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01.02.21 Korea Meeting on RAS0029(2000)

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  • 1. Consultant Meeting on ICT-Based Education for the Asia/Pacific Region (Distance Learning/Assisted Training) 30 November – 2 December 2000 KAERI, Taejon, Korea Meeting Report Project No: C3-RAS 0/029 Contents 1 Attendance Page 1 2 Executive Summary Page 1 3 Recommendations Page 2 4 Background Page 3 5 Purpose of the Meeting Page 4 6 Presentations Page 4 7 Discussions Page 5 8 Outcomes Page 11 9 Outputs Page 11 APPENDIX 1 Page 12 APPENDIX 2 Page 13 1. Attendance Australia Ms. Celia Hacker, ANSTO, (Chairperson) Australia Ms. Heather Patterson, Dept of Nuclear Medicine, Westmead Hospital U.K. Mr. Emlyn Phillips, University of Wales, Lampeter (UWL) Korea Mr. Han-Young Lee, Principal Engineer, NTC, KAERI (Coordinator) Korea Mr. Young-Taek Kim, Principal Engineer, NTC, KAERI Korea Mr. Kyung-Won Seo, Principal Engineer, NTC, KAERI Korea Ms Young-Hee Yeom, KAERI (Secretary) The IAEA Scientific Secretary (Mr. C A Aleta), was not present at the meeting. 2. Executive Summary 3. Only two RCA countries (Australia and Korea) were represented at the meeting. There was no IAEA representative. 4. Three days was insufficient time to address all the items identified as the purpose of the meeting. At least one third of the meeting time was spent in establishing the differences between the type of training and the type of student in the current distance learning programs and the type of training envisaged through the proposed system. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 1 of 15Page 1 of 15
  • 2. 5. A total of ten presentations, including a visit to the Multimedia Education Centre at Paichai University in Taejon, addressed the status of distance learning in Korea and Australia, a typical distance learning course in Wales and the multimedia technology available in Korea. The facilities at KAERI and at Paichai University are impressive and provide an excellent opportunity for extending knowledge-based education to remote students. 6. Extensive discussion took place in an attempt to clarify how the Korean proposal for ICT-Based (Information and Communications Technologies - based) Education fits in with other RCA/IAEA projects and the concept of distance learning. The current RCA/IAEA projects provide vocational/practical training. The ‘course notes’ can be made available on the Web for easy downloading by students, but to convert it to computer-based-training, which is interactive and uses multimedia, requires skills, time and money. The technology in Korea is being used to provide academic lecture-based training for on-line or off-line (Video on Demand) students. 7. The development of on-line training courses should take into account how adults learn and should provide interactive learning. 8. Software standards should be set so that tools and contents are compatible. 9. The project proposal has not identified the resource required to develop interactive computer-based-training. 10. There will be training requirements for IT personnel, course developers and course implementation and delivery personnel. 11. It may be appropriate to include other IAEA Member States so that existing resources are identified and drawn upon. 12. The project must identify mechanisms for trialing and evaluating material in terms of technological quality and educational benefits. 13. A document was produced with suggested guidelines that could be used in the development of learning software. 3. Recommendations 4. The proposal has potential for meeting training needs in the future, when reliable technology is more widely available in Member States. This project should be considered as an IAEA project (rather than only RCA) in order to fully utilize existing resources and new technologies. 5. Considerable resources are required in planning, development and implementation. Planning could commence in 2003/04. Note that the current proposal does not address the resources required to implement fully interactive ICT-based materials as described in this report. 6. The Korean system has greatest potential for application in fields such as reactor technology, nuclear physics and post-graduate courses such as the IAEA Post- Graduate course in Radiation Protection. This method of providing training does not fit in with the current distance learning projects, which are learner- centred and provide vocational training for specific roles. 7. A team, incorporating both IT and educational specialists, should be established to evaluate various course development and delivery tools according to ease of use, cost, and applicability to the local environment. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 2 of 15Page 2 of 15
  • 3. 8. Appropriate training should be provided to course content developers, Internet developers, lecturers, and those responsible in the Member States for implementing training. 9. Standards should be determined for the effective evaluation of the demonstration module referred to in the project proposal, in terms of technological quality and educational benefits. 