SECOND EDITION
History of
Radiation Health Officers
and
Radiation Medical Specialists
of the
Medical Service Corps, U. S. ...
Contents
Preface to the Second Edition (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii...
Preface to the Second Edition (2001)
In the spring of 2000, the Radiation Health Specialty Leader asked us to update the
R...
In the spring of 1993 in anticipation of the 50th anniversary of the Medical Service
Corps, the Chief of the Corps asked e...
Radiation Health and Radiation Specialist Officer
Community (1947 – 2002)
In August 1945 two atomic bombs were dropped on ...
gallium could be used as a soft tissue nuclear medicine imaging agent. LT Gade, a
chemist, served several tours as an indu...
Naval Hospital Saint Albans was the primary cancer treatment center for the Navy on
the East coast in the 1950s and 60s. I...
60s to respond to nuclear related emergencies or accidents. (PLUCON teams, Beckner,
Scrom, Murrell and Dr. Gralton were th...
purpose was to protect the health of the workers. This placed the responsibility more in
line with the commercial and acad...
Chemical Warfare Defense Branch was maintained as a separate BUMED Division but
assignment to it was made by Code 74. Alth...
702/PD. The DT-702/PD is also a four chip LiF TLD badge. However, the DT-702/PD
uses a LiF:Mg,Cu,P phosphor as compared to...
5 billets at Naval Hospitals for a total community of about 64 billets. In 1974 a block of
14 billets were added as part o...
Stannard, J. N. (1988) Radioactivity and Health – A History; Volume 2: Environmental
Aspects, pp. 1064-1069 provide an exc...
Chronological Listing of Radiation Health and
Radiation Specialist Officers
The following lists individuals who were commi...
effects assessment of the Marshall Island Natives.) He conducted biochemistry
studies with gallium that was being studied ...
1947 Robert L. Gade MSC Plank-owner. Chemist at Reynolds Metals
Company, Longview, Washington 1941-1942. Commissioned in M...
1952-1954; Naval Unit, Army Chemical Corps School Fort McClellan, 1954-1958;
Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 19...
Nuclear Engineering program at the Naval Post-Graduate School Monterey.
Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laborat...
with Dr Looney to set up a nuclear medicine clinic at Dirmadish Hospital. The
history was that an Egyptian opera star, Um ...
Attended the nuclear engineering program at the Naval Post Graduate School
Monterey, 1960-1962. Assignments included: Defe...
Medical Research Institute Bethesda (Radiation Technology Division) and the Navy
Radiological Defense Laboratory, San Fran...
Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (BW/CW Warfare Branch), 1964-1970
(taught NBC Warfare Defense at the Navy Medical Schoo...
Radiation Health at a nuclear repair shipyard), 1970-1974. Retired 1974.
Deceased 1985.
1962 Robert O. Wallace Supply and ...
Operations Washington DC (initiated NTPR program and development of the
broadscope license) 1978-1986; Defense Nuclear Age...
Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation section) 1976-1977; Naval
Hospital Bethesda (Dosimetry Center), 1977-1981; B...
Naval Hospital Bethesda (Photodosimetry Center), 1967-1968; OST-San Diego
State College, 1968-1971; Naval Hospital Philade...
1966 J. F. Borgia B.S. Biological Sciences. Assignments included: USS
PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, 1967-1969; Naval Radiological ...
33) Holy Loch, 1967-1969; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-
1969. RAD 1969.
1967 E. F. Samuelson B.S. Physi...
Lakes, 1977-1981; Armed Forces Staff College Norfolk, 1981; Naval Shipyard
Pearl Harbor, 1981-1985; Bureau of Medicine and...
1989. Afterwards, started working at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
1969 J. L. Birkler M.S. Physics. Assignments included...
1970 Louis R. Milavickas M.S. Radiation Health. Certified Medical Physics.
Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18) Norfolk...
Pennsylvania. Co-editor of “Phantom Risk-Scientific Inference and the Law” (1993), and
author of "Judging Science: Scienti...
Navy's Master Materials License from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), 1986-
1991; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Washi...
Diego, 1971-1975. RAD 1975.
1972 William J. Flor Ph.D. Biophysics. Assignments included: Armed
Forces Radiobiology Researc...
Program), 1982-1985; Naval Hospital Oakland, 1985-1990. Retired 1991.
Afterwards, worked at the Stanford Linear Accelerato...
1972 Charles H. Van der Pool M.S. Radiation Health . Assigned to the
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda...
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30 May 1996.doc

  1. 1. SECOND EDITION History of Radiation Health Officers and Radiation Medical Specialists of the Medical Service Corps, U. S. Navy 1947 - 2003 UPDATED: 23 May 2003
  2. 2. Contents Preface to the Second Edition (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Preface to the First Edition (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Radiation Health and Radiation Specialist Officer Community (1947 – 2002) . . . . . 1 Chronological Listing of Radiation Health and Radiation Specialist Officers . . . . 10 Appendix I: History of Radiation Health Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Appendix II: Historical BUMED/NAVMEDCOM Radiation Health Directives. . . . 65 Appendix III: Radiation Health Specialty Leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 i
  3. 3. Preface to the Second Edition (2001) In the spring of 2000, the Radiation Health Specialty Leader asked us to update the RHO community history that Captain Dave George had prepared. Dave pointed out that organizing a historical account is no easy task because of the difficulties in finding records and in trying to organize a description of various programs as they developed alongside each other. He selected an approach that provided a general overview of our community’s history, followed by a listing of our RHOs. The listing of RHOs had been compiled from a collection of annual newsletters and rosters that unfortunately did not cover all years and which tended to introduce some errors because of later changes that took place after the annual rosters had been issued. Our first goal was to ensure that we had as accurate a listing as possible of all the radiation health officers who comprised our history. Through extensive cross checking, we were able to add the names of some missing RHOs, removed the names of those who were new accessions that did not go on to become RHOs, eliminated duplicate entries caused by different name spellings and year of entry into the RHO program. We also standardized the entries with duty assignment dates, eliminated most acronyms that might later become unknown, such as DCTC, and included locations and homeports for each assignment that might later be forgotten, such as the Navy Industrial Health Center in Cincinnati and the USS Bushnell (AS-15) homeported in Key West. Using the Microsoft Word’s Edit/Find function, a chronological listing of all RHOs who had served at a particular command can easily be generated. Appendix I was added to provide a historical background on the evolving requirements governing the policy and documentation for radiation physical medical examinations. A chronological listing of BUMED’s radiation health instructions was included as a reference source. Captain George remarked that this publication is a compilation of individuals’ stories overlaid on the history of the times. There remain stories that need recording if we are going to provide a comprehensive record of all that we as a group have accomplished. Future revisions may want to look closer at those who participated in the testing of nuclear weapons, operation of the Naval Nuclear Power Unit at Fort Belvoir, civil defense and fallout shelter experiments at the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, operation of the BUMED’s Electromagnetic Radiation Project Office at Dahlgren, radiological clean- up efforts at the Johnston Atoll, and establishment of the DoD Nuclear Test Personnel Review Office. We share Captain George’s pleasure in compiling the RHO history and taking pride in our group’s accomplishments. We wish we could have devoted more time to the task. CDR Robert Yacovissi and CDR Robert Thompson Preface to the First Edition (1995) ii
  4. 4. In the spring of 1993 in anticipation of the 50th anniversary of the Medical Service Corps, the Chief of the Corps asked each Specialty Section to prepare a history of their Specialty, preferably with pictures, to be combined in a history of the Corps. Captain Mendenhall, MSC, USN, the Radiation Health Specialty Advisor, asked if I would write a history of the Radiation Health Officer and Radiation Specialist communities. When I was Specialty Advisor, 1985-1991, I had published a short history in our newsletter based on my memory and various stories I had heard over the years. I felt it was important for the junior officers to know their heritage and accomplishments of our community. Once it was published I learned from some of our retired community that the history omitted many important contributions. Hopefully, this will correct much of that. Preparing a history is no easy task. Records are sparse, pictures are essentially non- existent, memories have faded, and the story is literally worldwide. This says nothing of the problems of formatting and organizing the material. However, the wealth of significant contributions to science, medicine and the Navy is amazing considering the relatively small size of our community. The history is really a compilation of individuals’ stories over-laid on the history of the times. In this vein I have attempted to provide a general overview of the community history, e.g., motivation for the programs, shifts in emphasis, growth in billet structure, development of specific programs, etc. Following this is a list of individuals, who have served in the community or played a significant role, and a brief vignette or anecdote concerning their career. (The more notorious sea stories I have omitted.) Undoubtedly this approach will slight some and their contributions. For this I apologize; no slight is intended; the information simply wasn’t available. I hope people will look at this as a living document. Where there are errors or omissions, please make note to the Specialty advisor so we can revise and provide the appropriate recognition. I found the members of this community to be unique, talented, dedicated professionals. They have made significant contributions to the Navy and society as a whole for which they can take great pride. It has been a pleasure to research their stories. Respectfully, J. D. George CAPT, MSC, USN iii
  5. 5. Radiation Health and Radiation Specialist Officer Community (1947 – 2002) In August 1945 two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. One week later the Japanese surrendered and shortly thereafter an American team surveyed the bomb effects on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and their citizens. Navy physicians and physicists were among the first Americans into the cities. Testing of this new weapon continued. The fourth atomic bomb was exploded at Bikini on 24 July 1946 in Test Baker of Operation Crossroads. It was the first test of the atomic bomb against ships. Many tons of highly contaminated sea water showered down upon this flotilla of warships. A new type of specialist was needed to understand the effects of radiation and ensure personnel involved in these tests were protected from the effects of this new weapon. At the same time, peaceful uses were being sought for the use of radioactive material. From this background was born the "Radiation Safety Officer" and "Radiation Specialist." When the Medical Service Corps was formed in 1947, LCDR Horace Chester Dudley, LCDR Francis William Chambers, LT Thomas E. Shea, Jr, LT Royce Skow and LT Robert Louis Gade were the first "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Specialist" officers commissioned and are part of the original 251 "Plank-owners" and original 55 science officers. Their primary duties were to provide radiation safety and radiation biology support for the nuclear weapons testing program. They were uniquely qualified by their training and experience for these tasks. During the early 1950's the Radiation Specialists continued to be primarily associated with the biological effects of atomic weapons development. In the mid and later 1950s they were intimately involved in the development of radiation control practices for the fledgling submarine nuclear reactors program and with clinical applications of radioisotopes. Radiation specialists performed bio-effects research, provided radiation safety supervision and training, and supervised work at the test sites, Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory and a few other locations. In the 1949 to 1953 time frame, target ships were brought to Pearl Harbor, Puget Sound, Hunter's Point, San Francisco and San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyards for damage assessment and further decontamination; initial decontamination was performed at the test site in the Pacific. Radiation Specialists supervised the decontamination and tested various methods of decontamination. In 1951, the first medical physicist reported to a hospital (Tom Mitchel, St Albans), the second one in 1952 (Marty Colodzin, Bethesda). LCDR Chambers provided technical support to the nuclear weapons testing program, directed the Radiation Technology Division at Naval Medical Research Institute doing radiobiology research, and performed x-ray machine safety and performance surveys for hospitals on the East coast. LT Skow supervised decontamination of nuclear weapons target ships and was an assistant to Admiral Rickover for Naval Nuclear Propulsion's radiation safety program (set-up Rickover's initial RadCon Program). LCDR Dudley researched the bio-chemical properties of gallium, in support of liquid metal heat transfer research being performed at Oak Ridge for nuclear reactors, and identified that carrier-free 1
