Country Report: INDONESIA
IAEA/RCA Mid-term Review Meeting of Focal Persons on Radiation Protection
Beijing, CHINA. 7-11 June 2004
By: Suhartono ZAHIR
BADAN PENGAWAS TENAGA NUKLIR (BAPETEN)
NUCLEAR ENERGY REGULATORY AGENCY OF INDONESIA
I. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
1.1. The Legislative Framework
Nuclear Energy Act enacted in 10 April 1997 and promulgated in State Gazette of
Republic of Indonesia Year 1997 No. 23 Supplementary State Gazette 3676 contains of
elucidation thereto is the principal and primary law governing all related aspects in the use of
nuclear energy i.e. institutions, research and development, exploration, regulatory authority,
radioactive waste management, liability for nuclear damage, and penal provisions. In order
to implement the Act comprehensively requires more detailed, technical, practicable and
explainable regulations that become its secondary and derivatives regulations, which include
Government Regulations, Presidential Decree and Chairman Decree as the lowest level of
regulations. This regime relates with hierarchy of legal system in Indonesia established in
People Consultative Assembly No. III/MPR/2000 in which encloses:
1. Constitution of Republic of Indonesia;
2. Edict of People Consultative Assembly;
3. Act, made by in agreement between Parliament and Government;
4. Government Regulation (GR) as substitute of Act, ascertained by President under certain
circumstance applicable only 1 (one) Year afterwards they shall be approved by
Parliament to be applied to;
5. GR as an Amendment of Act, initiated and drawn up by related Ministerial, Department
or Non-Departmental Government Agencies involving a chain of discussion and legal
drafting process with related sectors represented in interdepartmental team prior to being
signed up by President;
6. Presidential Decree, issued only by President of Republic of Indonesia as Head of
7. Decree of Ministerial, Departmental Minister or Chairman of Non-departmental
8. Local Regulations, made in agreement between Province or District House of
Representatives and Head of Province (Governor) or Head of District.
The commitment and concern regarding to nuclear safety and radiation protection
assigned by the Act is presented in Article 16 stating that any activity in connection with
nuclear energy utilization shall maintain safety, security, peacefulness, and health of the
workers, member of the public as well as protection to the environment. This provision is
followed-up and implemented through GR No. 63 Year 2000 on Safety and Health against
Ionizing Radiation that was enacted on 21 August 2000 and promulgated in State Gazette of
Republic of Indonesia Year 2000 No. 136 where Supplementary State Gazette Number 3992
containing its elucidation.
1.2. Radiation Safety Regulation
GR No. 63 Year 2000 covers and adopts all aspect and principles of radiation safety
and protection set out in Safety Series No. 120 and BSS 115. It also establishes system of
radiation safety management, which includes radiation protection organization, dose and
radioactivity monitoring, radiation protection apparatus, health examination, record keeping
and documentation, quality assurance, and education and training for the workers. In
addition to this concern, calibration and emergency preparedness shall be subject to this GR
as well as administrative provision in order to put into effect any breach or other non-
conformity to the existing law. To put into action this GR operationally, BAPETEN
establishes Chairman Decree No. 01/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 on Occupational Radiation Safety
that is still being amended to be harmonized and in line with the requirements and provisions
set forth in the BSS 115. Local condition and some adjustment appropriate with the social,
economical and legal system in Indonesia are particular factors taken into account in the
adoption of such standards.
1.3. Transport and Waste Safety Regulation
In 2002 the government stipulated 2 (two) GRs successively No. 26 Year 2002 on
Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and No. 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste
Management. GR No. 26 Year 2002 which promulgated in 13 May 2002 in State Gazette of
Republic of Indonesia Year 2002 No. 51 where its elucidation is on Supplementary State
Gazette No. 4201 constitutes principles of transport safety, exclusion from the scope of this
GR, licensing, obligations and responsibilities of related party involving in consignment,
packaging, radiation protection program, training and education for radiation workers,
quality assurance program, type and activity limit of radioactive material, radioactive
material containing other hazardous substance, and emergency preparedness. This GR is also
implementing Article 16 of the Act where the primary of objective of such stipulation is to
protect and ensure the safety, security, peacefulness, and health of the workers, member of
the public, as well as environmentally sound. As applied to all aforementioned regulations,
this GR has its own derivative that is Chairman Decree No. 04/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 on
Safety Provisions of Transport of Radioactive Material that was made on the basis of Safety
Series No. 6 and it is planned to be revised with the intention of TSR-1 since this GR has
concluded principles within such standards. The important decree elucidating this GR is also
BAPETEN Chairman Decree No. 05-P/Ka-BAPETEN/VII-00 on Guidance for the
Fulfillment of Safe Transport of Radioactive Material that still adopting Safety Series No. 88.
This Decree will be revised too in near time.
In the radioactive waste management auspices, Indonesia has enacted GR No. 27
Year 2002 as the application of Article 27 of the Act that entails further arrangement of the
subject matter in particular GR. This GR promulgated in 13 May 2002 in State Gazette of
Republic of Indonesia Year 2002 No. 52 where its elucidation is on Supplementary State
Gazette No. 4202 comprises of classification of radioactive waste, licensing management,
responsibilities of Promotional Body, obligations and responsibilities of waste generators
(the holder of license), the arrangement of radioactive waste originating from abroad,
management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste treatment, transport, and storage, of
quality assurance program, environmental management and monitoring, treatment of waste
from nuclear ores and other conventional ores mining, of decommissioning program,
emergency preparedness, administrative an penal provisions. Radioactive waste management
provided in this GR is relevant with the fundamental principles as set forth in Safety Series
No. 111-F in addition to the application of radiation protection principles as mentioned in
Article 3 of this GR which are justification, limitation an optimization. Article 7 says that
prior to obtaining license, any legal person or entity shall submit notification to the
Regulatory Body whether the radioactive waste produced will be returned to the original
countries or be submitted to the Promotional Body as the sole national authority to undertake
management of such waste. For the intention of returning waste they shall obtain approval
from Regulatory Body in advance. For the sake of safe management of spent nuclear fuel,
this GR determines that waste generators (licensee) shall not be allowed to reprocess such
waste nonetheless the licensees shall put the waste into interim storage during the reactor
operation lifetime, afterwards they submit such waste to the Promotional Body for final
repository emplacement or return the waste back to the original countries. To anticipate and
to handle NORM and TENORM rise from mining and milling of natural ores, this GRs
covers in Article 31 and 32 therein declare the following points:
a. Promotional Body or any entity deemed to carry out nuclear ore mining shall collect,
classify, or treat and dispose of temporarily the radioactive waste produced therein.
b. Any legal person or entity intended to carry out non-nuclear ore mining containing
radioactive waste as its tailing or byproducts shall perform radiation safety analysis and
submit the report to the Regulatory Body.