4. Background Ref: ‘Information Sheet for Consultancy meeting on ICT-Based Education for Asia- Pacific’ prepared by KAERI ‘Under the RCA program distance learning materials have been developed and used for teaching personnel in RCA Member States in three areas: nuclear medicine for nuclear medical technologist1; radiation sterilization of tissue grafts and tissue banking2; and radiation protection3. A fourth one is currently being initiated: distance learning in radiation oncology4. The materials on nuclear medicine and on sterilization of tissue grafts/ tissue banking are already being transferred to other regions and translated into other languages. The materials on radiation protection are proposed to be issued as an Agency training document. The latest distance learning project, on radiation oncology, is proposed for joint development with ARCAL and AFRA Member States (MS). The next stage in this distance learning education is to use the Internet as a medium for teaching. Under the joint UNDP/RCA/IAEA project, (RAS 97/030), an RCA homepage has been established which is linked to the homepages of RCA MSs as well as that of the IAEA. This RCA homepage would be available to host this distance learning materials, or to link with sites that will host these materials5. An Agency-initiated project on ICT-based distance learning education, initially focusing on repair of instrumentation, is proposed for the 2001/2002-project cycle. This project is proposed to be an interregional activity involving the 3 regional agreements (RCA, AFRA and ARCAL). A project proposal on cyber training was submitted by KOREA and discussed at the Meeting of Project Counterparts of the subproject “Electronic Networking and Outreach” under the joint UNDP/RCA/IAEA project held in Malaysia in April 2000. The proposal was welcomed at the meeting and also supported by several MS; however, it was considered premature and needed to be further developed. Consequently, this proposal would be submitted to the Agency for the 2003/2004 cycle.’ This meeting was convened to consider the proposal further and seek its relevance to the current distance learning programmes. 1 Developed initially under RAS 6/022 and continued under RAS 6/029 2 Developed under RAS 7/003 and continued under RAS 7/008 3 Developed under RAS 9/006 and continued under RAS 9/018 and RAS 0/029. 4 To be developed under RAS 6/033. 5 For example, the materials could be in a server based in AUL, and only linked to the homepages, or be accessible via Internet. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 3 of 15Page 3 of 15
  • 4. 5. Purpose of the Meeting Ref: ‘Programme for Consultancy meeting on ICT-Based Education for Asia-Pacific’ prepared by KAERI a) ‘To provide information on the status of distance learning education in the Asia Pacific region, particularly in selected RCA MS; b) To describe and discuss the available software or systems in common use in selected MS for delivering distance learning education; c) To review the progress of the RCA distance learning projects; d) To develop protocols on putting the available distance materials online (via Internet) and mechanisms for implementing distance education via this medium. e) To identify additional priority areas as candidate subjects for developing distance learning materials. f) Prepare a draft project proposal for the 2003/2004 cycle.’ 6. Presentations 7. Heather Patterson, Westmead Hospital, presented an overview of the distance assisted training (DAT) for nuclear medicine technologists as developed in the RCA and now extended to AFRA and ARCAL involving approximately 460 students. There are currently nine countries involved in the English version and fifteen countries using translated versions (Chinese, Spanish, Korean and Portuguese, (French in progress)). It has been designed as paper-based in- service training with a high practical component, and is now available both on CD-ROM and the Web providing an interactive bulletin board with plans for links to multimedia to complement written material. Guidelines are available for students, supervisors and country coordinators to assist with understanding of course implementation. Mechanisms of student assessment are currently being documented for regional and inter-regional use to attain continuity in competency standards on knowledge and practice. 8. Celia Hacker, ANSTO, gave an overview of the radiation protection distance learning project. It has been designed around required competencies in radiation protection and is a paper-based learner-centered training program with a considerable practical component. It was not designed for interactive computer-based training and would need extensive modification with careful consideration of appropriate tools. The draft modules are available on CD- ROM. 9. Mr Emlyn Phillips, UWL, presented an outline of the University of Wales, Lampeter’s on-line courses. Originally paper-based, these have been redesigned to take advantage of the Internet as a medium and now include multi-media elements, interactive self-assessment exercises and a student focussed learning environment including bulletin boards and e-mail discussion groups. He outlined the reasons for choosing certain software tools, design factors affecting the development of the course, and a summary of the lessons learned. 10. Mr Han-Young Lee, KAERI, presented an overview of distance learning in Korea. He discussed the changing nature of education in terms of ‘cyber -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 4 of 15Page 4 of 15
  • 5. education’ as a means of delivering courses to students at a distance as well as using modern technology to enhance on-campus education. In Korea cyber education programs have been implemented in a number of universities. A homepage for nuclear related education programs has been developed by the KAERI Nuclear Training Centre 11. Mr Young-Taek Kim, KAERI, presented a brief description of the KAERI cyber education system. This included the multi-media lecture room which enables lectures either to be transmitted live as multi-cast or to be captured in a database for later access as a Video-on-Demand (VOD) uni-cast. The multi-cast is available only within KAERI’s Intranet whilst the VOD service will be accessible over the Internet. 12. Mr E S Park, Director of DAOU Tech Inc. presented a description of Screenwatch, screen-recording software, Netplain, a tool for producing multi- media, on-line lectures, and Learning Web, a tool for course and student administration and management. 