionization by gamma and x-rays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ONLY for photons in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather infrequently used unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A measure of what is emitted </li></ul>
    33. 33. Absorbed Dose <ul><li>Energy deposited by any form of ionizing radiation in a unit mass of material </li></ul><ul><li>Roentgen Absorbed Dose (rad) </li></ul><ul><li>Gray (Gy) </li></ul><ul><li>1 Gy = 100 rad </li></ul>
    34. 34. Dose Equivalent <ul><li>Scale for equating relative hazards of various types of ionization in terms of equivalent risk </li></ul><ul><li>Damage in tissue measured in rem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Roentgen Equivalent Man) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q:risk of biological injury </li></ul><ul><li>rem = Q * rad </li></ul><ul><li>Sievert (Sv) </li></ul><ul><li>1 Sv = 100 rem </li></ul>
    35. 35. What do we really need to know? <ul><li>1 R  1 rad = 1 rem </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For gammas & betas* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1 rad  1 rem </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For alphas, neutrons & protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 rem = 1 rad * Q </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. And why do we want to know it? <ul><li>Dosage and dosimetry are measured and reported in rems. </li></ul><ul><li>All the Federal and State regulations are written in rems. </li></ul><ul><li>The regulators must be placated with reports in rems. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Annual Radiation Exposure Limits <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occupationally Exposed Worker: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rem mrem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole body 5 5000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye 15 15,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow 50 50,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minor 0.5 500 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant Worker 0.5* 500* _____________*9 months_ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Public: 100 mrem/year or 2mrem/hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Why Establish Occupational Exposure Limits? <ul><li>We want to eliminate ability of </li></ul><ul><li>non-stochastic effects (Acute) to occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Skin Reddening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We want to reduce the probability of the occurrence of </li></ul><ul><li>stochastic effects (Chronic) </li></ul><ul><li>to same level as other occupations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Leukemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established from Accident Data </li></ul>
    39. 39. Whole Body <ul><li>Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) </li></ul><ul><li>TEDE = Internal + External </li></ul><ul><li>Assume Internal Contribution Zero </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless Ingestion, Absorption or Inhalation Suspected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit = 5 rem / yr </li></ul>
    40. 40. Ensuring Compliance to Radiation Exposure Limits <ul><li>Use the established activity limit for each isotope </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with similar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate with meter </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, Distance, Shielding, Type, Energy, Geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TLD Chip, Luxel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioassay </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Who should wear radiation dosimeters or badges? <ul><li>Those “likely” to exceed 10% of their annual limit are required </li></ul><ul><li>Those who would like a badge </li></ul><ul><li>Minors & Declared Pregnant Workers* </li></ul>
    42. 42. Types of Badges Available
    43. 43. Rules, Rights & Responsibilities as a Radiation Worker <ul><li>Department of State Health Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texas Regulations for Control of Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>In Accordance with Texas Radiation Control Act, Health & Safety Code, Ch 401 </li></ul><ul><li>25 TAC (Texas Administrative Code) 289 </li></ul>
    44. 44. Detection of Radiation
    45. 45. Radiation Detectors <ul><li>General Classes of Detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas-Filled Detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid Detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid Detectors </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Gas-Filled Detectors <ul><li>Proportional Counter </li></ul><ul><li>Ion Chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Geiger-Mueller Counters </li></ul><ul><li>Main Difference - Charge Multiplication </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) </li></ul>
    48. 48. Radiation Misconceptions. . . . . .
    49. 49. More Radiation Misconceptions <ul><li>Radiation does not give you super human powers </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation will not make you glow in the dark </li></ul>
    50. 50. Summary of Biological Effects of Radiation <ul><li>Radiation may… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit Energy in Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause DNA Damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Ionizations in Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leading to Free Radicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Which may lead to biological damage </li></ul>
    51. 51. Radiation Effects on Cells <ul><li>Radio sensitivity Theory of Bergonie & Tribondeau. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell are radiosensitive if they : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a high division rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a long dividing future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are of an unspecialized type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are the underlying premise for ALARA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Response to radiation depends on: <ul><li>Total dose </li></ul><ul><li>Dose rate </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation quality </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of development at the time of exposure </li></ul>
    53. 53. Whole Body Effects <ul><li>Acute or Nonstochastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur when the radiation dose is large enough to cause extensive biological damage to cells so that large numbers of cells die off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evident hours to a few months after exposure (Early). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late or Stochastic (Delayed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit themselves over years after acute exposure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teratogenic </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Most and Least Radiosensitive Cells Primitive blood cells Intestinal epithelium Spermatogonia Ovarian follicular cells Lymphocytes Very High Sensitivity Gastric mucosa Mucous membranes Esophageal epithelium Urinary bladder epithelium High Sensitivity Mature red blood cells Muscle cells Ganglion cells Mature connective tissues Low Sensitivity
    55. 55. Comparison of Administrative, Regulatory and Biological Effect Doses 100% of People Die, CNS Syndrome Permanent Infertility Whole Body Regulatory Limit (5 rem/yr) Eye Regulatory Limit (15 rem/yr) 50% of People Die (450 – 500 rad) Nausea & Vomiting (10% of People) Whole Body UTHSCH Administrative Limit (0.125 rem/month) Whole Body Exposure Partial Body Exposure Extremities Regulatory Limit (50 rem/yr) Eye UTHSCH Administrative Limit (0.375 rem/month) Rad or Rem Extremities UTHSCH Administrative Limit (1.275 rem/month) General Public Whole Body Regulatory Limit (0.100 rem/yr) No Clinical Symptoms Seen Below 10 rem Cataract Formation Loss of Hair Skin Reddening Decreased White Blood Cell Count Ulcers on the Skin Molecular Death (> 100,000 rad) Gastrointestinal Syndrome
    56. 56. Medical Treatment <ul><li>External Decontamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild cleaning solution applied to intact skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Betadine, Soap, Rad-Con for hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never use harsh abrasive or steel wool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Decontamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment which enhances excretion of radionuclides </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. How Often Does This Happen? Results of reported exposure-related incidents in Texas 1956 – 2000 Source: Emery, et. al. Only 2% at the Level that Clinical Effects From Radiation Can be Seen (n=3,148)
    58. 58. Where to Find More Radiation Safety Information…. <ul><li>Basic Radiation Safety Training (6-hr) Required for All Individuals Working with Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July 11 & 12 th – 9 a.m. to Noon (both days) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call at 713-500-5840 </li></ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Safety Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Important Safety Information Posted in Every Laboratory (Yellow) </li></ul>