1.4. Emergency Regulations
Within the national regulatory infrastructure, there is no special Act or GRs
governing Emergency Preparedness and Response or Emergency Plans. However, GR No. 63
Year 2000 in chapter VI stipulates the emergency preparedness of radiation accident. There
are 4 Articles (Article 32-35) governing the emergency aspects in the chapter. In Article 32 is
stated that the user shall have an effort to prevent any radiation accident. Article 33 governs
the obligation of user to take emergency response when any accident happens, the safety of
human is the first priority in the concept of emergency response, and the user shall report for
the accident to the Regulatory Authority and also other related institutions or organizations.
Article 34 declares that the user utilizing the higher potential hazards of radiation installation
shall submit the Emergency Plans to the Regulatory Authority for approval.
In addition, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency has issued the Chairman Decree No.
05-P/I-03 on the Guide of Emergency Preparedness and Response. It applies for all types of
nuclear and radiation installations. The decree governs the guidance for user how to prepare
the emergency plans and the content of emergency plans and also categorization of nuclear
emergency preparedness based on the potential hazards.
1.5. Regulatory Authority Organization, Staffing and Funding
Research and development in the use of nuclear energy in Indonesia have led to a
wide scale application in research, and development in the use of nuclear energy in Indonesia
have led to a wide scale application in research, medicine, industry, agriculture, and
veterinary. Those may contribute associated risks that endanger and threaten safety and
health of the workers and member of the public as well as the sustainability and protection of
the environment. These activities need to be controlled by an effective and independent
Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency denoted henceforth BAPETEN (Badan Pengawas
Tenaga Nuklir) was founded in 1998 on the basis of Nuclear Energy Act No. 10 Year 1997
which dissolved and separated the former National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN –
Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional) then designated BAPETEN as Regulatory Body and BATAN
as Promotional Body. The separation settled on the Act was a significant measure where
averting the occurrence of conflict of interest between promotional task for research and
development in nuclear energy and the control task of nuclear energy utilization taken into
consideration and this provision distinguishes it from the previous Atomic Energy Act No. 31
Year 1964. The former Atomic Energy Act stated that the control of nuclear energy use was
authorized and responsibility of a small bureau inside BATAN. However in the
implementation of the performance of nuclear energy utilization control became low priority
and this condition may have jeopardized with safety, health and security.
The establishment of BAPETEN set forth in the current Act is concordant with the
applicable international standard particularly IAEA Basic Safety Standards – 115 and duly as
mentioned in Nuclear Safety Convention that has been ratified by Government of Republic
of Indonesia by means of Presidential Decree no. 106 Year 2001. Those documents call for
and recommend the notable roles and the need of independent regulatory authority existence
to control any nuclear energy related activities.
With reference to Article 14 of Act No. 10, BAPETEN is empowered to control any
nuclear energy utilization through regulations, licensing, and inspection. In conducting its
tasks, as one of non-departmental government agencies, BAPETEN is under and directly
responsible to the President of Republic of Indonesia pursuant to Presidential decree No. 76
Year 1998 as revised and amended latest by Presidential Decree No. 103 Year 2001 on
Status, Function, Authority, Form and Organization Structure of Non-Departmental
In connection with the main task of BAPETEN, furthermore in Article 15 of the Act
sets out the objectives of controlling nuclear energy use which are:
a. to assure the welfare, security and peacefulness of all people;
b. to assure safety and health of workers, member of the public as well as protection of the
c. to maintain legal order in the application of nuclear energy utilization;
d. to promote legal consciousness of nuclear energy users to develop safety culture in the
field of nuclear energy;
e. to prevent the diversion of nuclear material utilization;
f. to assure the maintained and improved discipline of workers involving in the
application of nuclear energy utilization.
BAPETEN authorizes to recruit its employees based on professionalism and
particular fields of knowledge and scientific background required in each division in regard
with regulations draft-making and analysis, evaluation and assessment of license documents,
and with performance of inspection. The President of Republic of Indonesia designates and
appoints Chairman of BAPETEN and the Chairman has his privilege to select the rest of
staffs, direct and run BAPETEN in the conformity of applicable laws. BAPETEN as one of
the governmental agencies attains financial support from annual national budgetary and
expenditures to proceed its institutional tasks assigned by law and operational administration
therein. The organizational chart of BAPETEN based on Chairman Decree No. 01.re.1/K-
OTK/Ka-BAPETEN/II-01 on Organization and tasks of BAPETEN is implied on Attachment
1. Conducting its tasks, BAPETEN receives the budget from the government.
1.6. Co-ordination and co-operation at the national level
BAPETEN has been established the co-ordination and co-operation with the other
related institutions or organizations either government or private. To achieve effective and
efficient regulatory control on the utilization of nuclear energy, there are some memoranda of
understanding developed by BAPETEN and other organizations or ministries. For example,
in the field of nuclear energy utilization, it has been signed the memorandum of
understanding which is stated the co-ordination and co-operation of nuclear technology
between BAPETEN and the National Nuclear Energy Agency. To increase the
professionalism of BAPETEN’s staff, it has been also established the close co-operation with
some universities in providing training and education. The other objective of the co-operation
is also to exchange information.
1.7. International Cooperation
To achieve the goal of the regulatory control of nuclear energy utilization, BAPETEN
needs to develop the co-operation with the regulatory bodies of other States and with
international organizations. The type of most international co-operations is technical co-
operations including technical training and scientific visits. BAPETEN obtains many
technical assistance and advice in the form of missions from the Atomic Energy Agency.