  6. 6. gallium could be used as a soft tissue nuclear medicine imaging agent. LT Gade, a chemist, served several tours as an industrial hygienist, radiation safety officer at the submarine research laboratory and as a contracting officer at the Defense Atomic Support Agency. In the late 1950s and early 1960s radiation specialists were stationed primarily at one of four activities where radiobiology research or nuclear medicine work was being performed. These included the Radiation Technology Division at Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda; Radiology Department of Naval Hospital Saint Albans; Radiology Department at Naval Hospital Bethesda (Naval Hospital and Naval Medical School); and, the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco. By 1960, according to the first newsletter, there were 23 in-service billets; and, 5 officers were in out-service training. The billets were located at: Naval Medical Research Institute (3); Naval Hospital, Bethesda (3); Naval Medical School Bethesda (3); Naval Hospital, St Albans (2); Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory (2); Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA), the parent of today's Defense Nuclear Agency (2); Army Chemical Warfare Defense School in Ft McClellen Alabama (1); Naval Medical Research Laboratory, New London (1); Office of Naval Research, London (1); and Naval School Command, Treasure Island (1). The officers represented 11 sub-specialties: 0818, 0816, 0828, 0836, 0840, 0842, 0844, 0864, 0866, 0867 and 0886. By 1970 the sub-specialties were consolidated or limited to four: Biophysicist, 0838; Radiation Physicist, 0842; Radiation Biologist, 0844; and Radiation Health Officer, 0886. The Radiation Technology Division at Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) was the earliest center for direction of radiation health and radiation medicine related activities. The first specialty adviser, LCDR Chambers, coordinated the program out of that Division. The Division performed basic radiobiology research and coordinated some of the early bio-medical support for the atmospheric testing in the Pacific. Individuals were detailed from NMRI to provide radiation health and monitoring support for various nuclear weapons tests. In addition, the NMRI lab had two high voltage x-ray machines and a cobalt-60 exposure building for conducting radiation effects experiments on large and small animals. The cobalt-60 exposure building eventually became contaminated with cobalt-60. Cobalt- 60 capsules traveled in pneumatic tubes between the two exposure rooms. Through use, the cladding wore off the capsules and then cobalt-60 began to wear off and contaminate the pneumatic tube. The pneumatic tube vented into the control room and eventually contaminated the control room before being discovered. (Bill Beckner discovered the contamination on the necktie of one of the Chiefs while doing a thyroid scan.) The Naval Medical School investigated various radiation applications for medical use. When Naval Hospital Bethesda installed a reactor in about 1957 to make radiopharmaceuticals the nuclear medicine development work was transferred to the hospital. This was the first hospital-based, nuclear reactor in the world. With the opening of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco most of the animal exposure work in support of basic weapons effect research was transferred to San Francisco. 2
  7. 7. Naval Hospital Saint Albans was the primary cancer treatment center for the Navy on the East coast in the 1950s and 60s. It had a large "Atomic Medicine" department employing several radiation specialists. The department was originally designed to include a Radon Factory. However, this was preempted by the development of "Atomic Medicine", i.e., the use of other isotopes for medical purposes. Naval Hospital Bethesda was one of two or three developmental laboratories in the United States for nuclear medicine. Captain E. Richard King, MC, USN, Chief of Radiology, was very active in exploring the medical uses of atomic power. A five-watt nuclear reactor was installed at Bethesda to produce radioisotopes for medical uses. (The first active duty Navy people licensed as reactor operators were radioisotope technicians for the operation of this reactor, Earl Scrom and Bill Murrell.) The history of the reactor is worth noting. As the story goes, Surgeon General Hogan and ex-Secretary of the Navy Dan A. Kimble (31 Jul 1953 – 20 Jun 1953) were golfing buddies. Kimble was working for Aero-jet General Reactors and convinced Admiral Hogan he needed a reactor to make radiopharmaceuticals. The original reactor offered was a 5-milliwatt unit. Tom Mitchel and Dr. King said the reactor was too small, they needed at least a 5-watt unit. Aero-jet just added more concrete shielding and more fuel and their 5-milliwatt reactor became a 5-watt reactor. This was the "heyday" of the development of nuclear medicine. Isotopes could be made in the building immediately next to the clinic. Considerable research was performed developing short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, detection and imaging systems, and treatment protocols.) In 1952, Captain E. Richard King, MC, USN started a Radioisotope Course for technicians. The course included 3 months training in inorganic chemistry and four months in isotope techniques and radiation safety. The course was designed to train corpsmen to assist physicians with diagnostic testing and treating patients by use of isotopes. From 1952 through 1956 all nuclear submarine corpsmen attended the course prior to assignment to a submarine. It was the only training program available for corpsman giving some background in reactor operation, monitoring instrumentation and radiation effects. In 1956 a program for training nuclear submarine corpsmen was established at New London. The Bethesda course then concentrated on training radioisotope technicians, or, as they came to be called, nuclear medicine technicians. In 1957 or 1958, Captain King started a Nuclear Medicine Course for Physicians who were to be assigned to nuclear submarines or had an interest in "atomic medicine". Many went on to complete residencies in radiology or nuclear medicine. Graduates of the course constitute a virtual Who's Who in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine throughout the United States, including many past presidents of the Radiological Society of North America and the Nuclear Medicine Society. (The course of 200 hours was the model for the physician and radiation safety training requirements published in Title 10, Part 35, CFR for medical users of isotopes.) The course continues to this day, managed by Radiation Specialists assigned to the Nuclear Medicine Department, National Naval Medical Center. Bethesda also supported and maintained an emergency flyaway team up through the 3
  8. 8. 60s to respond to nuclear related emergencies or accidents. (PLUCON teams, Beckner, Scrom, Murrell and Dr. Gralton were the first ones.) With further development of the nuclear submarine fleet a Radiation Effects Evaluation Laboratory was added (October 1960) to the facilities at Bethesda. The existing nuclear reactor building became an attached annex to this building. The Laboratory was a two story building containing four whole body counting chambers and decontamination facility on the lower level and an open bay ward on the upper. The ward was large enough to hold the crew of a submarine. Should there be an accident and the reactor vent into the submarine, the plan was to fly the crew to Bethesda for evaluation, treatment and care. The ward was never used. In the late 1960s the ward was converted to an endocrinology laboratory. In 1979, with the construction of the new hospital, the Laboratory was torn down; however the whole body counting facilities were retained and are now located in a small facility on the lower level of the Outpatient parking garage. The counting chambers are highly prized since they were constructed with 8” of pre-World War II steel (from a former Navy battleship) with ¼” of lead on the inner surface. The Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco employed several thousand people who performed research and provided support for the nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada and Pacific test sites. The lab provided personnel for experiments at the tests and decontamination of the target ships. The laboratory opened in 1946 and closed in 1969. See Stannard (1988). The biological and weapons effect research work was transferred to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) was chartered in 1961 as a Joint Service Organization under the Defense Nuclear Agency. Its purpose was to bring together the best talents of the Army, Navy and Air Force with a skilled cadre of civilians. They comprise what is now the largest single radiobiology program in the United States. Radiation Specialists in the 1950-60 time-frame had science degrees upon entry and were sent to the Navy Post Graduate School at Monterey for training in atomic physics and then to the Nevada Test Site for weapons effects training. This group included Bob Jordan, Howard Dowling, Jim McIlraith, and Dick Garver. The Radiation Safety Officer community for the submarine tenders began in 1960. Submarine tenders had photodosimetry programs prior to the nuclear submarine program for support of the medical and dental x-ray radiation monitoring program. These were managed by Warrant Officers or Supply and Administration Medical Service Corps Officers. Originally the Radiation Safety Officer was the "Rad Con Officer" and worked for the Repair Officer; the radiation safety officer had the technical experience to support the nuclear submarine repair work. About 1964, the radiation safety officer billet was transferred from repair to the medical department. It was felt to be more appropriate to report to the physician since the 4
  9. 9. purpose was to protect the health of the workers. This placed the responsibility more in line with the commercial and academic activities. Also, it maintained an independent oversight role for the radiation safety officer. The first submarine tender Radiation Safety Officers were ex-radioisotope technicians (Earl Scrom, Bill Beckner, and Bill Murrell) who were commissioned to fill the tender billets. (Clyde Hensely was also commissioned under this program but never switched from Health Care Administration to Radiation Safety.) These individuals were the first non-degree people to be commissioned in the Health Science section of the Medical Service Corps. This program lasted about four years then all were required to have at least a Bachelors degree prior to commissioning as radiation health officers. In 1964 radiation health officers who were still classified as Health Care Administration and did not have a degree were limited to one tour in the radiation program unless they were within a few hours of a degree. (Bill Murrell was an exception to this policy.) There were several out-service training programs to prepare individuals for the radiation program. One procurement program recruited individuals, primarily ex-enlisted men, sent them to Reed College in Oregon and then to six months training at the Nevada test site. Individuals entering this way included Charles Tedford, George Douglas and Gordon Werner. A group of pharmacists were also recruited to become radiation safety officers. The pharmacists could transfer to the Radiation Health Section and would be sent for a Masters Degree in radiobiology at University of Rochester. (Submarine Medical Officers were also sent for a Masters degree in radiobiology at Rochester.) Individuals entering the program this way included Jim Spahn, Bob George, Bill Kolb, Bob Reed and Jim Duckworth. Bob Will also went to Reed College but before the special radiation control course was developed. Officer's entering the program in the late 60s and through the 70s and 80s had to have a science degree prior to entry. In the 1960's officers went to OCS then were commissioned. In the late 60s, officers were commissioned prior to reporting and went to indoctrination school (5 weeks) at Bethesda. Officers entering in the late 60s were sent to the radiation safety office at Bethesda for their health physics and dosimetry training. Constructive credit was given for prior graduate education beginning in 1967; Ltjgs NG and Sallee were the first to receive credit. In 1970 officers were sent to Balston Spa, the nuclear prototype for training Line and Medical officers. Ray Chaput and Ken Groves were among the first to be trained at Balston Spa. In 1976 the radiation health training program for physicians and radiation safety officers was moved from Balston Spa to the Naval Undersea Medical Institute, New London. In the late 1940s and early 1950s the radiation programs were managed by the Radiation Technology Division at NMRI. In 1955-56 the function was moved to BUMED. At BUMED there was the Special Weapons Defense Division (Code 74) with a Radiological Safety Branch, and Biological and Chemical Warfare Defense Branch; and the Submarine Medicine Division (Code 75). In 1963 the Special Weapons Defense Division and the Submarine Medicine Divisions were combined as the Submarine and Radiation Medicine Division, Code 74 with three Branches: Submarine Medicine, Submarine Personnel Branch, Radiation Safety and Photodosimetry (Photodosimetry Branch was located at Radiation Safety, Bethesda (Captain Skow)). The Biological and 5