13. Mr. Han-Young Lee presented a draft of the project proposal on the Development of Cyber Learning/Training Programs in Nuclear Technology in the Asia and Pacific Region for discussion. Specific objective are: development and demonstration of cyber learning/training methodologies and interface mechanisms for different distance learning initiatives in nuclear related activities like; distance learning in radiation protection, tissue banking, nuclear medicine, oncology, nuclear power projects, etc. 14. The RCA Homepage and links to Member States’ homepages were demonstrated. The KAERI Nuclear Training Center Homepage with access to lecture transcripts was demonstrated. 15. Meeting participants visited the Multimedia Education Center at Paichai University and the use of LearningWave software (developed for the University and now available through a commercial venture (www.cobes.com)) was demonstrated. The education multimedia laboratory is a facility, which allows simultaneous transmission of a lecture online to remote students. The laboratory utilises electronic touch screens and has a system which allows interaction between the student (either in the lab or remotely) via a link between the student’s microphone and a camera. The system has associated video and audio tapes and allows the student to work from either an online on offline base. 16. The VODs produced during the presentation sessions on Day 1 were viewed. 17. Heather Patterson demonstrated how digitized greyscale and colour dynamic images could complement the nuclear medicine training materials to enhance patient case studies. Each case study would include patient history, protocols, technical discussion and diagnostic reports with all information being collated in a multimedia database. 7. Discussions The following sections are a summary of the discussions held during the first two days of the meeting. They are presented here in an order, which represents the logical -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 5 of 15Page 5 of 15
  • 6. A Q Lecturer progression of current status, needs analysis, project planning and implementation, rather than in the order in which the discussions took place. Discussion Topic 1: Status of current distance learning projects Available information on the status of IAEA supported distance learning projects, both RCA and others, was collated. Not all the information was available to meeting participants. Information on the Tissue Banking Project was inserted following the meeting. Participants in the Tissue Banking project are able to attain a Diploma through the University of Singapore. Topic Status Medium Level of trainees 1 Radiation Trials/draft Paper/CD-ROM Basic Protection 2 Tissue Banking Implementation Paper/CD-ROM, Web Experienced (usually graduates) 3 Nuclear Pilots and Paper/CD-ROM, Web Basic Medicine Implementation 4 Radiation Planning CD-ROM, Web Physician Oncology 5 Repair of Proposal (2001/2) ICT Specialised Instrumentation Interregional 6 Medical Physics Proposal (2003/4) Paper initially/Web Graduates 7 Nuclear Power Material developed Paper, VOD sample Graduates Projects Discussion Topic 2: Two Models of Providing Training to Remote Students There was considerable discussion on different methods of providing training to students remote from a training centre. One model (see Schematic 1) allows a student to access lectures (either on- or off-line) and thus participate in an existing education system, of which the lecture schedule forms a part. This model is usually teacher centered. Students present at the training centre are able to question (Q) the lecturer directly. Schematic 1 Remote Education within an existing system -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 6 of 15Page 6 of 15
  • 7. R Tutor S ead AS Qtudent S o represents a student present at the training center o represents an online student o online link The system being introduced at KAERI and that in operation at Paichai University are methods of providing remote education within an existing system. In this scenario students may be present at the training center or university or may be online elsewhere in real time or later, using the VOD facility. External students participate in an existing lecture based model. The second model (see Schematic 2) is learner-centered, allowing students to learn at a time and rate which is suitable for them. Students study course material and participate in interactive activities (providing answers (A) to questions (Q) through the software), and in practical exercises, possibly through residential courses. A tutor provides additional support and feedback. Schematic 2 Home/Office Learning The model in use with the existing radiation protection and nuclear medicine projects, and in UWL’s model, is different in that the material has been designed specifically for students who are remote from the learning centre. In this model students do not necessarily work online. The course is software based, the material may be provided on CD-ROM or over the Web, and may (and preferably should) have supporting multimedia. This extensive discussion was invaluable in bringing together different ideas and concepts of training. The meeting participants gave careful consideration to methods of combining the various concepts. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 7 of 15Page 7 of 15
