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Appendix 09B China power point presentation.ppt

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  • 1. Country Status Report on Radiation Protection in China For Regional Co-ordination Seminar of the Model Projects Beijing, China, June 7-9, 2004 Hua Liu NNSA
  • 2. 1 Introduction
    • Nuclear power program: 26 nuclear units will be built in the period of 2005 to 2020.
    • Radiation sources utilization has developed rapidly.
    • Licensing systems for nuclear installations and for radiation sources have been established.
  • 3. 2 Legislation on nuclear safety and radiation safety
    • 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003
    • The Law was adopted on 28 June 2003 by Congress and has come into force since 1 October 2003.
    • The Law is applicable to the prevention and control of radioactive pollution during site selection, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear installations, and during development and utilization of nuclear technology, uranium (thorium) and other radioactive mines.
  • 4. 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003 (cont)
    • “ Radioactive pollution” in the Law refers to the presence of radioactive substances or rays created by mankind’s activities and exceeding State standards on the surfaces of or inside materials, the human body, places, or the environment.
    • The purpose of the Law is to prevent and control radioactive pollution, to protect the environment and human health, to promote nuclear energy, and to promote the development and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
  • 5. 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003 (cont)
    • Basic principle: prevention priorities, integrate prevention and control measures, enforce rigorous management, and ensure safety for nuclear and radiation.
    • NNSA/SEPA exercises unified regulation on nuclear and radiation safety in whole country.
    • To establish licensing system for nuclear installations and operation of radioactive waste disposal facilities.
    • To establish licensing system for whole process of radiation sources.
    • To revise related regulations on licensing system on radiation sources.
  • 6. 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003 (cont)
    • Operating organizations are responsible for safety, accept regulation of regulator.
    • To authorise NNSA/SEPA to draw up and to issue jointly with competent standardization department the national standards.
    • To establish environment impact assessment system and nuclear accident response system.
    • To establish a radioactive pollution monitoring networks in order to monitor radioactive pollution.
  • 7. 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003 (cont)
    • Personnel qualifications for specialist in significant position related safety. Organization qualifications for radioactive pollution monitoring work.
    • To control radiation sources in manufacture, use, sale, import and export, storage, transportation and disposal, and to establish national inventory.
    • To minimise the radioactive waste. Discharge of radioactive gas or liquid into environment shall conform to national standards and be approved by NNSA/SEPA.
    • LLW and ILW disposed in near surface disposal facility and HLW disposed in deep geological disposal facility.
  • 8. 2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003 (cont)
    • NNSA/SEPA and CAEA shall draw up radwaste disposal plan for approval of State Council. The relevant local government shall provide a site for construction of radwaste disposal facility and support radwaste disposal.
    • A provision of collection and management for solid radioactive waste disposal fees shall be drawn up by the finance department and the competent pricing department, jointly with NNSA/SEPA.
  • 9. 2.2 Chinese Basic Safety Standard for Radiation Protection and Sources Safety
    • Valid in April 2003
    • Mandatory national standard
    • Based on ICRP 60 and IAEA BSS on radiation protection and safety of sources
    • Technical standards and safety guides on radiation protection will make modification accordingly.
  • 10. 3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources
    • Chinese government has made political commitment on fully implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources.
    • To compliance with the Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution, the Chinese government decided in December, 2003 to adjust the responsibilities on radioactive sources.
  • 11. 3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources (cont)
    • NNSA/SEPA
      • to exercise unified regulation on safety of radioactive sources in manufacture, import and export, sale, use, transportation, storage and disposal.
      • to make safety requirements and technical standards.
      • to license sources, to establish identification system and national inventory.
      • to response, investigate and scale accidents or events of sources, and to assist local department of public security to find lost sources.
  • 12. 3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources (cont)
    • Ministry of Public Security
      • security of sources and road transportation,
      • investigation of lost sources,
      • participating emergency response.
      • Ministry of Public Health
      • occupational disease assessment on sources
      • admission of use of sources or irradiation apparatus in hospitals
      • participating emergency response and responsible for medical treatment.
  • 13. 3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources (cont)
    • NNSA/SEPA is independent regulator for safety regulation on nuclear installations and sources.
    • To revise Regulations of Radiological Protection on Radioisotope and Irradiation Apparatus-1989.