Almost every Year, BAPETEN has been provided the training courses, scientific visits and
expert missions and also some technical documents. The regulatory authorities from other
states co-operated with BAPETEN are Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the KINS-
Korea, the MITI-Japan, and others.
II. ACTIVITIVIES OF THE REGULATORY AUTHORITY
2.1. Notification and authorization system
One aspect of control of nuclear energy utilization is licensing procedures. Paragraph
(1) Article 17 of Act No. 10 Year 1997 determines that any activities related to nuclear
energy utilization shall be consent to license, regardless of particular condition shall be
subject to exemption that further be settled on GR. Paragraph (2) sets up that construction
and operation of nuclear reactor and other nuclear installations including decommissioning of
nuclear reactor shall authorize license. Bearing in mind the mandatory clause exists in the
first Paragraph of Article 17, in 1999 BAPETEN proposed to the President draft of GR
pertaining to the subject, which later on revealed as GR No. 64 Year 2000 on Licensing of
Nuclear Energy Utilization that was signed and enacted on 21 August 2000 then promulgated
in State Gazette of Republic of Indonesia Year 2000 No. 137 where Supplementary State
Gazette Number 3993 containing its elucidation. This GR is intended only for licensing
process of any practice relating to the use of radioactive material, radiation sources and
nuclear material, which encompasses requirements and general procedures to obtain license,
compulsory and responsibilities of licensee, administrative provisions, and inspection.
BAPETEN has been issued 3 licenses for research reactors and some supporting
installations, 2 licenses of non-commercial irradiators and a license of commercial of
irradiator, more than two thousands licenses of medical, industrial and research facilities
utilizing the nuclear energy.
2.2. Inventory of Sources
Data on radiation sources and radioactive materials used in the radiation and nuclear
installations have been obtained and controlled by the licensing processes and inspection
activities. A license issued by the BAPETEN contains the type and number of radiation
sources and or radioactive materials used for the each utilization, therefore BAPETEN can
obtain the inventory of sources from the data in the issued licenses. The Inspector of
BAPETEN conducts the inspection to the nuclear or radiation installation to verify the
accurateness of data of inventory sources such as the type and number and other
characteristics of sources including the appropriateness of facilities and radiation protection
equipment for handling the sources. BAPETEN has not had other special activity for
controlling the inventory of sources.
2.3. Inspection and Review
Inspection as governed inside the GR No. 64 Year 2000 pursuant to Article 20 of the
Act orders to BAPETEN to undertake inspection to any nuclear installations and radiation
facilities in order to ensure the compliance to license requirements and conditions as well as
applicable law in the area of nuclear safety. BAPETEN has its own right to assign inspectors
based on qualifications and even to discharge them. According to this GR inspection shall be
performed periodically or timely with or without notification. Inspectors as referred to in
Article 13 of this GR have their tasks and authority to go into any installations and premises
where sources are used or stored, to perform inspection during evaluation of license
application, to undertake radiation monitoring, and to terminate any practice whenever
emergency condition which could lead to radiation hazard should occur. BAPETEN carries
out nuclear and or radiation inspections to average 200 installations annually. For an
emergency situation, BAPETEN takes an action to inspect as soon as possible after it has
been reported by the user.
Act No. 10 Year 1997 has specified the availability of penalties for serious non-
compliance (maximum monetary penalties and maximum prison sentence). For example,
based on the Article 43 when the radiation installation has not had a license, it is subject to
the fine of maximum of a hundred millions rupiahs. According to the GRs, to take actions to
any breach offence, violence, and non-compliance committed by user or licensees,
BAPETEN is authorized to deliver administrative sanctions initiated with written
notification/warning and halted with revocation and/or suspension of the license and
termination of operation of such installations/facilities which provided in accordance with the
implication and influences may cause and the offence degree entitled thereof. In addition to
such measure, BAPETEN may proceed particular breach, offence, and non-compliance
contravening the Act and its derivatives to the criminal court. Enforcement of those
regulations shall not be done solely by BAPETEN according to penal legal system in
Indonesia. This action shall involve also other institutions concerned namely police
department, public prosecutors, and judges.
Until now, BAPETEN frequently enforces some users especially medical installations
with finding from the inspection activities by the written notification/warning. BAPETEN
has an effort to advise them to take corrective actions in fulfilling the licensing requirements.
2.5. Assessment and verification of operational radiation protection programs
BAPETEN has a special center in charge of the assessment and verification of
operational radiation protection programs. The center provides a number of inputs needed for
a technical judgment in conducting regulatory activities, such as regulation drafting,
licensing process and inspection activities. The staffs of center are doing researches by
themselves to support the assessment and verifications in supporting the implementation of
2.6. Safety and security of sources
In controlling the safety and security of sources, BAPETEN has applied the strict
licensing requirements like the requirement of qualified workers in handling the sources, the
requirement of the adequate facilities including interim storage facility, the requirement of
appropriate radiation protection equipment or tools and the requirement of available
procedures. For the security of sources, there is no special regulation published by
BAPETEN. During this Year BAPETEN has taken into account detail legal drafting on the
security of sources. Besides that, BAPETEN has also been carrying out some seminar and or
workshops on security of sources to obtain technical input from stakeholders. In co-operation
with the Department of Energy – USA, BAPETEN has been doing the proactive activities to
assist the users in facilitating the security equipment and or infrastructure.
2.7. Control of orphan sources
Until now, all applied nuclear regulations have not required yet the specified clear
actions to control the orphan sources, including the requirement for user in reporting to
BAPETEN when there is an orphan source within its installation. However, BAPETEN is
doing the action plans to regulate the orphan sources.
2.8. Technical services availability
Sometimes, BAPETEN, as a government authority who has one function to co-
ordinate the national nuclear legal infrastructure in the close-relationship with other
institutions or organizations, has also been participating in the task of establishment of the
rules and regulations from other related government institutions or ministries. BAPETEN
frequently undertakes the consultant or educates or instructs a number of radiation workers
provided by the other government organizations or non-government bodies.