  • 8. Discussion Topic 3: Current ICT System at KAERI and its Application to IAEA Projects The KAERI ICT system uses Netplain to develop lecture content. Screenwatch is used for live broadcast over the Internet and Realplayer is used for VOD viewing. The initial target group for training with the new system consists of students based at KAERI, which has high-speed connections and a reliable system. Potential external users may not have such a reliable Internet connection (it may be slow or carrying a heavy load) or may find it difficult to access the Internet for other reasons. Use of Realplayer, which is compatible with other systems such as UNIX and MacOS, means that the training material may be delivered by alternative methods such as CD-ROM or DVD. This system could be used to deliver current lecture-type training (such as some of the IAEA Regional Training Courses (RCA) and training courses organised under AFRA and ARCAL) to a wider learner group than is possible using conventional presentation methods. It could be an effective use of IAEA training funds and a means of making the expertise of specialised lecturers more widely available. It could also be used to deliver a lecture by an expert who is unable to attend the training centre. However there would be a need to establish a tutorial system and workshops to ensure the provision of adequate practical components and support to the learners. The vision of an ‘International Nuclear University’ was also discussed. It was agreed that there are educational benefits of using video material in addition to text-based material. There are however a number of limitations, both technical and educational, with such a system: • There may be difficulties in comprehension due to language constraints or accents, which may be accentuated by poor sound quality resulting from loss of quality on transmission and/or problems with the microphone detecting the voice of the lecturer. • Image quality may be poor as a result of poor lighting in the lecture room or variations in lighting intensity, which lead to over or under exposure. • The lecturer may obscure writing on the electronic board. • The system as demonstrated does not include a method of reinforcing students’ understanding of content via a tutorial system. (Although it does allow for replay of the material by the student.) A question and answer system can be made available via e-mail but this has been demonstrated to be very time consuming for the lecturer. • While demonstrations and simulations may be recorded there is still a need for hands- on practical experience via workshops or residential courses. The limitations identified may be addressed by the following additions: • Providing transcripts of lecture content. • Incorporating a multimedia demonstration of each important point to assist the student’s understanding. • Including interactive self-assessment exercises to validate understanding. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 8 of 15Page 8 of 15
  • 9. This can be achieved using standard Internet technologies such as; • html; • javascript; • java • quicktime • flash Consistent use of these formats means the same material can be distributed by different means, e.g. Internet, CD-ROM, DVD. A standard library of texts, video clips, simulations etc may be built up. • Incorporating practical workshops and assessment processes into the training program. Established learning principles of active participation in the learning process, rather than passive viewing and listening, require extensive supporting materials as described above. Lecture transcripts, together with the supporting material, could be used as stand-alone training material in the absence of on-line facilities or VOD. Problems associated with sound & image quality will be solved as technology improves. KAERI Nuclear Training Center is planning to upgrade and modify the present pilot facilities in consultation with IT companies in the near future. Discussion Topic 4: Planning the Development of ICT-based Learning Materials The guidelines given in the IAEA Draft Safety Report “Training in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources” and in similar IAEA publications in the nuclear field should be applied to the development of all training programmes, regardless of the medium proposed for presentation. Careful and thorough planning is required, starting with consideration of the following; training requirements; categories of persons to be trained; training methods; learning techniques; training design (including method of delivery); leading to decisions on software and subsequently to the development of material. If a number of courses in several countries are being prepared then experiences/work should be shared. Interfaces can be defined, processes fully documented and an on- line database of tools made available. There is a requirement to define appropriate standards/protocols prior to any development, taking into consideration standards in place in institutions that may be involved in delivering the training. If programs are designed and constructed so that they can be easily customised then countries can make use of local environments and languages. Systems should be flexible to support evolving technologies. A project management team should be established to oversee the development of material in all areas. The role of the project management team should include the following items: • Setting standards: Using established software engineering techniques and practices, establish guidelines for the development of on-line learning systems. This would aim to ensure easy reuse, modification and maintenance of software systems. Adherence to open, industry standards should be demanded. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 9 of 15Page 9 of 15
