View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Mid Term Review Meeting of National Focal Persons on Radiation Protection June 7 - 11, 2004, Beijing, China Country Presentation A.S. Pradhan Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai – 400 085, India
Organizational Chart Relevant to Radiation Protection Infrastructure in India Prime Minister of India / Cabinet Atomic Energy Commission (AEC ) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Nuclear Power Corporation Nuclear Fuel Complex Centre for Advanced Technology Atomic Minerals Division Uranium Corporation of India Limited
Present Composition of the Atomic Energy Commission of India Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy Chairman Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister Member Cabinet Secretary Member Finance Secretary and Secretary, Dept. of Economic Affairs, Min. of Finance Member E x officio Secretary to the Government Member for Finance President, J awaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Member Former Member Planning Commission & ex-Chairman AEC Member ISRO Disting. Prof., Chair. BRNS & Former Chairman AERB Member Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Member Head Management Services Group, DAE Secretary
AERB Secretariat Executive Committee Safety Research Institute KALPAKKAM Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Advisory Bodies Standing Committees Project Review Committees Safety Review Committee for Operating Plants Safety Review Committee for Applications of Radiation Operating Plants Safety Division Industrial plants Safety Division Civil & Structural Engineering Division Information & Technical Services Division Radiological Safety Division Nuclear Projects Safety Division Safety Analysis & Documentation Division Accounts Division Administrative Division Organizational Chart of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
Ensure compliance by DAE and non-DAE installations with the safety codes, guides and standards.
Review operational experience in the light of the radiological and other safety criteria.
Review applications for authorization, commissioning and operation of DAE projects and plants.
Prescribe acceptable limits of (a) radiation exposure to occupational workers and members of the public and (b) environmental release of radioactive substances.
Carry out safety research and promote safety research and development efforts at various academic and research institutions in India.
Prescribe syllabi for training of personnel in the safety aspects at all levels.
Maintain liaison with other regulatory bodies regarding safety matters.
Keep the public informed on major issues of radiological safety significance.
Review and investigate safety-related unusual occurrences in respect of radiation generating equipment and radioactive materials in radiation and nuclear facilities.
Inspect all nuclear and radiation installations.
Prescribe standards for safe disposal of radioactive waste.
Maintain inventory of all radioactive material / radiation sources.
Prescribe Safety standards for the transport of radioactive material / radiation sources.
Safety promotional activities.
Issue of licenses to operating personnel in DAE facilities.
Monitor Emergency preparedness in all nuclear and radiological facilities.
Develop safety codes, guides and standards.
MAIN ACTIVITIES OF THE REGULATORY AUTHORITY
Health, Safety and Environment Group, HS&EG, BARC ( Till 1983 Competent authority within BARC ) Reactor Safety Division (RSD ) - engineering R&D related to reactor design and safety, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP&AD) - training in radiological physics and radiation safety in medical, industrial and research applications and individual monitoring services for external radiation exposures. Health Physics Division (HPD) - nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other fuel cycle facilities & human recourse development for operational health physics. Radiation Standards & Safety Division (RSSD) - research reactors and other nuclear facilities of BARC, radiation survey instruments, primary and secondary standards , emergency preparedness and accident prevention program and providing regulatory services for all the BARC facilities under the aegis of BSC. Environmental Assessment Division (EAD) - radioactivity measurements, radon surveys, radioactivity contents of samples, radionuclide fallout analysis, surveillance at the front end of nuclear fuel cycle and pollution monitoring and environmental monitoring studies Internal Dosimetry Division (IDD) -assessment of internal exposures due to intakes of radionuclides using direct and indirect methods, Mobile Radiological Laboratory for preparedness for off-site emergency .
Practices and Radiation Sources in India * Diagnostic X-ray machines - about 40000 * X-ray fluorescence machines - 120 * Teletherapy units (at 180 centers ) - 260 units * Brachytherapy HDR+LDR units - 70 * 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Ir, 90 Sr 60 Co Brachytherapy sources - 1300 * Medical and industrial LINACs - 50 * Research laboratories - 500 * Industrial radiography exposure devices - 1100 * Gamma Irradiator Facilities - 7 * Nucleonic Gauges including well logging sources - 7500 * Users of nucl. med. unsealed sources (including RIA) - 500 centers * Users of unsealed sources material with higher activities - 150 centers * Manufacturers of products containing radioactive material- 200 * Ur-Th mining and milling (at 3 centers ) - 8 units * Nuclear Fuel cycle facilities - 2 * Research Reactors - 4 * Power Reactors in operation - 14 * Production of Radioisotopes units - 3
No. of persons monitored – 45000 in 3000 institutions
No. of Dosimeters / year - 4,60,000
Type approval, QA tests mandatory, Accreditation of laboratories since 1999
Assessment of exposure to sources of natural radiation
Calibration of monitoring equipment for external radiation
Central dose record keeping since 1952.