2.9. Communication with the public
According to the Article 21 of the Act No. 10/1997, BAPETEN provides the
guidance and counseling on the implementation of efforts to the health and safety of radiation
workers, and member of the public, as well as environmental protection. Annually,
BAPETEN carries out the socialization on the regulations or rules which will be applied for
the user around the country. BAPETEN also provides the information of regulatory activities
electronically and in print. From the communication, BAPETEN has involved the member of
public in doing the functions; therefore the quality of regulatory product will be continuously
2.10. Quality management systems
BAPETEN established “Quality Assurance Program of BAPETEN Rev 0.0” in
March 23rd, 2001. This is a Level-1 document that formulates quality management system of
BAPETEN. Currently, the document is being updated. Final Draft of Revision 1.0 is
adopting widely from the IAEA-TECDOC-1090 “Quality assurance within regulatory
bodies.” (June, 1999). Management procedures of rulemaking, licensing and inspection, and
assessment manuals are available. All of these documents are guideline to realize systematic
and planned activities to ensure an effective and efficient regulatory program for radiation
protection and the safety of radiation sources. The documents also identify all BAPETEN
stakeholders to make it possible for an effective and efficient coordination and or
III. CONTROL OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
3.1. Individual monitoring for external radiation
Dosimetry services available and their status in Indonesia are as follow:
No Institution Accreditation status Types of Dosimeter
1. Laboratory of Safety, Health, and
Pasar Jumat Facility, Jakarta.
TLD: Beta, Gamma,
X-ray & Neutron
2. Center for Waste Management.
Serpong Facility, BATAN
None Film: Gamma, X-ray
3. MOH: BPFK Jakarta None Film: Gamma, X-ray
4. MOH: BPFK Medan None Film: Gamma, X-ray
5. MOH: BPFK Surabaya None Film: Gamma, X-ray
6. MOH: BPFK Makassar None Film: Gamma, X-ray
Institution no 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (BPFK is part Ministry of Health) are in preparation to
obtain an accreditation from National Accreditation Institution.
3.2. Calibration of Monitoring Equipment for External Radiation
The SSDL is in BATAN and is also called as SSDL-Jakarta. The facility is available
for the purpose of calibrating 100 kV X-ray to gamma ray (Co-60) used in radiotherapy. The
standard used is traceable to BIPM-France. For calibration of 4 kV X-ray to gamma ray (Co-
60) used in radiation protection, the standard is traceable to PTB-Germany. Furthermore, for
neutron (Am-Be) calibration used in radiation protection, the standard is traceable to ETL-
Japan. The quality management system of SSDL BATEN is in the process of national
accreditation on SNI 19-17027 (ISO 17025).
3.3. Individual monitoring for and of an assessment of intakes radionuclides
Dosimetry services are available for direct monitoring of intakes radionuclides, while
for indirect measurement is also available by bioassay method using Low Background
Counter Instrument. The management system uses GLP (Good laboratory Practice) and in
the preparation toward national accreditation system.
3.4. Workplace monitoring
Workplace monitoring has to be conducted by every nuclear installation and radiation
facility as it is stated by Article No. 14 of GR No 63 Year 2000. The licensee of those
installations has to provide radiation protection equipments, individual dose monitoring,
workplace monitoring and also environmental monitoring system (Article No. 18 of GR No
63 Year 2000). Regulatory inspection performed by BAPETEN also verify if licensee carry
out workplace monitoring regularly
3.5. Assessment of exposure of sources natural radiation
Within the last three Years, BAPETEN conducted assessment of NORM and
TENORM in some potential places such as tin mining. This assessment is a pilot project to
develop a guideline of format and content of safety report, which has to be submitted by
Mine Company that potentially resulting radioactive waste. This requirement is stated in
Article 32 of GR No. 27 Year 2002.
3.6. Central dose record keeping for external and internal exposure
All dosimetry services send their evaluation result of film or TLD badge to
BAPETEN. Since the last three Years, Central dose record keeping for external and internal
exposure has been carried out by BAPETEN.
IV. CONTROL OF MEDICAL EXPOSURES
There are some basic regulations for authorization and safety requirements for
utilization of radiation source and radioactive materials for medical purposes, i.e.:
• GR No. 63 Year 2000 on Safety and Health against Ionizing Radiation;
• GR No. 64 Year 2000 on Licensing of Nuclear Energy Utilization;
• GR No. 26 Year 2002 on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material; and
• GR No. 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste Management.
4.1 Patient protection in diagnostic (and interventional) radiology
Currently, BAPETEN is in the process of establishing Chairman Decree on “Safety
Provision in Diagnostic Radiology.” It will amend the Chairman Decree No. 01P/Ka-
BAPETEN/I-03 on Guidance Level for Radiodiagnostic Patient” (established in January
2003.) The final draft of Chairman Decree was presented to the users in the end of May 2004
for the purpose of public hearing. This document governs both diagnostic and interventional
radiology, and is mainly refers to BSS-115 and IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.5 (2002).
Internally, this draft refers to Chairman Decree No. 01/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 on Occupational
Radiation Safety (This Decree is also in the process of amendment based on BSS-115). Other
international standards are also used in the draft particularly in the chapter of quality
assurance in diagnostic radiology.
The draft of Chairman Decree on “Safety Provision in Diagnostic Radiology” is
1. Safety principles: justification, optimization (including guidance levels) and
2. Administrative principles:
a. Organization: Requirement for radiologist, medical physicist, medical
radiographer, radiography operator, radiation safety officer and nurses, and
b. Quality assurance, including quality control by means of compliance test
protocol and mechanism;
3. Technical requirements: Design considerations, radiation source device requirements,
operational considerations, facility requirements, installment, radiation protection
4. Investigation on medical exposure accident.
4.2 Patient protection in interventional radiology
(See 4.1 above)
4.3 Patient protection in Nuclear Medicine
A specific regulation governing patient protection in nuclear medicine is under an
assessment by BAPETEN. The requirements will refer to the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-
1.5 (2002) on “Radiological Protection for Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and the
Appendix II of BSS-115.