    • The main points in drafting regulations include:
      • To classify sources into five categories.
      • To strict control sources in manufacture and import, to establish ID for each sources, and registration data base
      • Organizations to manufacture, use, sale, import and export, store and dispose sources shall apply for license
  • 14. 3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources (cont)
      • The transfer of the radiation sources is allowed only between licensee and shall be registered. Without registration, the safety responsibility will not changed.
      • The import sources will be licensed by NNSA/SEPA with the co-operation of the Chinese Customer.
      • The spent sources shall be arranged before use. The return of sources is encouraged.
  • 15. 4 Joint enforcement on safety of sources
    • In 2002, a Joint enforcement on safety of significant sources was conducted by SEPA, MPH and MPS
      • about 20%-30% users did not registrar
      • about 70,000 – 80,000 sources in China
      • to establish data of inventory
    • IAEA RAIS system is used in a few provinces for inventory.
    • 10,000 spent sources from nuclear industry are stored in NW Low Radwaste Site in 2003
  • 16. 4 Joint enforcement on safety of sources (cont)
    • In 2004, NNSA/SEPA, MPS and MPH organized a joint enforcement on safety of sources
    • Purposes: to investigate all sources, to prepare reissue safety licenses next year, to find safety deficient and to request improvement within limited time, to require un-licensed users to apply licenses, to registrar sources with ID number, to establish national inventory, and to collect spent sources.
    • Up to now, the provincial agencies are conducting inspection and enforcement in each province.
    • to use new version of RAIS system to register the sources.
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. 5 Occupational exposure control
    • 5.1 Occupational exposure control for nuclear installations
    • Table 1 Average annul dose of occupational workers
    • by external exposure (mSv/a)
  • 20. 5.2 Occupational exposure control for radiation sources
    • Total number of units using radiation sources, including X ray machines, is about 57,000 by the end of 2001
    • Total number of radiation workers in medical and industrial uses of radiation is 190,000 in 2001
    • The rate of trainee accounts for 36 % of all radiation workers
    • Individual dose monitoring 9,600 persons, account for 62% radiation workers to be monitored, 16,000
    • Annual average individual dose for monitored workers is 1.3mSv and annual collective effective dose is 126 man Sv
  • 21. 6 Medical exposure control
    • 6.1 Diagnostic radiology
    • 43,000 diagnostic radiology departments
    • 67,000 X-ray diagnostic facilities, including 4,000 CT, 2,500 dental X ray units and 800 mammography units
  • 22. 6.1 Diagnostic radiology (cont.)
    • annual frequencies of diagnostic medical X-ray examinations are 196 per 1,000 populations, 245 million for the annual total numbers of X-ray examinations
    • Patient ESD dose for PA from diagnostic X rays chest examination is 0.36 mGy each time, 1.53 mGy for LAT
  • 23. 6.2 Radiotherapy
    • about 1,000 hospitals performing radiotherapy with about 2,000 radiotherapy facilities, including 600 teletherapy, 400 brachtherapy, and 500 linear accelerators
    • annual frequencies of radiotherapy are 0.4 per 1,000 populations, total 500,000 persons per year
  • 24. 6.3 Clinical nuclear medicine
    • over 1,500 departments of nuclear medicine in hospitals with about 2300 nuclear medicine facilities
    • annual frequencies of diagnostic nuclear medicine are 0.58 per 1,000 populations, total 720,000 per year
    • annual frequencies of therapeutic nuclear medicine are 0.06 per 1,000 populations, total 75,000 per year
  • 25. 7 Public exposure control
    • Radiological Environment Monitoring Center, SEPA publishes a report each year
    • to establish national radiological monitoring system in China
    • to push Customs to be equipped with radiation monitoring instruments
  • 26. 8 Emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents
    • NNSA/SEPA has made an emergency plan for dealing with nuclear accidents and radiological accidents
    • each provincial EPA has made emergency plan based on the conditions in each province
    • NNSA/SEPA reviews and approves emergency plan of nuclear installations
  • 27. 8 Emergency preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents (cont)
    • The SEPA establishes Emergency Center for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents.
    • MPH establishes Medical Emergency Center for Radiological Accidents.
    • After September 11, contents on anti terrorist related radiological accidents have been added into the emergency plan in central government and provincial government levels.