  • 10. • Setting milestones: The processes outlined above should be planned in advance, and milestones set to ensure that the final set of standards are properly researched and reviewed, but completed quickly enough to be useful. • Monitoring: The group should audit systems developed by Member States for adherence to the accepted standards. Dogmatism is not intended; genuine reasons for departing from standards should be recognised. In general, when non-standard systems are produced, these should be identified and the developers encouraged to amend them. • Evaluating the system: Problems with the original standards and systems will inevitably be identified, and the group should update them where necessary in the light of developers’ experience. Personnel involved in the planning and development of ICT-based learning materials will need a variety of skills: • Project Management Team – need project management skills and knowledge/expertise in technical content, educational methods and ICT. • Authors/material developers – need expertise in the discipline and as an educator • IT personnel/programmers/techies – need expertise in ICT Resources must be clearly identified and available, with consideration of availability and/or cost of hardware and software in Member States. There is a need to review already existing material (software, tools, etc) - freeware or commercial - which may be relevant. Existing distance learning material would need to be redesigned in order to accommodate on-line functions. Although hyperlinks may be provided within the existing material, this is not sufficient to provide fully interactive ICT-based training. Discussion Topic 5: Recommendations for the development of learning software In the context of IAEA-supported on-line learning in the Asia-Pacific region, it is clear that the KAERI project currently under discussion would be only the first step in a process, which would see learning materials and tools being developed in a number of Member States. In the interests of efficiency, and to avoid repetition of effort, it makes sense for tools and content developed in one country to be available for adaptation by developers in other countries. If this is to be feasible, standards should be developed so that tools and contents (hereafter called ‘components’) are fully compatible, regardless of where they were developed and by whom. Furthermore, a developer searching for a component to perform a given task must be able to identify whether or not a particular component will suit his needs. Appendix 2 contains guidelines for software development. The guidelines address the standards directly related to software and also standards which are relevant to educational principles. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 10 of 15Page 10 of 15
  • 11. Discussion Topic 6: Training needs within the project. Personnel involved in course development and delivery will need training in a variety of aspects, including use of software, on-line course design, and presentation skills appropriate for the technology. To address the limitations outlined in Discussion Topic 3 and assist development of ICT-based materials as described in Discussion Topic 4 the following training is required within the project: • IT personnel will need training in the standards developed by the project team. • Lecturers using VOD will require training for effective presentations. • Course developers and authors will require training on how to prepare material in a suitable format for on-line training. (Note: Redesigning the current paper-based distance learning material suitable for on-line synchronous or asynchronous use, is a big undertaking.) • Course implementation teams, which include country coordinators, tutors and supervisors, will require training in software applications. Discussion Topic 7: Implementation of ICT-based Training Courses The resource required for successful implementation of ICT-based training courses (or even of paper based training courses with remote students) must not be under-estimated. Web-based training will reach a large number of students who will require ongoing support, feedback and assessment. Likewise course implementation will require ongoing monitoring, evaluation, feedback and review, which will be particularly demanding in the initial years of presentation. To maintain support for effective course implementation sufficient resources should be available to enable course managers to; a) respond effectively to large number of students; b) maintain updates on course content; c) maintain software and hardware and upgrade when required; and d) maintain the training of country management teams. 8 Outcomes of the Meeting The outcomes of the meeting were as follows: • An improved understanding of the status of distance learning programs in the RCA. • A sharing of information on the ways in which ICT-based training can be developed and development time, costs, and problems can be minimised. 9 Outputs of the Meeting The expected outcomes (referenced to those identified in the Information Sheet prepared by KAERI for the meeting) were as follows: 1. Information Sheet – ‘An inventory of available software systems for delivering distance learning teaching/education.’ Meeting – See Discussion Topic 5. A preliminary software inventory is included at Appendix 1. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 11 of 15Page 11 of 15
  • 12. 2. Information Sheet – ‘Suggested recommendations on practical /effective ways of conducting training by putting the available distance learning materials online (Internet) and providing mechanisms for online teaching.’ Meeting - Discussed at length. See Discussion Topics 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7. ‘Course notes’ can be made available on the Web, (and generally are), and may be complemented by video clips, and colour dynamic images. However to convert the available material to ‘online teaching’ requires a re-design of the training material, a major task requiring considerable educational and IT resource. 3. Information Sheet – ‘A list of priority areas for future development of distance learning materials.’ Meeting – This topic was not considered appropriate for this meeting. The IAEA Safety Guide ‘Building Competence in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources’ recommends a process for identifying training needs in Member States. 4. Information Sheet – ‘A project proposal for 2003/2004 on cyber or Internet-based distance learning education.’ Meeting – There was insufficient time to address this, other than to discuss the planning issues (see Recommendations) and resource requirements. An additional output, resulting from meeting discussions, was a set of preliminary guidelines for the development of software (see Appendix 2). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 12 of 15Page 12 of 15
