Mid Term Review Meeting of National Focal Persons on
June 7 - 11, 2004, Beijing, China
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Mumbai – 400 085, India
Organizational Chart Relevant to Radiation
Protection Infrastructure in India
Prime Minister of India / Cabinet
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
Department of Atomic
Atomic Energy Regulatory
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
Nuclear Power Corporation
Nuclear Fuel Complex
Centre for Advanced Technology
Atomic Minerals Division
Uranium Corporation of India Limited
Present Composition of the Atomic
Energy Commission of India
Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy
Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister
Finance Secretary and Secretary, Dept. of
Economic Affairs, Min. of Finance
Ex officio Secretary to the Government Member for Finance
President, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for
Advanced Scientific Research
Former Member Planning Commission & ex-
ISRO Disting. Prof., Chair. BRNS & Former
Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Member
Head Management Services Group, DAE Secretary
Safety Research Institute
Safety Review Committee for
Safety Review Committee
for Applications of
Operating Plants Safety Division
Industrial plants Safety Division
Civil & Structural Engineering
Information & Technical Services
Radiological Safety Division
Nuclear Projects Safety Division
Safety Analysis & Documentation Division
Organizational Chart of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
∀ • Ensure compliance by DAE and non-DAE installations with the safety codes, guides
∀ • Review operational experience in the light of the radiological and other safety criteria.
∀ • Review applications for authorization, commissioning and operation of DAE projects
∀ • Prescribe acceptable limits of (a) radiation exposure to occupational workers and
members of the public and (b) environmental release of radioactive substances.
∀ • Carry out safety research and promote safety research and development efforts at
various academic and research institutions in India.
∀ • Prescribe syllabi for training of personnel in the safety aspects at all levels.
∀ • Maintain liaison with other regulatory bodies regarding safety matters.
∀ • Keep the public informed on major issues of radiological safety significance.
∀ • Review and investigate safety-related unusual occurrences in respect of radiation
generating equipment and radioactive materials in radiation and nuclear facilities.
∀ • Inspect all nuclear and radiation installations.
∀ • Prescribe standards for safe disposal of radioactive waste.
∀ • Maintain inventory of all radioactive material / radiation sources.
∀ • Prescribe Safety standards for the transport of radioactive material / radiation sources.
∀ • Safety promotional activities.
∀ • Issue of licenses to operating personnel in DAE facilities.
∀ • Monitor Emergency preparedness in all nuclear and radiological facilities.
∀ • Develop safety codes, guides and standards.
MAIN ACTIVITIES OF THE REGULATORY AUTHORITY
Health, Safety and Environment Group, HS&EG,
BARC (Till 1983 Competent authority within BARC)
Reactor Safety Division (RSD) - engineering R&D related to reactor design and
Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP&AD) - training in radiological
physics and radiation safety in medical, industrial and research applications and
individual monitoring services for external radiation exposures.
Health Physics Division (HPD) - nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other fuel
cycle facilities & human recourse development for operational health physics.
Radiation Standards & Safety Division (RSSD) - research reactors and other
nuclear facilities of BARC, radiation survey instruments, primary and secondary
standards , emergency preparedness and accident prevention program and
providing regulatory services for all the BARC facilities under the aegis of BSC.
Environmental Assessment Division (EAD) - radioactivity measurements, radon
surveys, radioactivity contents of samples, radionuclide fallout analysis,
surveillance at the front end of nuclear fuel cycle and pollution monitoring and
environmental monitoring studies
Internal Dosimetry Division (IDD) -assessment of internal exposures due to
intakes of radionuclides using direct and indirect methods, Mobile Radiological
Laboratory for preparedness for off-site emergency .
Practices and Radiation Sources in India
* Diagnostic X-ray machines - about 40000
* X-ray fluorescence machines - 120
* Teletherapy units (at 180 centers ) - 260 units
* Brachytherapy HDR+LDR units - 70
Co Brachytherapy sources - 1300
* Medical and industrial LINACs - 50
* Research laboratories - 500
* Industrial radiography exposure devices - 1100
* Gamma Irradiator Facilities - 7
* Nucleonic Gauges including well logging sources - 7500
* Users of nucl. med. unsealed sources (including RIA) - 500 centers
* Users of unsealed sources material with higher activities- 150 centers
* Manufacturers of products containing radioactive material- 200
* Ur-Th mining and milling (at 3 centers ) - 8 units
* Nuclear Fuel cycle facilities - 2
* Research Reactors - 4
* Power Reactors in operation - 14
* Production of Radioisotopes units - 3
Individual monitoring for and assessment
of intakes of radionuclides
Practice No. of workers
•Fission/Activation products 3300/year
(whole body/counting & Bioassay)
•Actinides (Pu/Am,Y,Th) (Lung counting)
•Radon Personal Dosimeters 300/year
•Radon Breath Monitoring 450/year
CONTROL OF OCCUPATIONAL
• Individual monitoring for external radiation
by using indigenously developed TLD system
• No. of persons monitored – 45000 in
• No. of Dosimeters / year - 4,60,000
Type approval, QA tests mandatory, Accreditation of
laboratories since 1999• Workplace monitoring
•Assessment of exposure to sources of natural radiation
•Calibration of monitoring equipment for external
•Central dose record keeping since 1952.