  10. 10. Chemical Warfare Defense Branch was maintained as a separate BUMED Division but assignment to it was made by Code 74. Although its name has changed several times, Code 3C, Code 532 (1976), Code 21 (1985), Code 3C1 (1990), and back to Code 21 (1991) the basic organization and function has remained the same since 1967. Part of the duties of the radiation safety officer was to monitor and control exposure received by those working with radiation sources. At high exposure levels ionizing radiation has been shown to be a mild carcinogen. National and International scientific bodies recommended exposure limits to ensure the risk from working with radiation sources is no greater than other risks in the work place. The recommendations recognized that accidents may happen but stated that management should not deliberately plan under normal working conditions for these limits to be exceeded. These limits were incorporated into the Federal Code of Regulations as Public Law. The Navy in turn published these as Navy regulations. In some cases making the limits or control levels were more restrictive. In this way, if the Navy requirements were met the public law was met. If Navy requirements were slightly exceeded there was a buffer zone before the requirements of the public law were exceeded. Since 1946 the Navy has been monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation to ensure personnel do not exceed the recommended exposure limits and to reduce exposure as much as possible. The Navy's first whole body personnel dosimeter was the film badge. The stainless steel film badge was the Navy's only dosimeter until 1973 and remained in use until 1987. During this tenure, the basic film badge was not changed (a neutron activation, accident dosimeter of indium foils and sulfur pellet was added); however, several types of film were used as technology improved. The initial film badge was issued with Eastman radiatized DF-7 dosimetry film; subsequent film types were industrial type 7 film in 1951, DuPont type 552 film in 1957, Dupont type SX- 222 in 1964, Kodak Type III film in 1969. NTA film for neutron monitoring was used beginning in 1964. In 1973, the DT-526/PD, calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (CaF2 TLD) was introduced to monitor for gamma exposure in the Nuclear Reactors Program. Soon after, in 1975, the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery introduced the DT-583/PD, a two- chip Lithium Fluoride (Li6 F/Li7 F) TLD for both gamma and neutron personnel dosimetry. In 1982, the use of Kodak NTA film for neutron dosimetry was discontinued. Film badges were still used for medical and dental x-ray personnel dosimetry. In 1987 the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery replaced the film badge and the two- chip LiF TLD with the DT-648/PD, a four chip LiF TLD badge. This dosimeter was capable of monitoring for beta, photon and neutron irradiation and was accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) in all eight test categories. The Navy film badge was the first government system accredited by this program in 1985. Navy Radiation Health Officers have substantially contributed to the NVLAP ionizing radiation accreditation process. LCDR’s Kearsley and Cassata served as NVLAP assessors. CDR’s Zeman, Devine, Schauer and LCDR Cassata contributed to the ANSI N13 standards that specify proficiency testing standards. In 2002, the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery replaced the DT-648/PD with the DT- 6
  11. 11. 702/PD. The DT-702/PD is also a four chip LiF TLD badge. However, the DT-702/PD uses a LiF:Mg,Cu,P phosphor as compared to the DT-648/PD’s LiF:Mg,Ti phosphor. This new phosphor was significantly more sensitive to radiation, experienced less fade of the radiation induced signal, and was more tissue equivalent. The design of this new dosimeter was based on LT Cassata’s PhD thesis. LT Cassata upon completion of his doctoral degree in 1997 became the Science Advisor at the Naval Dosimetry Center. From 1947 to 1968 dosimetry film was issued and processed at the local activity, including all nuclear submarines and ships with medical x-ray machines. In 1968 the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery established a centralized processing facility for dosimetry film and later LiF dosimeters within the radiation safety department of Naval Hospital Bethesda. The facility has undergone many name changes since its inception concurrent with changes in the organizational structure of the Naval Hospital and National Naval Medical Center. In addition, with the construction of the new hospital it moved (1975) from the old temporary WWII structure in back of the hospital to the old Navy Exchange Building (Bldg 144), to the 6th floor of the Tower (1982) to its present location (1986) on the 4th floor of building 4-6. In 1991 the Center was established as a Detachment of the Navy Environmental Health Center, Norfolk, Virginia. In 1991 through 1993 the Center processed over 35,000 dosimeters per month. The Dosimetry Center also maintains the Navy's Automated Radiation Exposure Registry which contains the exposure histories of all personnel monitored for exposure to Navy controlled radiation sources since 1946. This function was taker over from BUMED in about 1983 or 1984. The database contains over 2.38 million individual exposure records (about 600,000 individuals) and occupies over 560 megabytes of computer information. The database is routinely used to provide exposure histories for individuals seeking employment in the civilian nuclear industry, seeking workman's compensation or benefits from the Veteran's Administration, and for epidemiology studies. In the year 1983, the first three RHO's were assigned to naval shipyards as part of the Code 105.5 (Radiation Health and Safety) organization. The shipyards involved were Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, and Charleston Naval Shipyard. During the 1980's, RHOs served as official members of nuclear weapons inspection teams with assignment and funding provided by NAVSEA 06GN (Radiological controls Program Office); RHOs served similar roles previously but less formally organized. With the Base Realignment and Closure process in place in the early 1990's, two nuclear capable, and two conventional, shipyards were on the list. Navy RHO/RSO's played a significant role in the process ensuring the radiological health and safety aspects of closure were accomplished in a timely manner and in compliance with all DoD, federal, state and local regulations. In the 50s the billets were located at Saint Albans Naval Hospital, Naval Medical Research Institute, Naval Hospital Bethesda, Naval Medical School and Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. In the 60s approximately 18 sea-duty billets were added to support the submarine tenders; 4 billets, for teaching NBC warfare defense; and, 7
  12. 12. 5 billets at Naval Hospitals for a total community of about 64 billets. In 1974 a block of 14 billets were added as part of an occupational health billet buy. These billets were distributed to smaller hospitals (Pensacola, Groton, Orlando, Bremerton, New London, Charleston) as Radiation Safety Officers, and other facilities as a second or third billet to strengthen the respective staffs (Great Lakes, Oakland, Radiation Safety Bethesda, Portsmouth, Navy Environmental Health Center, and San Diego). In the late 70s and 80s about 10 more billets were added, usually one at a time, (three were nuclear aircraft carrier billets which after one tour reverted back to administrative officers), for a total of about 88 billets in 1991. In 1983 the first RHOs were assigned to billets established in Code 105.5 at Charleston, Portsmouth and Puget Sound Naval Shipyards. The community growth is summarized in the table below: Year Billets Year Billets Year Billets 1947 4 1960 24 1991 88 1949 7 1963 31 1992 83 1950 8 1964 32 1993 83 1951 9 1967 49 1994 82 1953 13 1968 50 1995 84 1954 19 1969 51 1996 72 1955 19 1970 51 1997 70 1956 20 1975 55 1998 70 1957 22 1981 78 1999 70 1958 24 1985 75 2000 71 1959 24 1990 93 2001 70 2002 75 The Navy has been the leader in the development of radiation safety. Its use of radiation has expanded from a few hundred people being monitored for occupational exposure in 1947 to over 104,000 in 1992. The successful and safe operation of the US Navy's nuclear fleet, nuclear weapons program as well as the pre-eminence of the Navy's nuclear medicine programs are due in part to the contributions made by members of the Radiation Health and Radiation Specialists community. Navy radiation safety programs have clearly been the model for others to emulate. References. 8
  13. 13. Stannard, J. N. (1988) Radioactivity and Health – A History; Volume 2: Environmental Aspects, pp. 1064-1069 provide an excellent summary of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory at Hunters in San Francisco Bay 9
  14. 14. Chronological Listing of Radiation Health and Radiation Specialist Officers The following lists individuals who were commissioned in the Medical service Corps as nuclear specialist officers, i.e., radiochemistry, biophysics, radiophysics, radiobiology, radiation safety and radiation health and a few others who served as Radiation Health Officers. The synopses and anecdotal information gives some idea of the training, expertise, duty stations, rotation patterns, personalities and accomplishments of the various members. The year listed in the left hand column is the year the individuals appear to have been commissioned as Medical Service Corps Officers (first appearance as Medical Service Corps Officers in the Registry of Naval Officers). The degrees and certifications are those currently held. The rotation dates and duty stations given were compiled from newsletters, exposure periods in the Navy exposure history data base and compared with information provided from members that could still be located. Undoubtedly there are individuals, contributions and notes of interest that are not mentioned and, in some cases, the dates are only close at best. The intent is to reconstruct a brief synopsis of the record of those that served as a radiation health or radiation specialists, provide some information recognizing their service and document specific events in the program. 1947 Horace C. Dudley MSC Plank-owner. Ph.D. Biochemistry. Originally commissioned into the Chemical Corps of the Army. When the Germans did not use chemical weapons during their retreat from North Africa in 1942, he decided the Germans were unlikely to use chemical weapons in the war and transferred to the Navy as an ordinance officer with the Line. He rose to the rank of Commander and was the Commanding Officer of the Ammunition Depot, New Hebrides, which was the largest magazine west of Pearl Harbor. In 1946 he was in charge of the Weapons Ordnance Group for the Bikini Tests (Crossroads Series), and performed damage assessment of the target ships. He retired from the Navy and applied for a civilian position at the Naval Medical Research Institute. He learned about the plans for formation of the new Medical Service Corps and was encouraged to join by Andrew P. Webster. (Webster was a specialist in a lot of different things from Johns Hopkins, and had excellent access and support from the Surgeon General.) He was commissioned into the Hospital Corps in January 1947 and waited until September 1947 when the new Corps was formed. He was commissioned as a Commander in the Medical Service Corps and was one of 55 MSC science officers. He served as the Head of the Science section of the Corps from 1950- 1952. He was the first Radiation Specialist and the seventh Medical Service Corps officer to be promoted to the rank of Captain. His assignments included work at the Naval Shipyard San Francisco in decontaminating ships that were used as target ships during the atmospheric nuclear tests in 1950. He was the Chief of the Bio-chemistry Division at the Naval Medical Research Institute (his laboratory was across the hall from Drs Cronkite and Bond who did the medical and radiation 10