For external and internal exposure
Occupational Exposure Category No. of Institutions N0. of Workers Annual Average Dose (mSv) No. of Workers Exceeding 20 mSv in any y Industry 555 5359 0.75 17 Medicine 2076 17259 0.55 37 Research 198 2490 0.14 -
Nuclear Power Plant Workers Exposed to annual dose > 20 mSv and > 30 mSv *Cases due to planned exposures. Annual average dose in PHWR < 4 mSv Year Total number of workers Those with annual dose exceeding 20 mSv 30 mSv Number Percent Number Percent 1996 11090 98* 0.88 3 0.03 1997 10008 30 0.30 3 0.03 1998 10145 9 0.09 3 0.03 1999 10233 80* 0.80 5 0.05 2000 14276 12 0.08 1 0.01
CONTROL OF MEDICAL EXPOSURES Number of Institutions Annual Average Dose (mSv) Teletherapy 0.60 Nuclear Medicine 1.30 Diagnostic X-rays 0.45
EDUCATION & TRAINING (E & T) Training for comprehensive responsibilities in radiation protection Training of managers, workers and medical and paramedical professionals Training of peripheral persons
Training Courses Related to Radiation Protection and Radiation Safety Diploma in Radiological Physics (one year course) Radiation Safety for Radiation Therapy Technologists (7 days) Radiation Safety in Applications of Radioisotopes in Research(7 days) Radiation Safety in Radioluminous Paints Radiation Safety in Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology (7 days) Radiation Safety in Food Irradiation Facilities (30 days) Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography (6 weeks) Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-1)RT1 (15 days) Radiation Safety in High Intensity Irradiator Operators (15 days) Radiation Safety Awareness Programmes (1-3 days) Radiation Safety in Applications of Nucleonic Gauges (NG) (7 days)
Radiation Safety in Diagnostic X-ray Technology (7 days) Familiarization Programme on NG/Logging Tools (1-3 days) Radiation Safety for Transport Carriers of Radioactive Materials Radiation Safety in Radioimmunoassay & its Application Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-2)RT2 (4 weeks) Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-3)RT3 Training Course in Health Physics –1 y Planning, Preparedness & Response to Radiological Emergencies Diploma in Radiation Medicine (DRM) 2 y Diploma in Medical Radioisotope Techniques (DMRIT) 1 y Safety Training Course for Regulators in Medical And Industrial Applications of Ionising Radiation (42 lecture)
SOME PROFESSIONAL BODIES INVOLVED IN RADIATION PROTECTION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMS
Indian Association for Radiation Protection (IARP),
Association of Medical Physicists of India (AMPI),
Indian Society for Radiation Physics (ISRP),
National Association for Applications of
Radioisotopes & Radiation in Industry (NAARI),
Indian Nuclear Society (INS),
Association of Radiation Oncologists of India (AROI),
Society of Nuclear Medicine in India (SNM),
Luminescence Society of India (LSI)
UNUSUAL OCCURRENCES Loss of well logging sources Seven well logging sources belonging to various institutions got stuck in wells while in operation. As per international practice, the wells were sealed with about 50 m of concrete so that the' sources would not pose any hazard or interfere with the oil production.
Loss of Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device(IGRED)
A radiography camera with source was reported to be stolen during its transport by the radiography personnel to the radiography site by a public transport bus.
Institution lodged a police complaint and informed the regulatory authority. A team of scientists equipped with very sensitive instruments was immediately sent. In spite of wide publicity and intense search, it could not be traced out. However, there was no report of any radiation injury or any other kind of radiation exposure related incident in the area.
It was noted that the potential for hazard would die faster due to short half-life of Ir-192. It was purely a case of negligence and violation of the provisions of the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material which prohibit such transport of radioactive material by public transport buses or vehicles by the institution. As a punitive action to the institution show cause notice was sent and the institution was suspended from carrying out the radiography work for 6 months and the certificate of the personnel who was in charge of the radiation safety was also cancelled.