For external and internal exposure
Category No. of
in any y
Industry 555 5359 0.75 17
Medicine 2076 17259 0.55 37
Research 198 2490 0.14 -
Nuclear Power Plant Workers Exposed to annual dose
> 20 mSv and > 30 mSv
Those with annual dose exceeding
20 mSv 30 mSv
Number Percent Num
1996 11090 98* 0.88 3 0.03
1997 10008 30 0.30 3 0.03
1998 10145 9 0.09 3 0.03
1999 10233 80* 0.80 5 0.05
2000 14276 12 0.08 1 0.01
*Cases due to planned exposures. Annual average dose in PHWR < 4 mSv
CONTROL OF MEDICAL EXPOSURES
CONTROL OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE
• Control of radioactive discharges
• National waste management strategy and
Provisions for Radioactive Waste
•Treatment of Radioactive Waste
• Control of Discharges from the Management
of Radioactive Waste
• Storage of Radioactive Waste
• Disposal of Radioactive Waste
• Decommissioning of Facilities
• Environmental and food monitoring
• Control of exposure to radon
•Safety Code based on IAEA Regulations prescribing
the regulatory requirements for transport of
•All Type packages are subject to approval by AERB.
•Type A packages are required to be registered with
the Regulatory Authority
•In respect of radioactive materials that are to be
transported under special arrangement, permission
is granted only on the basis of a safety analysis.
•As a rule, special arrangement shipments are
PLANNING RESPONSE TO
Infrastructure for radiation emergency response
1. National Emergency Plan for Emergency Response
National Crisis Management Committee (Apex
Crisis Management Group
a) Nuclear Fuel Cycle Operation, Nuclear Power
Plants and Research Reactors
• b) Industrial Gamma Irradiators
c) Industrial Radiation Source
d) Radiotherapy sources
2. Multilateral Agreement through IAEA
3. Medical management of serious over-exposure
EDUCATION & TRAINING (E & T)
Training for comprehensive responsibilities in
Training of managers, workers and medical
and paramedical professionals
Training of peripheral persons
Training Courses Related to Radiation Protection and
Diploma in Radiological Physics (one year course)
Radiation Safety for Radiation Therapy Technologists (7 days)
Radiation Safety in Applications of Radioisotopes in Research(7 days)
Radiation Safety in Radioluminous Paints
Radiation Safety in Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology (7 days)
Radiation Safety in Food Irradiation Facilities (30 days)
Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography (6 weeks)
Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-1)RT1 (15 days)
Radiation Safety in High Intensity Irradiator Operators (15 days)
Radiation Safety Awareness Programmes (1-3 days)
Radiation Safety in Applications of Nucleonic Gauges (NG) (7 days)
Radiation Safety in Diagnostic X-ray Technology (7 days)
Familiarization Programme on NG/Logging Tools (1-3 days)
Radiation Safety for Transport Carriers of Radioactive Materials
Radiation Safety in Radioimmunoassay & its Application
Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-2)RT2 (4 weeks)
Radiation Safety in Radiography Testing (level-3)RT3
Training Course in Health Physics –1 y
Planning, Preparedness & Response to Radiological Emergencies
Diploma in Radiation Medicine (DRM) 2 y
Diploma in Medical Radioisotope Techniques (DMRIT) 1 y
Safety Training Course for Regulators in Medical And Industrial
Applications of Ionising Radiation (42 lecture)
SOME PROFESSIONAL BODIES
INVOLVED IN RADIATION PROTECTION
AND PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMS
•Indian Association for Radiation Protection (IARP),
•Association of Medical Physicists of India (AMPI),
•Indian Society for Radiation Physics (ISRP),
•National Association for Applications of
Radioisotopes & Radiation in Industry (NAARI),
•Indian Nuclear Society (INS),
•Association of Radiation Oncologists of India (AROI),
•Society of Nuclear Medicine in India (SNM),
•Luminescence Society of India (LSI)
Loss of well logging sources
Seven well logging sources belonging to
various institutions got stuck in wells while in
operation. As per international practice, the
wells were sealed with about 50 m of concrete
so that the' sources would not pose any hazard
or interfere with the oil production.
• Loss of Industrial Gamma Radiography
•A radiography camera with source was reported to be
stolen during its transport by the radiography
personnel to the radiography site by a public transport
• Institution lodged a police complaint and informed
the regulatory authority. A team of scientists equipped
with very sensitive instruments was immediately sent.
In spite of wide publicity and intense search, it could
not be traced out. However, there was no report of any
radiation injury or any other kind of radiation
exposure related incident in the area.
It was noted that the potential for hazard would die
faster due to short half-life of Ir-192.
It was purely a case of negligence and violation of the
provisions of the regulations for safe transport of
radioactive material which prohibit such transport of
radioactive material by public transport buses or
vehicles by the institution.
As a punitive action to the institution show cause notice
was sent and the institution was suspended from
carrying out the radiography work for 6 months and
the certificate of the personnel who was in charge of the
radiation safety was also cancelled.
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