  15. 15. effects assessment of the Marshall Island Natives.) He conducted biochemistry studies with gallium that was being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a heat transfer medium for reactor plants. He discovered that carrier free gallium-72 would localize in soft tissue and could be used as therapeutic or soft tissue imaging agent. He served at the Naval Hospital Saint Albans (1954-1962) which was the Navy's primary cancer treatment hospital on the East Coast. Retired 1962. Worked for the University of Southern Mississippi, 1962-1969, and the University of Illinois Medical School, 1969-1977. Deceased. 1947 Francis W. Chambers MSC Plank-owner. First Specialty Advisor. Graduate from Columbia University (studied under Fiallia). Certified in X-Ray and Gamma Physics. Circuit riding physicist, surveying x-ray machines up and down the East Coast, 1949-1960. Served as the Director of the Naval Medical Research Institute's Radiation Technology Division. Published Radiological Safety Regulations, NAVMED P-1325 (Revised), and Photodosimetry Manual, NAVMED P-5005. Participated in providing biomedical support for nuclear weapons tests: Crossroads (1946), Buster-Jangle (1951), Greenhouse (1951), Tumbler-Snapper (1952), Upshot-Knothole (1953), Redwing (1956), Hardtack I and II (1958), Plowshare (1961) and Dominic (1962). Participated in decontaminating target ships at the Naval Shipyard San Francisco in 1958. Stationed at the Naval Hospital Bethesda 1960-1963. Was the main planner for establishing the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute and served as the first Deputy Director for AFRRI when the laboratory was opened. Retired 1963. Became an instructor with Georgia Tech's Nuclear Engineering program, and later was on the faculty at Emory University. Deceased. 1947 Thomas E. Shea MSC Plank-owner. Was a member of the first Professional Health Physics Training class at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 1948. Participated in several atmospheric tests in the Pacific. Served as the Officer In Charge of the Medical Reactor at Bethesda, 1957-1960. Retired. Became the Radiation Safety Officer for the University of Maryland. Deceased. 1947 Royce K. Skow MSC Plank-owner. M.S. Physiology. Provided bio- medical support for atmospheric nuclear tests in the Pacific: Crossroads (1946) and Greenhouse (1951). Decontaminated test target ships taken to the Naval Shipyards Puget Sound and San Francisco, and San Francisco Bay post- Crossroads, 1946-1950. Served as an assistant to Admiral Rickover in setting up Radiation Controls for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion program, 1954-1957. He identified radioactive fallout in Alaska as coming from a Russian atomic bomb test while US intelligence agencies were claiming and President Truman announced that the Russians could not develop a bomb for at least 5 years. He was the first Radiation Safety Officer at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1957-1969. As the radiation safety officer for the medical research reactor, he produced a nuclear medicine safety film that was later selected to be shown at the Paris Film Festival. The film was a classic - the first of its kind. He also responsible for calibration and quality control of Navy Dosimetry film from 1957 to 1969. Retired 1969. Deceased 1991. 11
  16. 16. 1947 Robert L. Gade MSC Plank-owner. Chemist at Reynolds Metals Company, Longview, Washington 1941-1942. Commissioned in May 1942 as a Volunteer Reserve for Medical Corps duty. Assigned as an industrial hygienists at Puget Sound Navy Yard, 1942-1945; Maritime Commission in Philadelphia, 1945; Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, 1945-1947. Commissioned in the Medical Service Corps in 1947 and assigned as an industrial hygienist at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, 1947-1949; Charleston Naval Shipyard, 1950-1952; and New York Naval Shipyard, 1952-1955. Transferred to radiation health and attended the Reed College Radiation Safety Program with Jim McIlraith (and Dr. Dick Dobbins, the first medical officer on the USS SEAWOLF), 1955-1956. Assigned as a radiation health officer to the Naval Medical Research Laboratory New London, 1956- 1963; Defense Atomic Support Agency Washington DC, 1963-1965. Transferred back to the Industrial Hygiene community and was assigned to the Naval Air Station Pensacola, 1965-1967. 1948 Jasper Morgan Ph.D. Physics & Mathematics. Certified Radiological Physicist, 1952. Previous instructor in Radiology at Duke University from 1935- 1941. Received appointment as a LTJG, H-S, USNR, and was stationed at the Experimental Diving Unit Washington DC from 1941-1947. Commissioned into the Medical Service Corps in 1947. Served as an instructor in the Radioisotopes Technician Course at the Naval Medical School Bethesda, 1947-1949. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1950-1957, where he established the Radiation Technology Division. TAD to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco in 1953 to participate in the decontamination of target ships from the Pacific atomic testing that were taken to the Naval Shipyard San Francisco. Assigned to the Naval Hospital San Diego, 1957-1958. First Navy medical physicist. 1948 Robert C. Will Specialty Advisor 1962-1965. Pharmacy background. Ordained minister. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1957-1961, and provided bio-medical support for the nuclear weapons atmospheric test Hardtack I (1958). Assigned to the Radiological Safety Branch at the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC, 1962-1965. Published the original Radiation Health Protection Manual, NAVMED P-5055, which compiled guidance presented in the Photodosimetry Manual and the Manual of Radiological Safety (P-1283). Started the Radiation Health Officer Newsletters (1963). Retired 1967. Became the Radiation Safety Officer for the University of Maryland (relieved Tom Shea), and later the State Radiation Health Program Director for Kansas and then for Washington. Deceased 1988. 1948 Leonard T. Bodenlos Prior Line Officer. Biochemist. Instructor (Ammunition Packager) at Naval Training School, Higham Massachusetts 1943; U. S. Naval Ammunition Depot Higham, 1944; Bureau of Ordinance Unit at Edgewood Arsenal, 1944-1945; Dugway Proving Ground 1945-1946. Civilian from 1946- 1948. Commissioned into MSC in 1948. Assigned to the Navy Medical Field Research Laboratory Camp Lejeune, 1948-1951; Army Medical Research Laboratory Fort Knox, 1951-1952 (Established temporary cold weather lab at Osaka Japan, Oct 1951 to June 1952); Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 12
  17. 17. 1952-1954; Naval Unit, Army Chemical Corps School Fort McClellan, 1954-1958; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1958-1964. Last Officer in the Radiation Technology Division. He was responsible for the successful removal of Cobalt 60 dust (about 25 Curies) that had contaminated the pneumatic system of the irradiator, building 150, and the environs. Developed techniques for detecting and evaluating levels of trace environmental contaminants in animals and humans, as part of the effort to support atmosphere control in FBM submarines. Retired 1965. 1949 Gordon C. Bell Second Specialty Advisor 1955-1962. Chemist. Provided bio-medical support for nuclear weapons atmospheric tests Castle (1954). Assigned to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC, 1956- 1962. First Specialty Advisor at BUMED. Established commissioning program for Radioisotope Technicians to become Radiation Health Officers, and was responsible for procuring funding from the Defense Atomic Support Agency for trainees in radiation biology at University of Rochester. Transferred to Naval Medical School Bethesda in 1963 and worked in the Radiation Effects Evaluation Laboratory. Retired 1967. 1950 Robert Sharp M.S. Nuclear Engineering. Very athletic, swam 20 miles a day. Worked with the nuclear weapons atmospheric testing in the Pacific: Buster-Jangle (1951), Tumbler-Snapper (1952), Upshot-Knothole (1953), Castle (1954) (medical survey of Marshall Island Natives), and Teapot (1955). Assigned to the Defense Atomic Support Agency, 1959-1961; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1961-1967. Worked on the nuclear reactor at Naval Hospital Bethesda and taught in the Nuclear Medicine Course for Physicians. Retired 1967. Afterwards, worked for General Atomic in San Diego. Deceased. 1951 Thomas G. Mitchell Ph.D. Physiology. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Prior service as a radioman in World War II. Recalled to active duty during the Korean War and commissioned as an Ensign in the Medical Service Corps in 1951. Assigned as a chemist to St. Albans Naval Hospital, 1951-1954 (St. Albans had planned to start a Radon factory, but the project was canceled in favor of developing a radioisotope laboratory. He set up the first Nuclear Medicine Clinic in Egypt at Dimirdash Hospital in 1954); OST-University of Rochester, 1955-1956; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1956-1960 (taught the Nuclear Medicine Course for Physicians)(set up the first nuclear medicine clinic in Argentina with Dr. Antonio Alerhto, a graduate of the nuclear medicine course and 2 Navy corpsman (Schultz and Konwinski); OST-Georgetown University, 1960-1963; Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1963-1965; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1965-1968; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda,1968-1969. Collaborated with Dr. Behrens on the book, "Atomic Medicine" Charter member of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Retired 1969. Continued serving as a faculty member at Georgetown and John Hopkins Universities. Now residing in Gainesville, Florida. 1951 Robert D. Jordan M.S. Physics. Initially stationed at Camp Lejeune doing explosives research. Entered the radiation program in 1951. Attended the 13
  18. 18. Nuclear Engineering program at the Naval Post-Graduate School Monterey. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1953-54 (provided biomedical support for nuclear weapon atmospheric test Castle (1954). Relieved Tom Mitchell at NAMRU #3 in setting up the nuclear medicine clinic at Dirmadish Hospital, Egypt in 1954. Assigned to the Naval Hospital Bethesda (radiation safety officer for the nuclear reactor) 1960-1965, OST- San Diego 1965-1966; Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco1966-1969; Naval Hospital Oakland 1970-1978. Retired 1978. Deceased 1991. 1951 James Howard Dowling Specialty Advisor 1972-1975. M.S. Biochemistry. M.S. Nuclear Engineering. Prior service as a Gunners Mate during World War II. Entered the radiation health program in 1951, and attended the nuclear engineering program at the Naval Post Graduate School Monterey. Assignments included: Naval Biological Laboratory Oakland (research officer for biological warfare defense),1952-1956; Safety Officer for Naval Task Unit YAG-40, Transit III, 1956-1957; Navy Post Graduate School Monterey, 1957-1959; Naval Hospital Bethesda (Reactor Supervisor), 1959-1960; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda,1960-1961; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1961-1966; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1966-1967(completed academic radiation therapy physics training under Jim McIlraith in San Diego); Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1967-1972 (traveled up and down the east coast surveying x-ray machines); Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (radiation health branch), 1972-1975. (Started the BUMED's radiation health inspections in 1973 at the Naval Shipyards). Retired 1975. Deceased 1975. (Accidental death from a fall from a ladder within a few months after he retired.) 1951 W H. Bill Chapman. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, Radiation Technology division. Participated in atmospheric nuclear tests: Greenhouse (1951), Castle (1954), Hardtack I and II (1958); and Plumbob (1958). Worked with Rear Admiral Cronkite, MC, USN and Rear Admiral Bond, MC, USN, and Capt. E. Richard King, MC, USN (future President of North American Radiological Society) in evaluating exposure to Marshall Island natives. Trained at Oak Ridge with Marshall Brucer. Assigned to the Naval Hospital Saint Albans (relieved Tom Mitchell at the radioisotope laboratory), 1955-1956; Defense Atomic Support Agency Arlington, 1957-1963; Naval Hospital Bethesda 1963-1964. Residing in Canville California 1952 Marty Colodzin Naval ROTC Officer at the University of California at Berkley in Physics, with one year graduate studies at Tufts. Accepted into the Medical Service Corps in 1952 and became the first MSC physicist to be assigned to the Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1952-1955. Captain E. Richard King, MC, (future President of North American Radiological Society) wanted a physicist to help him set up a nuclear medicine program. Worked with Drs. Luther Brady, Bill Looney and Ben Duffey, he performed thyroid uptakes with I-131 using Geiger Mueller counters, and blood volume studies with Cr-51. Developed instrumentation and evaluated thoratrast residual in a number of patients. Measured gluclose metabolism in rat livers with doctors in the chemistry division. Developed scintillation instruments to use in the laboratory. In 1954, he was to go to Egypt 14