4.4 Patient protection in Radiotherapy
In the end of 2002, BAPETEN established Chairman Decree No. 21/Ka-BAPETEN/
XII-02 on “Quality Assurance Program for Radiotherapy Installation” based fully on the
IAEA-TECDOC-1040 (1998) on “Design and implementation of a radiotherapy
programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspect.” In
September 2003, BAPETEN in coordination with Ministry of Health and Indonesian
Radiation Oncologist Society (PORI) organize a national seminar on this chairman
decree. Professors of universities; radiation oncologist, medical physicist and hospital
director (as licensee and or employer) of all 19 hospitals with therapy facility came to
the seminar. Recommendation was made to improve the facility equipment, personnel
training and quality management system. Starting in this Year, BAPETEN perform
quality audits in radiotherapy installations as a pilot project. BAPETEN planned to do
this quality audits annually.
Currently, BAPETEN is carrying out a draft making of Chairman Decree on Safety
Provision on Radiotherapy. It would be expected that the final draft would be finished by the
end of this Year, prior to public hearing and the stipulation.
BAPETEN sent some medical physicists to some RTCs organized by the IAEA/RCA.
A national training course for medical physicist and radiographers will help improve quality
and safety of radiotherapy installation.
4.5 Type approval of radiation sources for medical use
All utilization of radiation sources and radioactive materials for medical purposes are
subject to licensing under GR No. 64 Year 2000 on Licensing of Nuclear Energy Utilization.
Expected amendment of this GR and GR No 63 Year 2000 will classify levels or types of
authorization based on the IAEA-TECDOC-1067. This amendment is expected to be
accomplished in 2005.
V. CONTROL OF PUBLIC EXPOSURES
5.1. Control of Radioactive Discharges
In a facility utilize unsealed sources; radioactive wastes can be in the form of liquid,
gaseous, or a solid waste. Short lived solid and liquid wastes should be managed by the user
itself. There are two principles applied here. Firstly, the radioactive wastes should be
collected and stored for a sufficient time under controlled conditions until they decay to
below a clearance limit. Secondly, radioactive waste can be discharge to the environment
after the user obtains an authorization from BAPETEN cq. Directorate for Licensing of
Radioactive Material and Radiation Source.
For clearance level, BAPETEN adopts the IAEA-TECDOC-1000 on “clearance of
materials resulting from the use of radio nuclides in medicine, industry and research”.
According to GR No. 63 Year 2000 on The Safety and Health of Ionizing Radiation
Utilization, the user shall to monitor the radioactivity level in the environment routinely,
periodically, and/or incidentally and the record of the document must to be sent to
BAPETEN’s Inspector shall perform inspection to installations to verify the
compliance with regulations and or license requirements.
5.2. Environmental and Food Monitoring
The current requirement related to Environmental and Food Monitoring in Indonesia is
a performance-based requirement. Environmental and Food Monitoring are required to be
secured from unauthorized removal. Since Nuclear Power Plant until now are not yet
establish, therefore there are no risk to environmental and food Monitoring. Indonesia have
clear procedure to Environmental Monitoring. Minister Decree for Environmental number 86
Year 2002 were made a Guidance for Environmental Management and Monitoring.
5.3. Control of exposure to Radon
Research on Radon in mine activities and a building have been done by National
Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The result of the research concluded that concentration
activity of Radon in dwelling, building are not significant yet to control by regulation.
5.4. National waste management strategy
Legally, waste management is one of the most important field in nuclear safety in
Indonesia. It is regulated in the highest legislation system, Nuclear Energy Act number 10,
1997. According to the Act, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) has their
responsibility to conduct the waste management technology, and provides final repository for
high level radioactive waste. BATAN may manage radioactive wastes as long as they fill all
technical and regulatory requirements for it and has a valid licence from Regulatory Body/
BAPETEN. Furthermore, BATAN has a unique responsibilities to provide technical
guidance to all radioactive waste management facilities in Indonesia.
According GR (GR) number 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste Management stated:
(1) Any nature or legal person deems to undertake utilization of nuclear energy shall
declare to BAPETEN whether their existing and anticipated radioactive waste
will be returned to the original country or removed and submitted to BATAN.
(2) The return of radioactive waste as referred to in paragraph (1) shall obtain
approval from BAPETEN.
(3) In the case of BATAN shall manage the radioactive waste as referred to in
paragraph (1), BAPETEN shall notify such manner to BATAN.
5.5. General Safety Provisions For radioactive Waste
Radioactive waste shall be managed within an appropriate legal framework of
radioactive waste management. It has been established through act, regulations, guides etc.
1. Nuclear Energy Act,
Chapter VI of the Nuclear Energy Act No.10, 1997 entitled “ Radioactive Waste
Management” consists of six Articles, in the basis of radioactive waste management
regulation in Indonesia.
In the case of radioactive waste management, the implementation of Nuclear Energy
Act No.10, 1997 is regulated by GR (GR). GR No. 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive
Waste Management is adapted from the IAEA Safety Series No.111-F; No.111-S-5,
3. Decrees of Chairman of BAPETEN
The GR are further implemented in the forms of Decrees of Chairman (DC) of
BAPETEN. DC No. 03, 1999 on “The Safety Provisions on Radioactive Waste
Management” was established 1999 adapted from Safety Series No.12, 1965 and DC
No. 11,1986 on “The Technical Guidance for the Radioactive Waste Management by
the User” based Safety Series No.12, 1965.
5.6. Treatment of Radioactive Waste
• A short lived solid and liquid wastes should be managed by the user itself. Radioactive
wastes shall collect, classify or conduct treatment, and store the radioactive waste in
interim storage facilities prior to removal and submission to BATAN or radioactive
wastes should be directly released to the environment within the limit of clearance level;
• Radioactive waste with long half-live or one that mixed with toxic matter, such as from
therapy application, have to be treated specially before disposal. Beside a chemical
treatment, the incinerator or compactor is used to reduce the volume of the waste. Then,
may send the waste to BATAN waste facility for final storage;
• Long lived sealed sources should returned to the manufactures/ supplier in its original
country or sent to BATAN.
5.7. Control of Discharge from the Management of Radioactive Waste
In Indonesia, Control of Discharge from the Management of Radioactive Waste are issued
authorizations that require renewal pending to the evaluation from the inspection. Licensees
usually overlook to renew their license. GR No. 63 Year 2000 on “The Safety and Health of
Ionising Radiation Utilization stated , the releases of radioactive material into the
environment from all facilities shall not surpass the dose limit for the members of public,
and “The user shall keep all documents containing the workplace monitoring results,
radioactivity environmental monitoring results. BAPETEN has adopted IAEA –TECDOC-
1000 on Clearance of materials resulting from the use of radio nuclides in medicine, industry
BAPETEN shall perform inspection to installations to verify the compliance with regulations
and or license requirements or conditions. Inspection shall be executed by Nuclear Safety
Inspectors assigned and laid off by Regulatory Authority.