  • 13. APPENDIX 1 Preliminary Software Inventory See discussion under Discussion Topic 5 This is a preliminary list, based on the compilers' experiences and use of the Web. Useful addresses for further searches are included. Internet-based learning is a field, which is being developed in many countries. There are very many different tools available on the Web, either free or for purchase. Different course developers will find that some are more suitable than others in their particular circumstances. Tools, which have been used by KAERI, include: • Netplain www.netplain.com/ • Nanumi tutor www.ans.co.kr • lecture wave www.cobes.co.kr Many other tools can be found for evaluation at Yahoo! The URL is: http://dir.yahoo.com/Education/Distance_Learning/ Two particularly good sites that provide links to a large number of sites are: • http://www.alx.org/developertools.asp?usertype=developer • http://www.uwex.edu/disted/interactive.html -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 13 of 15Page 13 of 15
  • 14. APPENDIX 2 Preliminary Software Development Guidelines The following suggestions are guidelines that could be used in the development of learning systems. They are intended to make the material: • easily reusable • easily compatible • suitable for widely varying conditions and resources (in terms of both institutions and students) Some suggestions follow: Guideline Explanation/Example Content should be separate A web page may need to contain a self-assessment exercise, which from method of delivery will allow the student to test their understanding. The ‘means of delivery’ might be a) a form in the web page, containing named fields, and b) a JavaScript program which reads input from some fields, assesses them, and writes output to other fields. The ‘content’ is the set of questions and answers, which might be relevant to tissue banking, radiation protection or any other topic. These should be separate so that a developer can take the means of delivery, and very easily add new content. Course components should be Encoding web page templates in Unicode (UTF-8) will make it designed to allow easier to reuse them for pages in another alphabet. A page customisation and localisation. originally developed in Japanese is easily modified to contain Korean characters. A Japanese page encoded in Windows-31J, a set containing only Japanese letters, could not contain Korean characters. (This is simplification of the topic, but gives the general idea. The user must also have suitable character sets installed). A learning tool developed by a project should have all of its text (e.g. for the options on menu bars) contained in a separate file, so that they can easily be replaced by options in another language. Course components should be This should be done in order that they will be reusable on all hardware designed according to formal platforms and operating systems. Therefore web pages will be developed according to the latest HTML standard. They would contain only layout internet standards and good information, with the rules for appearance being contained in separate style practice. sheets. Proprietary extensions should be avoided. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - /home/pptfactory/temp/20101027134020/010221-korea-meeting-on-ras002920003319.doc 2/2/01 Page 14 of 15Page 14 of 15
  • 15. Components should be fully Documentation should include a textual description of intended documented. behavior, expected parameters (inputs/outputs), identified bugs, etc. If possible, a diagram of intended behavior should be attached using UML or OMT/MSC diagrams1 (see below). Fully annotated source code should also be included. For example, the JavaScript code for a self-assessment exercise will contain a description, which identifies that it must be called from an HTML form, which must be given a certain name. It reads input from a field of a given name within that form, and that data is identified by a specific name. Output will be written to another field, which must also have a specific name. Freeware should be sourced This applies to components such as browsers, web servers, or any where possible development tools. Using freeware will enable developers with limited budgets to obtain components and reuse entire projects. Internet principles and For example, courses developed for distribution by CD-ROM standards should be adhered to should use HTML, JavaScript etc and are viewed through web in other media. browsers. It will therefore be possible to migrate them to other media without alteration. Online courses should be Course developers should give careful consideration to methods of structured to make only one or achieving educational goals at the same time maintaining ease and two points per page. flexibility of presentation. Multimedia demonstrations Sound files, flash movies, QuickTime clips. should be used to assist develop difficult concepts. Interactive multimedia This is applicable to all areas of learning but has a specific exercises should be application in topics with a large practical component. incorporated to develop understanding of course material Client-side exercises should Processing of, for example, answers to quizzes, is done from files occur if possible. stored on the client PC, thus enabling the student to work on or offline. (This is important if internet services are unreliable). 1 UML is Unified Modelling Language: OMT is Object Modelling Language: MSC is Message Sequence Charts. An OMT diagram pictorially represents each object within a software system, lists its properties and illustrates its possible interactions with other objects, including parameters passed between them. An MSC illustrates which messages are passed between which objects and in which order in a specific operation. Both OMT and MSCs are older standards, which have now been absorbed into UML.