  19. 19. with Dr Looney to set up a nuclear medicine clinic at Dirmadish Hospital. The history was that an Egyptian opera star, Um Kelsum (sp?) had developed Graves Disease. Surgeons were concerned that during surgery, they might cut a nerve ending her career. She was treated successfully at Bethesda with I-131 instead of surgery. This medical procedure impressed the Egyptian Ambassador who then promoted establishment of a Nuclear Medicine Laboratory in Egypt. Because of concerns over LT Colodzin Jewish heritage, the State Department stopped processing his passport, and Tom Mitchell was sent instead to NMRU-3 to set up the clinic in Dimirdash Hospital. Marty Colodzin was accepted to medical school in 1955. Afterwards, practiced psychiatry in Bethesda. 1952 George P. Douglas Chemistry background. M.S. Radiobiology. Originally an aviation physiologist. Entered program in 1951 or 1952, and attended the radiation program at the University of Rochester, 1963-1964. Assignments included: Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1964-1965; Defense Atomic Support Agency, 1965- 1967; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1967-1968; Naval Submarine Medical Center New London, 1968-1974. Taught submarine corpsmen at NUMI. He and Chief Reimer published a compilation of radiation control information to help the submarine corpsmen - Publication was known as Reimer's Primer. Retired in 1975. 1953 James D. McIlraith M.S. Radiation Physics. Certified Radiation Physicist. Aviation-physiologist, MCAS Cherry Point, 1950, performing x-ray dosimetry film development and NBC warfare defense training development for the Marines. Responded to a notice seeking volunteers for the radiation health program. Switched to radiation health in 1953 or 1954. Attended the radiation training programs at Reed College, followed by training at the Sandia Test Site and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (trained under Elda Anderson). RHO assignments included: Nuclear Power Training Unit Idaho Falls, 1956-1958; Naval Medical School Bethesda, 1959-1960 (with E. Richard King and Bill Fleming, published literature's first bone scanning paper); OST-Columbia University (under Edith Quimby- finished a two-year masters degree program in one year); USS BUSHNELL (AS-15) Key West, 1962-1963 (first AEC industrial radiography license granted to a tender) (served during the Cuban missile crisis); Naval Hospital San Diego, 1964-1972 (established a medical physics training program in cooperation with San Diego State College. Dick Garver, Howard Dowling, Lee Murray and Bob Morton were trainees)(performed x-ray safety and quality performance surveys up and down West Coast)(TAD aboard the USS NORTON SOUND to observe the French atmospheric tests in 1971 in the Pacific). Retired 1972. Afterwards, worked for the Scripps Institute in La Jolla, California. 1953 Charles H. Fuggitt Assigned to the Office of Naval Research, London, 1959-1961, and to NASA Moffit Field in 1962. Retired 1953 S. C. Peckham Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1958-1961. Retired 1953 Richard M. Garver M.S. Physics. Certified Radiation Therapy Physicist. 15
  20. 20. Attended the nuclear engineering program at the Naval Post Graduate School Monterey, 1960-1962. Assignments included: Defense Atomic Support Agency (later called Defense Nuclear Agency) Washington DC, 1962-1966; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1966-1968 (completed academic radiation therapy physics training under Jim McIlraith in San Diego); Naval Hospital Saint Albans, 1968- 1970. Retired 1970. Continued to practice medical physics in California. 1953 Charles F. Tedford Specialty Advisor 1966-1972. M.S. Chemistry. Prior service as a hospital corpsman. Entered the MSC through the out-service commissioning program. Sent to Reed College for a B.S. degree, and then to Nevada test site. Assignments included: Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1958-1961; OST-University of California, 1961-1963; Naval Medical School Bethesda, 1963-1966; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (radiation safety branch), 1966-1972 (with Rear Admiral Cronkite MC, and Rear Admiral Bond MC, of Brookhaven National Laboratory, wrote the first Navy Instruction NAVMED 6470.10 for treatment and care of a contaminated injured man. This was the fore-runner of the National Council on Radiation Protection Handbook #65)(established BUMED Radiation Effects Advisory Board) (first MSC officer deep-selected for Captain); Naval Hospital San Diego, 1972-1974; Commanding Officer, Naval Medical Clinic Puget Sound, 1974-1975. Retired 1975. Became the State Director of Radiation Health for Georgia, and later for Arizona and for Alaska. Now living in Scottsdale, Arizona. 1953 Robert E. George Ph.D. Bionucleonics. Certified-American Board of Health Physics (1969). Served as a Line officer during the Korean War for 18 months aboard the attack carrier USS PHILIPPINE SEA. Commissioned in the MSC as a pharmacist, and then switched to Radiation Health and went through the radiation program at the University of Rochester in 1960 with Jim Spahn. Assignments included: Naval Unit at the Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan, 1961-1964 (participated in the 1962 nuclear weapons underwater test Operation Swordfish. With Jim Spahn, trained approximately 10,000 test participants on radiation safety requirements); OST-Purdue University, 1964-1966 (Paul Ziemer's first doctoral graduate student); Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda (Director of the Radiation Biology Division), 1966- 1972; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1972-1973. Retired 1973. Became an Associate Professor and Department Head in Bionucleonics at Purdue (3 years). Then became Associate Professor and Chief Physicist at University of Indiana Medical School (14 years). Now retired and living on a lakeshore about 25 miles north of Indianapolis. 1953 W. H. Kolb M.S. Radiobiology. Pharmacist who switched to Radiation Health and went through the Rochester Program. Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18), 1962-1964; Naval Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1964-1966; Defense Atomic Support Agency Washington DC, 1966-1969. Retired 1971. Returned to being a pharmacist in Texas. 1955 James W. Duckworth M.S. Radiobiology. Was trained as a pharmacist. Transferred to radiation health and went through the Rochester Program. Assigned to the Naval 16
  21. 21. Medical Research Institute Bethesda (Radiation Technology Division) and the Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory, San Francisco. Participated in atmospheric nuclear weapons tests: Upshot-Knothole (1953), Teapot (1955), Redwing (1956) and Hardtack I and II (1958). Assignments included: OST- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, 1960-1961; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Laboratory Bethesda, 1961-1965 (taught Radiation Chemistry in Nuclear medicine Course for Physicians at Naval Hospital Bethesda); Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1965-1967; Defense Atomic Support Agency Washington DC, 1967-1968. Retired 1968. Deceased. 1955 James A. Spahn Specialty Advisor 1976-1977. M.S. Radiobiology. Prior enlisted service in the Coast Guard during World War II, and afterwards as a Navy Hospital Corpsman. Commissioned in the MSC as a Navy Pharmacist. Transferred to Radiation Health and went through the Rochester Program in 1960 with Bob George. RHO tours included: NBC School Treasure Island, 1961-1964 (participated in the underwater nuclear weapons test Swordfish in 1962 - with Bob George trained approximately 10,000 test participants on radiation safety requirements); USS ORION (AS-18) Norfolk, 1964-1966; Naval Medical School Bethesda, 1966-1969; Photodosimetry Center, Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1969- 1975 (TAD aboard USNS WHEELING to observe atmospheric nuclear tests (French) in 1972 in the Pacific); Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (radiation safety branch), 1975-1977. Retired 1977. Afterwards worked for the National Council on Radiation Protection in Bethesda Maryland. Presently retired. 1956 Armand R. Nice M.S. Education. Attended the Navy Post Graduate School Monterey Nuclear Engineering program. Assignments included: Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1951-1954 (provided bio-medical support for atmospheric nuclear tests: Upshot-Knothole (1953), Castle (1954) and Wigwam (1955); Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1954-1959; USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Holy Loch, 1960-1962 (first RSO at Holy Loch); Naval Medical Research Laboratory (subschool) New London (Nuclear Medicine Technologist School and Submarine Corpsmen School), 1963-1964; USS SIMON LAKE (AS-33) Charleston, 1964-1967; USS FULTON (AS-11) New London, 1967-1968. Retired 1968. Deceased 1986. . 1956 Thomas W. Nooney Navy flier in WWII. Afterwards served as an optometrist and was selected for the University of Rochester Radiation Biology Program, 1960-1961. Stationed at the Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1962-1963. Developed retention coefficient for thoratrast, and was the administrative assistant to Captain E. Richard King, MC, USN. 1957 Ivan B. Owen Assigned to the Naval Hospital Bethesda 1957-1960; and to the USS SPERRY (AS-12), 1960-1963. 1958 Gordon W. Werner M.S. Public Health. Entered program in 1958. Attended the radiation safety training program at Reed college and then went to the Nevada test site. NBC warfare defense specialist. Assignments included: Navy unit at the Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan, 1958-1961; Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1961-1964; Bureau of 17
  22. 22. Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (BW/CW Warfare Branch), 1964-1970 (taught NBC Warfare Defense at the Navy Medical School); Fort Detrick Frederick 1970-1972. Retired 1972. 1958 Frederick J. Roehs WO-1(HC)USN. Assigned to the USS FULTON (AS-11), 1958-1963. 1959 Earle Scrom Prior service as a radioisotope technician. He and Bill Murrell were the first two licensed nuclear reactor operators in the Navy (licensed before anyone in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion program.) He later dismantled the medical nuclear reactor at Bethesda in 1962 while assigned to the Whole Body Counting Facility. He was the first MSC Radiation Health Officer to be assigned to a submarine tender. (The USS FULTON had a Warrant Officer who was the first person to serve in the new Submarine Tender Radiation Health billet but Earle was the first officer.) For many years, he was an instructor in mathematics and statistics for the officers' nuclear medicine course at the Navy Medical School Bethesda. RHO assignments: USS ORION (AS-18), 1960-1962; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1962-1971. Retired 1971. Afterwards, taught high school mathematics in Prince Georges County, Maryland. 1960 Walter I. Siversten Assigned to Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1960-1963(?). 1961 Robert F. Moran Trained in hospital administration. Assigned as a Hospital Administrator after completing a tender tour. Retired as a Captain, MSC, around 1988. 1961 Clyde L. Hensley Prior service as a radioisotope technician who was commissioned as a Supply and Administration Officer under Captain Bell's program for recruiting radiation health officers. Assigned to Camp Lejeune in administrative position and spent most of his career with the Marines and did not switched to radiation health. In Viet Nam, he was shot down in a helicopter and wounded in subsequent defense of the survivors. Received the Silver Star. Managed nuclear medicine department at the Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton, 1970-197(?). 1961 G. I Soule Supply and Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO for the Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1961-1964. 1961 Cal Levich Ph.D. Physics. Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1961-1967. Retired 1967. 1962 Robert F. Reed M.S. Radiobiology. Prior service as a pharmacist mate during WWII with duty in the Pacific war zone. Attended Toledo University and was commissioned a Navy pharmacist in 1950. Switched to Radiation Health and attended the Rochester Program (1951). RHO tours included: USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Holy Loch/Guam1962-1964; Naval Submarine Medical Center New London, 1964-68; Armed Forced Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1968-70; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard (first military Director of 18