5.8. Clearance Region for Radioactive Waste
The same as 5.1.
5.9. Storage of Radioactive Waste
The user’s storage facility of radioactive waste shall satisfy the minimum
requirements, which are to:
a. avoid flood and erosion;
b. earthquake reliance and considering characteristics of earth material and water chemistry;
c. be equipped with radiation monitoring system and environmental radioactivity;
d. be equipped with coolant system;
e. be equipped with shielding system (defense in depth);
f. be equipped with physical protection system;
g. consider population distribution and region order in the vicinity of storage location; and
h. to assess external radiation exposure rate .
The radioactive wastes could be stored under a controlled conditions and need a
license from BAPETEN. The maximum time in a user’s storage is 5 Years, then, they must
sent to BATAN or returned to supplier.
5.10. Disposal of Radioactive Waste
GR of the Republic of Indonesia number 27 Year 2002 on Radioactive Waste
Management stated, “Interim storage for low level, intermediate level, and high level waste
shall fulfill the minimum requirements below:
a. flood-free location;
b. earthquake reliance;
c. design of building suited to the radioactive waste quantity and characteristics, and
pollution surveillance measures;
d. equipped with radiation protection devices; and
e. periodical environmental monitoring”.
5.11. Decommissioning of Waste Management Facilities and Radioactive Waste from the
Decommissioning of Nuclear and Other Facilities
GR No. 27 Year 2002 on “Radioactive Waste Management” stated,
• Prior to undertaking decommissioning of radioactive waste treatment installation, any of
waste treatment facilities shall submit documents of decommissioning program to
• Chairman Decree No. 07-P/Ka-BAPETEN/I-02 has given guidance on Decommissioning
of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities and Non Reactor Nuclear Installations.
• Regulatory Body shall to assess the decommissioning program.
• Radioactive waste generating from decommissioning shall be removed and submitted to
After successful completion of the decommissioning, BAPETEN has to declare that
facility and the site can be released from regulatory control. BAPETEN has an authority over
rehabilitation within the Country, BAPETEN Chairman Decree number 07-P/Ka-
BAPETEN/I-02 have given a Guidance on Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and
Research Facilities and Non Reactor Nuclear Installations.
VI. TRANSPORT SAFETY
6.1. National Competent Authority for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material.
Based on Act No. 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy, Indonesia established an
regulatory body called Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). BAPETEN is the
only competent authority which has responsibility to control any uses of nuclear energy
including during transportation of radioactive material. To carry out this responsibility
BAPETEN formulate regulations, issue licenses, and inspect activities any uses of nuclear
energy. Article 17 Act No.10 Year 1997 states that any person shall have license before they
start to use nuclear energy including transportation of radioactive material.
National legislation relating to the transportation of radioactive material has been
a. Act No. 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy.
b. GR No. 64 Year 2000 on Licensing of Nuclear Energy Utilization.
c. GR No. 26 Year 2002 on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material.
d. Chairman Decree of BAPETEN No. 04/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 on Regulation of the Safe
Transport of Radioactive Material.
e. Chairman Decree of BAPETEN No. 05-P/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 on Guideline for Safety
Requirement of Transport of radioactive Material.
The act and GR contain general regulation to the licensee concerning what and how
to fulfill all requirements. And for both above decrees of Chairman of BAPETEN in point c
and d are reproduced based on from IAEA Safety Guide No. 6 Year 1985 contain more detail
of technical aspects.
GR No. 26 Year 2002 regulates all aspect of safe transport of radioactive material
which cover licensing, role and responsibility of shipper, receiver, and regulatory body,
transfer cask, radiation protection program, quality assurance program, qualification of
radioactive material, and emergency response.
The status of BAPETEN, the name and address has been officially communicated to
Action plan implementation or effort will be done as follows:
a. To revise the Chairman decree No. 04.Ka-BAPETEN/V-99 which reproduced from
IAEA Safety Guide No. 6 Year 1985 with new reference i.e. IAEA Safety Guide No.
ST-1/2000 Rev 1.
b. To complete all procedures and/or guidelines which be ordered by some Article stated
in the GR No.26 Year 2002.
c. To make closer cooperation and coordination among National departmental agencies.
d. To send BAPETEN staffs in participating some training or workshops on Safe
Transport on Radioactive Material.
e. To propose to invite the IAEA mission dealing with the Transport of Radioactive
6.2. Coordination and Cooperation at National and International Level.
As national competent authority, BAPATEN make close coordination and
cooperation to other national relevant organization such as Department of Transportation,
Custom body, State police department and others dealing with any transportation radioactive
material. Even though there is no formal arrangement in term of memorandum of
understanding (MOU) those relevant agencies have responsive close coordination to make
appropriate team work together. Channel of communication to other relevant agency also be
maintained by many different way such as managerial meeting, regular training course for
radiation protection officer (RPO), and others. In some cases, BAPETEN staff optionally be
invited as invited lecture by other department or institutions during their training course
program dealing with radiation safety and or safe transport of radioactive material.
In Article 31 of the GR No. 26 Year 2002 states that ‘In case of accident during
transportation, Shipper shall report to BAPETEN, to other relevant agencies and to receiver’.
In order to propose a transport-permit as one of requirement, shipper shall submit a
procedure to cope the most credible emergency or accident during their transportation. This
emergency response procedure will be evaluated by BAPETEN before issuing a license of
In the international level BAPETEN have close cooperation with the Agency such as
regularly report submission about import and export control of nuclear material. Indonesia
also as a member of IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database programme. Indonesia has signed
some international conventions which is in general or in part of their content have relation to
safe transport of radioactive material, such as Nuclear safety convention, NPT, Physical
Protection of Nuclear Material convention, Early notification of nuclear accident convention,
Assistance in the case of Nuclear accident or radiological emergency convention, and
In regional level Indonesia is one member state to SEANWFZ (South East Asia
Nuclear Weapon Free Zone) who participate to maintain safety and security in this region.