  23. 23. Radiation Health at a nuclear repair shipyard), 1970-1974. Retired 1974. Deceased 1985. 1962 Robert O. Wallace Supply and Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO on the USS NEREUS (AS-17), 1962-1965. 1962 William R. Murrell Supply and Administration Officer. Prior service as a hospital corpsman, and x-ray and radioisotope technician. Operated the research reactor AGN- 201M at Naval Hospital Bethesda 1958-1960. He and Earl Scrom were the first two licensed nuclear reactor operators in the Navy. Commissioned into the radiation health program in 1962. Second MSC Radiation Health Officer assigned to a submarine tender. Served either PCS or long term TAD on every submarine tender in the Navy that supported nuclear powered ships. RHO tours included: USS HUNLEY (AS-31), 1962- 1964; Naval Dispensary Norfolk, 1964-1965; USS CANOPUS (AS-34) Charleston/Rota,1965-1968; Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1968-1971; USS DIXON (AS-37) Quincy/San Diego, 1971-1976; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1976-1982. Retired 1982. Became the radiation safety officer for the Salk Institute in La Jolla and a consultant to several bio-tech firms in the San Diego area. 1962 William M. Beckner Specialty Advisor 1977-81. M.S. Radiological Science. Certified - American Board of Radiology. Prior enlisted service as a hospital corpsman and nuclear medicine radioisotope technician at Bethesda (1956-1961). He commissioned the whole body counters, and identified cobalt-60 on a chief's neck-tie that was traced to contamination from the NMRI irradiator. The story has it that friction in the pneumatic tubes had worn through the cladding and was wearing off the cobalt-60, which was venting into the control room. RHO assignments included: Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1962-1965; OST- George Washington University, 1965-1967; Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1967-1971 (managed a nuclear medicine clinic at Da Nang Hospital during Viet Nam war); Naval Hospital Bethesda (Radiation Exposure Evaluation Facility), 1971-1973; OST-John Hopkins,1973-1974; Naval Hospital Bethesda (photodosimetry center), 1974-1976; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (ionizing radiation branch), 1976-1981; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC, 1981-1983 (instrumental in setting up the NAVSEA Radiological Control Program for the weapons community). Retired 1983. Afterwards, worked for the National Council on Radiation Protection in Bethesda Maryland. 1962 J. P. Alcedo Assignments included: USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16) 1962-1964; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1964-1966. RAD 1966. 1963 R. Thomas Bell M.S. Physiology and Biophysics. Instrumental in setting up the program for reconstruction of radiation exposures for atmospheric nuclear weapons test participants for the Navy while at OPNAV and for DoD while at the Defense Nuclear Agency. Assignments included: USS HUNLEY (AS-31) Holy Loch, 1964-1966; Radiation Safety Department, Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1966-1967; OST-George Washington University, 1967-1970; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1970-1978; Office of the Chief of Naval 19
  24. 24. Operations Washington DC (initiated NTPR program and development of the broadscope license) 1978-1986; Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria (Director of the Nuclear Test Personnel Review Office), 1986-1988. Retired 1988. Now Program Manager for the Marshall Islands Program (GS-15) in the Office of Health Studies at the Department of Energy's Office of Environment Safety and Health. 1963 L. W. Wachtel Ph.D. Chemistry. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1963-1966. Transferred to the Naval Dental School in 1966. Retired. 1963 Leo. L. Laughlin M.S. Chemistry. Was the first to be brought into the Radiation Health program fresh from recruitment -all other had converted from other specialties. Assignments: Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia, 1963-1964; OST-Drexel, 1965; Deseret Test Center Utah, 1965 (Biological and Chemical warfare defense). 1963 A. D. Hatten Supply and Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO on the USS SPERRY (AS-12) San Diego, 1963-1965. 1963 T. W. Mac Connell Supply and Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO on the USS HOLLAND (AS-32) Rota (S & A), 1963-1965. 1963 R. A. Morin Supply and Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO on the USS FULTON (AS-11) New London, 1963-1965. 1964 John W. Duley M.S. Nuclear Engineering. Certified - American Board of Radiology. Former Navy Lieutenant Line Officer. RHO tours included: Naval Training Unit, Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan Alabama, 1964-1967; OST-Georgia Institute of Technology, 1967-1968; Naval Medical School Bethesda (Director of the Nuclear Medicine course for physicians- Introduced first computer to manipulate and analyze nuclear medicine images) 1968-1972; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1972-1974; Naval Nuclear Power Unit Fort Belvoir (Radiological Affairs Support Office - transferred to Port Hueneme in 1976); Radiological Affairs Support Office Port Hueneme, 1976-1979 (Planned final decontamination and decommissioning of the PM-3A nuclear power plant in Antarctica. Involved removal of 11,800 cubic yards of low level contaminated rock (Cs-137 and Sr-90) from Antarctica, which became sub-surface fill for a large parking lot at Port Hueneme. Lot is still monitored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retired 1979. Resided in Burke Virginia and produced radiation safety training films. Died 1999. 1964 LaMarr G. Beuchler Specialty Advisor 1982-1985. M.S. Radiation Health. One of the last to go through OCS prior to commissioning as an RHO (1963-1964). Tours include: USS BUSHNELL (AS-15), 1964-1965; Naval Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia, 1965-1967; Naval Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1967-1971; Naval Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1971-1975; OST-Colorado State University 1975-1976; Bureau of Medicine and 20
  25. 25. Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation section) 1976-1977; Naval Hospital Bethesda (Dosimetry Center), 1977-1981; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (ionizing radiation branch) 1981-1985; CINCLANT FLEET Medical Office, 1985-1989. Retired 1989. Currently the Director of Environmental Health and Safety/Radiation Safety Officer at the Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia.. 1964 Thomas K. Stefanakos M.S. Nuclear Engineering. Assignments included: USS NEURIUS (AS-17) San Diego, 1965-1966; Naval Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1966-1968 (qualified "Hard Hat Diver); Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia, 1968-1971; OST- Georgia Institute of Technology, 1971-1973; Naval Hospital Oakland, 1973-1976; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1976-1984. Retired 1984. Afterwards, was a Radiation Therapy Physicist in Cleveland. 1964 Ken E. Fligston B.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda (Laser Research), 1964-1966. RAD 1966. 1964 R. S. Cunningham Supply & Administration Officer. Assigned as the RHO on the USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16), 1964-1965. 1964 L. W. Flood B.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1964-1966. RAD 1966. 1964 H. J. F. Borchert B.S. Biology. Assigned to the USS PROTEUS (AS- 19) Guam, 1964-1967. RAD 1967. 1965 Wesley D. Skidmore Ph.D. Biochemistry. Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1965-1974. RAD 1974. 1965 G. A. Smithwick M.S. Radiobiology. Assigned to the Submarine Medical Center New London (Laser research), 1965-1968. RAD 1968. 1965 W. N. Hollister B.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS SPERRY (AS-12) San Diego, 1965-1967. RAD 1967. 1965 T. M. Beckham B.S. Physics. Assigned to the Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1966-1968. RAD 1968. 1965 Luther K. Barden B.S. Physics. Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18) Norfolk, 1966-1968; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1968-1968. RAD 1968(?). 1965 J. C. Huling B.S. Chemistry. Assignments included: Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1965-1966; Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1966-1967. RAD 1967. 1965 John Lee Murray M.S. Medical Physics. Certified Radiation Therapy Physicist. Pacific Fleet tennis champion and 1st All Navy in the over 35 age group. Assignments included: USS HOLLAND (AS-32) Rota/Charleston, 1965-1967; 21
  26. 26. Naval Hospital Bethesda (Photodosimetry Center), 1967-1968; OST-San Diego State College, 1968-1971; Naval Hospital Philadelphia (First Medical Physicist at NH Philadelphia), 1971-1975; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1975-1984. Installed the Navy's first medical linear accelerator and first CT-scanner and planned the radiology spaces for the new SD hospital). Retired 1984. Medical Physicist now living about 50 miles north of San Diego. 1965 J. D. Butler M.S. Chemistry. Assignments included: USS FULTON (AS-11) New London, 1965- 1967; Submarine Medical Center New London, 1967-1968. RAD 1968. 1965 J. G. Dillon B.S. Assignments included: USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16) Charleston, 1965-1967; Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia, 1967-1968. RAD 1968. 1966 Robert J. Morton M.S. Medical Physics. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Assignments included: USS NEREUS (AS-17) San Diego, 1966- 1968; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island,1968-1970; OST-San Diego State/University of California at Los Angeles 1970-1972; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1972-1975; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1975-1978. RAD 1978. Transferred to Public Health Service. Retired from PHS in 1988 and worked as the radiation safety officer for the medical linac division at Siemens Corporation. Currently works as an independent consultant on regulatory affairs in Concord, CA. 1966 Vincent L. McManaman Ph.D. Bionucleonics. Assignments included: Armed Forced Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1966-1969; OST-Purdue University, 1969-1971; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1974; Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command Bethesda, 1974-1977 (in charge of Nuclear Medicine training for physicians and technicians); Naval Hospital Bremerton, 1977-1981; Radiological Affairs Support Office Port Hueneme, 1981-1984; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1984-1986. Retired 1986. Now teaching physics at Montgomery County College. 1966 Paul D. Tveten B.S. Physics. Assignments include: Naval Medical Research Unit # 2 Taipei, 1966-1969; Naval Hospital Bethesda (Photodosimetry Center) 1970-1972 (included 6 months training in 1971 at the Laser/Microwave Division at the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Edgewood Arsenal); Navy Industrial Health Center Cincinnati, 1972-1975; Naval Submarine Base Pearl Harbor, 1975-1979; OST-Colorado State University, 1979-1980; Naval Environmental Health Center Norfolk, 1980-1986. Retired 1986. Continued as a civilian employee on the staff of the Navy Environmental Health Center. Retired 2002. 1966 R. G. Buckles Ph.D. Chemical Engineering. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda (laser bioeffects research), 1966-1970. RAD 1970. 22
  27. 27. 1966 J. F. Borgia B.S. Biological Sciences. Assignments included: USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, 1967-1969; Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco,1969-1969; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-1970. RAD 1970. 1967 Paul J. Durfee B.S. Physics. Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18) Norfolk, 1968-1970; USS NEREUS (AS-17) San Diego, 1970-1971; Naval Damage Control Training Center Philadelphia, 1971-1976; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1976-1981; Naval Submarine Base Bangor, 1981-1984; Radiological Affairs Support Office Yorktown (first Officer- in-Charge), 1984-1988; Navy Environmental Health Center Norfolk, 1988-1991. Retired 1991. Residing in Williamsburg, VA. 1967 Charles B. Galley M.S. Radiobiology. Certified Health Physicist. Assignments included: USS HUNLEY (AS-31) Guam/Charleston, 1967-1969; Naval Training Unit at the US Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan, 1969-1972 (with Gary Adler, developed the Radium Removal Training Course for inactive ship maintenance facilities Navy wide); OST-Colorado State University, 1972-1973; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1973-1974; Naval Submarine Support Facility New London, 1974-1978 (first RHO assigned); Naval Undersea Medical Institute Groton, 1978-1982; Officer-in-Charge, Naval Dosimetry Center Bethesda, 1982-1986 (implemented the two-chip LiF TLD system in the Navy); Naval Sea Systems Command Headquarters Washington DC (Naval Weapons Radiological Control Program), 1986-1989; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1989-1997. Retired 1997. Residing in the Pittsburgh, PA area. 1967 J. McCracken M.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco 1967-1969. RAD 1969. 1967 David. E. Reardon M.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Unit, Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan, 1967-1969. RAD 1969. 1967 T. L. Sallee M.S. Chemistry. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1967-1969. RAD 1969. 1967 E. W. Pinkham, III B.S. Biology. Assigned to the USS HOLLAND (AS- 32) Charleston /Rota, 1967-69. RAD 1970. 1967 M. I. Malnekoff B.S. Biology. Assignments included: USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16) Charleston, 1967-1968; Naval Medical School Bethesda, 1968-1969. RAD 1969. Afterwards, worked as a gemologist in San Francisco. 1967 Frank A. Weinslawski B.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1967-1968. RAD 1968. Continued as a civilian employee at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard (1969-1972). 1967 M. D. Mullin B.S. Assignments include: USS SIMON LAKE (AS- 23
  28. 28. 33) Holy Loch, 1967-1969; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1969- 1969. RAD 1969. 1967 E. F. Samuelson B.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS SPERRY (AS-12) San Diego, 1967-1970. RAD 1970. 1967 H. Ng B.S. Physiology. Assigned to the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory San Francisco, 1967-1969. RAD 1970. 1967 D. K. Odor M.S. Radiation Health. Assignments included: USS SAMUEL GOMPERS (AD-37) San Diego 1967-1968 (first RHO assigned); Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1969-1970. RAD 1970. 1968 B. J. Derry B.S. Chemistry. Assigned to the USS PUGET SOUND (AD-38) Newport, 1968-1970 (first RHO assigned). RAD 1970 1968 J. B. Larkin M.S. Physics. Submarine Medical Center, New London (Laser research), 1968-1969; USS HOLLAND (AS-32) Rota, 1970-1971. RAD 1971. 1968 Herbert. J. Mitchell M.S. Chemistry. Assigned to the Defense Atomic Support Agency Headquarters Arlington, 1968-1973. RAD 1973. 1968 J. F. Brandt B.S. Chemistry. Assignments included: USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16) Charleston, 1968-1971; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1971-1973. RAD 1973. 1968 R. T. Kovacic B.S. Biochemistry. Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1968-1971. RAD 1971 1968 D. C. Van Dyke B.S. Biology. Assigned to the USS CANOPUS (AS- 34) Rota, 1968-1971. RAD 1971. 1968 J. David George Specialty Advisor 1985-1991. M.S. Physics. M.S. Operations Research. Armed Forces Staff College. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Designed radiation therapy department for the new Naval Hospital at Bethesda. Developed counting method to verify special tools used inside containment tents are not contaminated. Revised Radiation Health Protection Manual implementing 1991 Title 10 Part 20 regulations. Discontinued slit-lamp exams as part of radiation physicals, and implemented heat stress prevention standards for personnel in wet-suits and air-fed hoods. Introduced real-time exposure monitoring for steam generator inspection teams. Directed Navy’s review of alleged Human Radiation Experiments. Developed high data density scan mapping for environmental release surveys of Naval Shipyards Philadelphia, Charleston, Mare Island and Long Beach upon their closure. With Skip Kerschner initiated Surface Warfare Pin for Medical Service Corps Officers. Assignments included: Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation branch), 1969-1972; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1973-1977; Naval Hospital Great 24
  29. 29. Lakes, 1977-1981; Armed Forces Staff College Norfolk, 1981; Naval Shipyard Pearl Harbor, 1981-1985; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (ionizing radiation branch), 1985-1991; Naval Dosimetry Center Bethesda, 1991- 1995; Naval Sea Systems Command Headquarters Washington DC, 1995-1997; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1997-1999. Retired 1999. Physicist with Mid-Atlantic Radiation Physics, 1999-2001; Currently a Physicist with Fairfax Hospital in Fairfax Virginia. 1968 W. C. Sonzogni M.S. Biochemistry. Assigned to the USS HUNLEY (AS-31) Charleston/Guam, 1969-1971. RAD 1971. 1968 J. W. Mozzer M.S. Biochemistry. M.B.A. Business. Assigned to the USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, April1969-August 1969. 1968 Michael V. Broadbent B.S. Zoology. Assigned to the USS SAMUEL GOMPERS (AD-37) San Diego, 1968-1971. RAD 1971. 1968 D. L. Jernigan M.S. Physical Chemistry. Assigned to the Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1968-1970. RAD 1970. 1968 Michael P. Farr B.S. Biology. Assignments included: USS FULTON (AS-11) New London, 1968-1970; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1970-1971. RAD 1971. 1968 Calvin P. Myers Ph.D. Medical Physics. Certified Radiation Therapy Physicist. Assignments included: USS NEREUS (AS-17) San Diego, 1968-1970; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1970-1971 (McIlraith's training program); Naval Hospital Great Lakes, 1971-1973. RAD 1973. Became the MSC captain of a Naval Reserve Unit, which was activated and deployed with the Fleet Hospital for Desert Storm. Residing in Kansas City. 1969 J. D. Rooke M.S. Biochemistry. Assigned to the USS SIMON LAKE, (AS-33) Holy Loch, 1969-1972. RAD 1972. 1969 Robert T. Devine Ph.D. Physics (his thesis advisor at Berkley was Edward Teller, Father of the H-bomb) Certified-American Board of Radiology. Certified-American Board of Health Physics (first Navy RHO certified). Prior civilian employment as a physicist at the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory in San Francisco. Co-designer of the DT-648, 4-chip LiF personnel monitoring badge. RHO assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-1971; Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei (learned to speak Chinese)(shot in the leg by a local farmer in Jakarta while he was packing supplies on a mule to a remote site), 1971-1974; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation section), 1974-1976; Naval Hospital Charleston, 1976-1980; Naval Sea Systems Command Headquarters Washington DC (Nuclear Weapons Radiological Controls Program), 1981-1982; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1982-1983; Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, 1983-1986; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1986-1989. Retired 25
  30. 30. 1989. Afterwards, started working at Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1969 J. L. Birkler M.S. Physics. Assignments included: USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, 1969-1971; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1972. RAD 1972 1969 David C. Temple M.S. Chemistry. Assigned to the USS SPERRY (AS- 12) San Diego, 1970-1972. RAD 1972. Afterwards attended medical school. 1969 G. A. McDaniel B.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS L. Y. SPEAR (AS-36) Norfolk, 1969-1972 (first RHO assigned). RAD 1972. 1969 W. E. Moritz Ph.D. Biomedical Engineering. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-1972. RAD 1972. 1969 Robert S. Logan B.S. Chemistry. Prior enlisted service as a hospital corpsman and radioisotope technician. Prior commissioned service as a surface warfare line officer on the minesweeper USS ACME. RHO tours included: USS PUGET SOUND (AD-38) Newport, 1970-1971; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1971-74; Naval Hospital Bethesda (Radiation Exposure Evaluation Laboratory), 1974-1977. Retired 1977 1969 Raymond L. Chaput Ph.D. Zoology. Prior enlisted service as a hospital corpsman and commissioned service as a Line Officer. RHO assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-1973 (his research with Gary Zeman showed that the LD/50 values for fast neutrons had been significantly overstated, and this contributed to the halt in U.S. development of the neutron enhanced weapon); Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation section), 1973-1975 (TAD six months in 1974 on the USNS Huntsville (Operation Dice Game) to observe French atmospheric nuclear tests in the Pacific); Naval Undersea Medical Institute New London 1975-1978 (arranged transfer of the radiation health training program to NUMI from Balston Spa); Naval Shipyard Pearl Harbor, 1978-1981; Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute Bethesda, 1981-1982; Office of Naval Technology Arlington, 1982-1984; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (medical R&D section), 1984-1988; Naval Research and Development Command, 1988-1992. Retired 1992. Became director of Christian Education for his Parish in Bethesda. 1969 J. B. Larkin M.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS HOLLAND (AS- 32) Rota, 1969-1971. RAD 1971. 1969 Zorach R. Glaser Ph.D. Chemistry. Changed his MSC sub-specialty to Radiation Health in 1975. Conducted bio-effects research on non-ionizing radiation for the Navy's EMR Project Office at Dahlgren, Virginia. MSC assignments included: Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1969-1972; Naval Surface Warfare Laboratory Dahlgren, 1972-1976. Transferred to Public Health Service. Resides in the Bethesda Maryland. 26
  31. 31. 1970 Louis R. Milavickas M.S. Radiation Health. Certified Medical Physics. Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18) Norfolk/Charleston, 1970-1972; Naval Medical School (directed Nuclear Medicine Course), 1972-1974. RAD 1974. Afterwards, practiced radiation therapy physics in Akron, Ohio. 1970 Gary J. Adler M.S. Radiological Health. Certified Radiation Therapy Physicist. Assignments included: Naval Training Unit, US Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellen, 1970-1973; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1973-1975; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1975-1978; OST-Harvard University, 1978-1981; Naval Hospital Great Lakes, 1981-1982; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1982-1990. Retired 1990. Afterwards worked as a Radiation Therapy Physicist in Terre Haute, Indiana. 1970 Jerry A. Thomas M.S. Radiation Biophysics. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Certified-American Board of Health Physics. Certified-American Board of Science and Nuclear Medicine. First, Assistant Specialty Leader for Medical Physics, 2001. Established Navy Diagnostic Imaging and Therapy Board. Led Navy/DoD Radiology Equipment Procurement efforts and Mammography Facility Accreditation for many years. Coordinated construction of Radiology Department for new Naval Hospital at Bethesda. Assignments include: USS HOLLAND (AS-32) Rota, 1970-1973; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1973-1975; OST-University of Kansas, 1975-1977; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1977- 1982; Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences Bethesda, 1982-2001. Retired after 32 years of active duty. Currently, Visiting Scientist (Radiology & Nuclear Medicine) at USUHS. 1970 Kenneth L. Groves M.S. Biophysics. Prior service as a hospital corpsman. First Director of Navy Nuclear Weapons Radiological Controls Program Office (name changed to Navy Radiological Controls Program Office in 1982 when all Navy Industrial Radiation Control programs were added). Responsible for the transfer of the Radiological Affairs Support Office (RASO) from NAVFAC to NAVSEA. First Radiation Health Officer to be deep selected for Commander. RHO assignments included: USS CANOPUS (AS-34) Holy Lock, 1971-1972; Naval Hospital Great Lakes, 1973-1975; Naval Shipyard Pearl Harbor 1975-1979; Radiological Affairs Support Office Port Hueneme, 1979-1980 (first MSC Director of RASO); Navy Radiological Controls Program Office, Naval Sea Systems Command Washington DC, 1980-1986. Retired 1986. Became the Program Manager for the Environment, Safety and Health Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Currently serves as the Assistant Director for Environmental Safety and Health at the University of California in Oakland. 1970 Stephen D. Hughes M.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS FULTON (AS- 11) New London, 1970-1973. RAD 1973. 1970 Kenneth R. Foster Ph.D. BioPhysics. Conducted research on the bioeffects of microwave radiation. Assignments included: Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1974; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1974-1974. RAD 1974. Currently Associate Professor, Department of Bio-Engineering at the University of 27