6.3. Compliance Assurance Program
BAPETEN perform main task to assure safety, security and safeguards during
transportation of radioactive material, as stated in the GR No. 26 Year 2002. In this
regulation cover all aspects to regulate the safe transport of radioactive material which cover
licensing, role and responsibility shipper, receiver, and regulatory body, transfer cask,
radiation protection program, quality assurance program, qualification of radioactive
material, and emergency response.
BAPETEN perform its task by issuing rule and legislation, license and also doing
Licensing and inspection mechanism.
BAPETEN evaluates and reviews all transportation proposal before issuing any permit.
Validation of any certificate is one of important step to assure the safe transport of
radioactive material. All data submitted to BAPETEN shall be verified by inspection in
appropriate way in order to conform completeness and correctness.
For international transfer of radioactive material via any border of neighboring country, the
specified custom body in the border will take offer this task to verify all transport document
validation including license to transport of radioactive material issued by BAPETEN.
In order to combat of illicit trafficking entering to and exit from this country still has to be
improved because Indonesia is the bigger country with more than 60% water and very long
cost over the country. Present condition of lacking equipments and instruments to detect any
illicit transfer in the legal border become the most priority consideration and it should be
taken in the first steps near future.
VII. PLANNING FOR AND RESPONSE TO RADIATION EMERGENCIES
7.1. National level arrangements for emergency preparedness and response
In 2002 BAPETEN (National Energy Regulatory Agency) proposed a preliminary
draft on the establishment of national nuclear emergency center. In the following Year, all
organization involved in the management of a nuclear emergency were identified and initial
coordination with those organization, such as the National Coordinating Agency Emergency
Management (BAKORNAS PBP), the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) and the
Department of Health was started. BAKORNAS PBP is the national coordinating agency for
emergency management that deals with natural and man-made disaster and is directly
responsible to president and is managed by the office of the vice president.
Currently, BAPETEN is in the process of proposing a draft, which will be issued by
the BAKORNAS PBP, that will appoint BAPETEN as the coordinator in case of nuclear or
radiation emergencies. BAPETEN is also in the process of improving the coordination and
revising the draft on the establishment of a national nuclear emergency center and it is hopes
that by the Year 2006 BAPETEN will have a memorandum understanding is in place,
BAPETEN will formally begin to establish a national radiation emergency plan and to test it.
Internally, however, BAPETEN is currently in the process of establishing its own
procedures in dealing with radiological emergencies and it is planned that by the end of 2005
the procedures and the relevant work instructions will be in place.
7.2. Emergency preparedness and response for licensed facilities and practices
The Government of the Republic Indonesia has issued GR No 63 Year 2000 on the
safety and health of ionizing radiation utilization, in which chapter VI of the regulation deals
specifically with radiation emergency response, as shown in Apendix 1. Furthermore,
BAPETEN has issued decree of Chairman of BAPETEN No. 05-P/I-2003 decree is still in
Indonesian and no English translation is available at the moment. The decree itself is now
being revised to include the categorization of installation with medium to high potential
So far, the only installation that regularly has emergency response drills is the
national nuclear energy agency (BATAN). We suspect that other installation’s failure to
regularly have emergency response drills is duo to installation’s unfamiliarity with the decree
of Chairman of BAPETEN No. 05-P/I-2003. In order to remedy this situation, BAPETEN
has programmes to familiarize the installation with the decree.
Currently, BAPETEN is in the final process of drafting a decree of chairman of
BAPETEN on incident reporting system for research reactor as a preparation to join IAEA’s
IRSRR. It is planned that in 2006, the decree will be isuued and Indonesia will aplly dor a
membership in IAEA’s IRSRR
7.3. Medical preparedness for emergencies
All hospital that have radiotherapy and nuclear medicine installation, including
BATAN’s clinc in its 3 search are capable to give first aid and mange the treatment of
radiation injured injuries in case of nuclear and radiation emergencies, although they do not
necessarily have separate rooms to decontaminate persons
In 2002 BAPETEN proposed a preliminary draft on establishment of several referral
centers/hospitals in the case of nuclear or radiation emergencies. Since then, coordination
with several major hospitals and the department of health has been underway to establish
such center/hospitals. The main problem in the establishment of such center/hospitals is lack
of human sources, equipment and special rooms to manage the treatment of radiation injures
injuries in case of nuclear and radiation emergencies.
This Year, a final draft on the establishment of several center/ hospital in the case of
nuclear or radiation emergencies is expected and it is hoped that in 2005, a memorandum of
understanding between BAPETEN, the hospital and the department of health will be reached.
Once the memorandum of understanding is in place, a pilot project on the referral hospital
will be started.
RADIATION EMERGENCY RESPONSE
The operator shall implement the radiation emergency response
(1). In the case of radiation accident, the operator shall carry out the emergency
(2). For the purpose of radiation emergency preparedness mentioned in Clause (1), the
human safety shall be the first priority;
(3). In the case of a radiation accident, the operator shall immediately report the process of
accident and its emergency response to the Regulatory Body and other related competent
(1). The operator of the high potential radiological installation shall has the emergency
response plan to prevent potential hazards from the anticipated radiation accident during
(2). The emergency response plan mentioned in clause (1) shall be provided by the operator,
and at least shall include:
a. The type/classification of accidents that may happen in the installation;
b. Emergency response for each type/classification of accidents;
c. Emergency response organizations;
d. Emergency response procedure;
e. Available emergency response equipment;
f. Emergency response personnel
g. Emergency response training;
h. Communication system with other competent authorities concerned with the emergency
The provisions mentioned in Article 33 and Article 34 will be further regulated by the decree
of chairman of the regulatory body.