  32. 32. Pennsylvania. Co-editor of “Phantom Risk-Scientific Inference and the Law” (1993), and author of "Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts" (1997). 1970 Robert Yacovissi B.S. Biology. Prior enlisted service as an electronic technician and Naval nuclear reactor operator. Assignments included: Naval Hospital Bethesda (Photodosimetry Center), 1970-1972 (included 6 months TAD with Paul Tveten at the Laser/Microwave Division of the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Edgewood Arsenal); Navy Industrial Health Center Cincinnati 1972-1974 (included six months TAD in 1973 on the USNS WHEELING (Operation Hula Hoop) observing French atmospheric nuclear tests in the Pacific); USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16) LaMaddalena, 1974-1977; Naval Submarine Base Bangor, 1977-1981(first RHO assigned); USS NIMITZ (CVN- 68) Norfolk, 1981-1983 (combat action with Libya); Navy Environmental Health Center Norfolk, 1983-1987; Marine Corps Headquarters Washington DC, 1987- 1991 (first RHO assigned); Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC (non ionizing radiation branch), 1991-1997. Retained and retired/retained at BUMED 1997-2001. Retired 2001. Currently works at Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC. 1971 Gary H. Zeman Sc.D. Radiological Health. Certified-American Board of Health Physics. Prior service as a Naval Line Officer aboard the USS NESPELEN (AOG-55) 1969-1971. Transferred to MSC as a radiobiologist in 1971. RHO assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1974 (his research with Ray Chaput showed that the LD/50 values for fast neutrons had been significantly overstated, and this contributed to a halt in the U.S. development of the neutron enhanced weapon); OST-John Hopkins University, 1974-1976; Naval Hospital Bethesda (radiological safety service), 1976-1982 (conducted the developmental work for the Navy's first LiF dosimeter); Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1982-1989 (programs included: NATO nuclear battlefield, USAF military man-in-space program, NASA space station radiation plans, DoD directed energy weapon development program, and deployment of NOAA's solar x-ray imager satellites). Retired 1989. Became the Director of Laser and Radiation Safety program for AT&T Bell Laboratories in New Jersey. Since 1997, he has been the Radiological Control Manager at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He also writes a column for the Health Physics Journal entitled "Non ionizing Side of the Spectrum." 1971 Mitchell P. Fink M.S. Radiochemistry. Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1974. Accepted into the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. Member of the first class to become Naval physicians through the USUHS program. 1971 Karl G. Mendenhall Specialty Advisor 1991-1995. M.S. Physics. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Assignments include: USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, 1971-1974; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1974-1978; Naval Hospital Oakland, 1978-1982; Naval Hospital Bethesda (appointed head of the Radiology Department), 1982-1986; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC (implemented the issuance of the 28
  33. 33. Navy's Master Materials License from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), 1986- 1991; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Washington DC (ionizing radiation branch), 1991-1995; Officer-in-Charge, Naval Dosimetry Center Bethesda, 1995- 2002. Retired 2002. Currently resides in Maryland. 1971 James W. Malinoski M.S. Radiation Physics. Prior service as a nuclear machinist mate. RHO tours include: USS L.Y. SPEAR (AS-36) Norfolk, 1972- 1974; USS Sperry (AS-12) San Diego, 1974-1976; OST-San Diego State, 1976- 1978; Naval Submarine Support Facility New London, 1978-1980; Naval Regional Medical Clinic Pearl Harbor, 1980-1984; Radiological Affairs Support Office Yorktown (in 1987, became OIC), 1984-1990; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC, 1990-1997; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1996-2002. Retired 2002. Currently resides in Northern Virginia. 1971 James V. Johnson B.S. Chemistry. Assigned to the USS HUNLEY (AS- 31) Guam/Charleston, 1971-1973. RAD 1973 1971 Paul A. Jursinic M.S. Biophysics. Assignments included: USS SIMON LAKE (AS-33) Charleston/Rota, 1971-1974; Naval Hospital Bethesda 1974. RAD 1974. 1971 John E. Weaver B.A. Chemistry. Assignments included: USS PUGET SOUND (AD-38) Newport, 1971-1973; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1973 -1978. Accepted into medical school. Became Chief of Pediatrics at the Naval Hospital Charleston. Retired 1993. 1971 Scott K. Liddell B.S. Mathematics. Assignments included: USS SAMUEL GOMPERS (AD-37) San Diego (became the West Pac Chess Champion), 1971-1973; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1973. RAD 1973. 1971 Joseph E. DeCicco M.S. Radiological Health Physics. Certified -American Board of Health Physics. First Officer-in-Charge of the Naval Dosimetry Center Bethesda. Implemented the four chip Lithium-fluoride badge into the Navy. Assignments included: Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1972-1974; USS SIMON LAKE (AS-33) Rota, 1974-1977; Naval Hospital Pensacola (first RHO assigned), 1977-1979; Naval Hospital Orlando (first RHO assigned), 1979-1983; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1983-1986; Officer-in-Charge, Naval Dosimetry Center Bethesda, 1986-1991. Retired 1991. Now works for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1971 Thomas R. Hinz M.S. Radiological Physics. Assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1971-1974; OST- National Institute of Health, 1974-1975; Naval Hospital Great Lakes, 1975-1976. Accepted into Medical School and completed residency in radiology at the Naval Hospital San Diego. 1971 David M. Williams M.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Hospital San 29
  34. 34. Diego, 1971-1975. RAD 1975. 1972 William J. Flor Ph.D. Biophysics. Assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda (Research Biophysicist; Chief, Division of Physiology; and Head, Electron Microscopy Laboratory), 1972-1981; Naval Sea Systems Command Headquarters Washington DC (Health Physicist and Acting Deputy Director, Nuclear Weapons Radiological Control Program Office), 1981-1985; Naval Shipyard Pearl Harbor (Director of Radiation Health), 1985- 1988; Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria (Program Manager, Nuclear Test Personnel Review; DNA Navy Element Commander (1991-1993); DoD Technical Member, Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination; Chair, DoD Radiation Research and Policy Working Group; and Co-Chair, Joint DoD/DOE Intrinsic Radiation Study Group), 1988-1993. Author of 35 professional papers and presentations during US Navy tenure. Retired 1993. Now works at Los Alamos National Laboratory (Technical Staff Member and Group Leader, Hazardous Materials Response Group. 1972 Terence C. O'Grady M.S. Radiation Biology. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment Dahlgren (non-ionizing radiation 1972 Laurence F. Parr M.S. Radiation Physics. Certified-American Board of Radiology. Assignments included: Naval Hospital Bethesda (developed method for analyzing the accident dosimeter sulfur pellet), 1973-1976; OST-University of Florida, 1976-1977; Naval Hospital Great Lakes, 1978-1981 (included 5 month TAD on USNS WHEELING conducting radiological surveys of the Marshall Islands); Naval Hospital Pensacola, 1980-1982; Naval Hospital Oakland, 1982- 1985; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC, 1985-1986; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1986-1989; Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences Bethesda, 1989-1993; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1994-1997; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1997-2000. Retired 2000. Continued working at the Naval Hospital Portsmouth operating the digital imaging network for medical radiography. 1972 Joseph L. Hosszu Ph.D. Physics. Assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1972-1975; Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment Dahlgren (non-ionizing radiation research), 1975-1976; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1977-1980; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1980-1984; Naval Hospital Bremerton, 1984-1987; USS EMORY S. LAND (AS- 39), 1987-1989; Radiological Affairs Support Office Yorktown, 1989-1993. Retired 1993. Employed as the radiation safety officer at Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas. 1972 Michael P. Grissom M.S. Radiation Health. Board Certified, Radiation Health. Prior enlisted service as Navy hospital corpsman. Assignments included: USS SPERRY (AS-12) San Diego, 1972-1974; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1974-1976; OST-Catholic University, 1976-1977; Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda (radiation consultant for the damaged Three Mile Island Nuclear Generator Station) 1977-1982; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC (Nuclear Test Personnel Review 30
  35. 35. Program), 1982-1985; Naval Hospital Oakland, 1985-1990. Retired 1991. Afterwards, worked at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as the Department Head for Operational Health Physics (1991-1994), Special Assistant for Radiation Protection, Environment and Waste Management (1995-1997), Assistant Director for Environmental Safety and Health (1997-2000) and currently as the Assistant Associated Director for Environmental Safety and Health. 1972 Paul K. Weathersby M.S. BioEngineering. Diving physiology expert. Developed the U.S. Navy's Decompression Tables for mixed gas diving (helium), warm water diving (Persian Gulf); and high altitude diving (mountain lakes). RHO assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 1972-1974; OST-University of Washington, 1974-1976; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda; Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Research Laboratory Groton, 1992-1994. Retired 1994. 1972 Michael G. Knight M.S. Radiation Health. Prior Naval service as a hospital corpsman. RHO assignments included: USS PUGET SOUND (AD-38) Newport, 1973-1975; Navy Industrial Environmental Health Center Cincinnati, 1975-1977; OST-University of Pittsburgh, 1977-1978; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1978-1980; USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65) Bremerton, 1980-1981; Naval Undersea Medical Institute Groton, 1982-1985; Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Washington DC, 1985-1991; Officer in Charge, Radiological Affairs Support Office Yorktown, 1991-1993. Retired 1993. Afterwards, worked as radiological controls officer at Pantex in Amarillo Texas. 1972 William L. Arnold M.S. Radiation Health. Assignments included: USS HOWARD W. GILMORE (AS-16 ) LaMaddalena, 1972-1974; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1974-1975 or 1976. RAD 1975 or 1976. 1972 Donald S. Peterson M.S. Physics. Assigned to the USS HOLLAND (AS- 32) Charleston, 1973-1975. RAD 1975. 1972 Richard W. Dubiel M.S. Physics. Assignments included: USS ORION (AS-18) Charleston, 1972- 1973; Naval Hospital Charleston, 1973-1974. RAD 1974. Afterwards, worked for Metropolitan Edison at Three Mile Island as the manager of chemistry and health physics at Unit One (the unit not involved in the 1979 accident). Later worked for PPPL and as an independent consultant. 1972 Wayne R. Hedrick Assignments included: USS CANOPUS (AS-34) Holy Loch, 1973-1974; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1974-1976. RAD 1976. 1972 Laymon Johnson B.A. Chemistry. Assignments included: Naval Unit at the Army Chemical Center and School Fort McClellan, 1972-1973; Damage Control Training Center Treasure Island, 1973-1975. RAD 1975. 1972 Eric T. Prince M.S. Physics. Assigned to the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment Dahlgren (Non-Ionizing Biomedical Research Lab), 1972- 1975(?). 31
  36. 36. 1972 Charles H. Van der Pool M.S. Radiation Health . Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1973-1975. RAD 1975 and attended dental school. 1973 Frederick A. Hodge Ph.D. Radiation Biology. Changed sub-specialty to radiation health from Microbiology. RHO assignments included Naval Medical Research Unit #2 Taipei, 1973-1976; Naval Medical Research Institute Bethesda, 1976-1979(?). RAD 1979(?). 1973 Michael D. Fisher B.S. Zoology. Assignments included: USS FULTON (AS-11) New London, 1973-1975; Naval Hospital Charleston, 1975- 1976. RAD 1976. 1973 Steven C. Tolan B.S. Biology. Assigned to the USS ORION (AS-18) Charleston, 1973-1975. RAD 1975(?). 1973 Robert B. Greear B.S. Chemistry. Assignments included: USS SAMUEL GOMPERS (AD-37) San Diego, 1973-1975; Navy Environmental Health Center Cincinnati 1975-1976. RAD 1976. 1973 James Douglas Bennett M.S. Radiation Health. Certified Radiation Therapy Physicist. Assignments included: USS PROTEUS (AS-19) Guam, 1974-1976; Naval Hospital San Diego, 1976-1979; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1979-1982. RAD 1982. Participated in the Naval Reserves and was the Executive Officer for the Fleet Hospital deployed to Bahrain during Desert Storm 1991. Works as a medical physicist in Duluth, Minnesota. 1973 George I. Snyder M.S. Public Health. Prior enlisted service as an electronic technician and submarine nuclear reactor operator. RHO tours included: USS HUNLEY (AS-31) Charleston, 1974-1976; Naval Hospital Bethesda, 1976- 1978; OST-John Hopkins University, 1978-1980; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery Washington DC, 1980-1984; Naval Hospital Portsmouth, 1984-1986; Navy Environmental Health Center Norfolk, 1986-1994. Retired 1994. Became the Radiation Safety Officer for University of Florida, Gainesville. 1974 Robert G. Hamilton M.S. Radiation Health. Assigned to the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1974-1977. RAD 1977. Afterwards, obtained a Ph.D. from John Hopkins University. 1974 Joseph V. Moniot M.S. Zoology. Prior service as a laboratory technician in the US Army and stationed in Viet Nam during the war. RHO assignments included: Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Bethesda, 1974-1976; USS CANOPUS (AS-34) Charleston, 1976-1979. RAD 1979. Afterwards, employed at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant in Wisconsin. 1974 Roby D. Enge M.S. Radiation Physics. Certified-American Board of Health Physics. Prior service as a Lieutenant Line Officer who transferred over to 32

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