VIII. EDUCATION AND TRAINING BAPETEN
8.1. Overview of Training Infrastructure in BAPETEN
Since the institution of BAPETEN in 1998, education and training has been one of its
main duties. Growing number of practices using nuclear technology has not attained by
adequate resources in maintaining safe use of radiation sources. Thus BAPETEN has the
obligation to achieve sufficient level of capabilities and competencies among the users of
radiation sources for the sake of public safety and welfare. To further enhance effectiveness
and performance, BAPETEN ought to develop its human resources through suitable
education and training, thus achieving appropriate knowledge and expertise in carrying out
their duties. Consequently, training infrastructures have been established to cater the need of
radiation protection personnel in various nuclear related practices. The major training
infrastructure in Indonesia are as follows:
a. Education institutes
In the past few Years, there has been a decline in public interest in the study of nuclear
technology, fewer students enrolled in nuclear science subject, resulting in closure and
amalgamation of nuclear science department in universities. Yet the demand for the
professionals in nuclear technology is increasing, especially in medical practices. To
anticipate changes in public interest, BAPETEN has been assisting universities in providing
nuclear related post graduate degree, especially in the field of medical physic and nuclear
medicine. In addition, BAPETEN also collaborates with UGM in providing the degree in
Industrial Safety, with carries out substantial study on radiation protection.
b. College for Nuclear Technology (STIN) in Yogyakarta
The establishment of College for Nuclear Technology is needed to supply professionals
in nuclear technology as well as to response lower participation of public education on the
subject. The college, which is under the auspices of BATAN, is the only institution that
provides bachelor degree in nuclear science and technology, hence matching the demand of
young nuclear engineer in Indonesia. Until now, STTN has produced 300 high quality
graduates who finally dedicate their knowledge in various nuclear-related practice in
Indonesia. BAPETEN maintain close ties with STTN, especially in promoting the role
BAPETEN in regulating the use of radiation sources, BAPETEN regularly conducts seminar,
training, and short courses in STTN to enhance safe practice in their future workplace.
c. Overseas and domestic planning
In order to the basic knowledge in radiation protection maintained by tertiary education
system, advance training courses are established in Indonesia. Most of these training course
require skill and experts such that collaboration with domestic and international partners is
necessary. BAPETEN, works together with department of health to perform radiation safety
training course for medical practitioners. International and bilateral cooperation is
particularly helpful in providing technical know-how and skills and therefore achieving
higher capabilities and competencies in safe use of radiation sources. As to match the
growing needs training, BAPETEN itself undertakes 10 to 20 training courses with qualified
instructor from BATAN and BAPETEN. Currently, BATAN and BAPETEN are the only
national training institutes that cater for radiation protection training courses.
8.2. Education and training for radiation protection officers and experts.
Any national training institutions could organize radiation protection training courses
after obtaining accreditation from BAPETEN. Accredited institution are given the
opportunity to conduct their basic training course for radiation protection officers (RPO)
provided that they have met teaching requirements established by BAPETEN. The basic
requirements for RPO course would range from standard curriculum, suitable qualification of
teaching personnel to adequate teaching facilities. Here BAPETEN has the duty to oversee,
evaluate and maintain standards of the training courses, hence sufficient competencies and
capabilities of RPO are established. At the present, only Education Training Center (ETC) of
BATAN has been fully accredited and recommended by BAPETEN. ETC of BATAN carries
out seven-in house RPO training course annually. In addition, they conduct training courses
in other places if requested, especially when large number of participant in the corresponding
area of requesting parties involved. There is no provision for on the job training in RPO
training course. Having completed the RPO training course, the RPO will receive license
from BAEPETEN after passing basic RPO examination satisfactorily. As to maintain
adequate level of knowledge, BAPETEN conducts requalification training course for RPO.
The officers are required to undertake requalification training course minimum twice within
five-Years license period.
It is important to note the level of radiation protection in Indonesia is far from
adequate in medical practices. With the establishment of standard radiation protection
program through out the country, there has been a sudden shortage of radiation protection
officers in medical practices. Hence, starting the Year 2000 BAPETEN has developed a crash
training program with the objective to accelerate the capability and improve radiation
protection program in medical practices. It is expected that within 5 Years, 1500 radiation
protection officers will be available to serve in medical practices.
In order to improve the quality of trainees, BAPETEN works together with competent
institutions to conduct Training for Trainers (TOT). Additionally, fellowship are available for
qualified personnel to pursue higher degree in local and overseas universities, such that
expertise on the subject could be achieved.
8.2. Education and training for manager and workers
BAPETEN has close cooperation with ETC of BATAN and department of health to
develop the curricula of basic radiation protection training course for radiation workers. Most
of the training program are self sustaining and therefore reduce the workload of BAPETEN.
There has been discussion to prepare practice-specific curricula of the radiation
protection training course for nuclear facilities, therapeutics, diagnostic, industrial, and
academic practices. These are important recommendation for BAPETEN in promoting safe
use of radiation sources.
8.3. Education and training for medical and paramedics professionals
In order to maintain adequate level of radiation protection in medical practices,
BAPETEN maintains close cooperation with medical association (such as Physician
Association of Indonesia-IDI) to carry out basic radiation protection training courses for
medical personnel. It is expected that training courses could fulfill the shortage of knowledge
in medical practices, especially among physicist and nurses. BAPETEN also works with
relevant medical association to organize seminars promoting safety of medical professionals
and the benefits of patients. In addition, BAPETEN initiated visits to hospitals and medical
institutions to provide guidance on the safe use of radiation sources.
Currently, very few universities in Indonesia specialize in nuclear technology. Some
universities offer education in nuclear physics as post graduate programs in faculty of
medicine. The universities that provides these program s are University of Indonesia with
master degree in Medical Physics, and Diponegoro University and Padjajaran University
with Master degree in Nuclear Medicine.
8.4. Education and training peripheral personnel
Throughout the country, there are more than 2000 license holders in medical practices
and 600 license holders in industrial. In order to ensure safe use of radiation sources, the
users hold close collaboration with BAPETEN and BATAN in improving their human
resources. As mentioned earlier, BAPETEN along with BATAN train their respective RPO
and provide technical assistances in maintaining high safety standards in their domains.
BAPETEN in cooperation with ETC of BATAN conducts training courses for peripheral
personnel upon request, specially providing them basic knowledge in radiation safety. The
training program could be conducted in ETC facilities or in their corresponding area (in
house training). These training program becomes necessary when new procedures have been
established or new equipment have been introduced. BAPETEN also conducts trainings for
peripherals staff of licensee holding institutions, especially in disseminating new regulation
or recommendations from BAPETEN.