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  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory, the particles of a gas are constantly moving in random straight-line motion. If the gas particles are in a container, the particles must eventually collide with the sides of the container or other gas particles. When the particles collide with the sides of the container, they exert a force upon the container’s walls. We call this force gas pressure. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. When the particles collide there are 3 possible options that can occur in these collisions: The collision could result in a loss of energy. That is, the energy the particle contains before the collision is greater than after the collision. If this were true, the particles would eventually slow down and the pressure would decrease. If the particles have more energy after the collision than before, the particles would gain energy due to collisions. If this were true, the particles would speed up and the pressure would increase. If the energy of the particles before and after the collisions were equal the pressure inside the container would remain constant, at a constant temperature. Let us examine these three options by studying a propane barbeque tank. If a propane tank is not used, the tank maintains its pressure (force of gas on the sides of the tank) providing the amount of gas remains constant (that is, there are no leaks) and the temperature remains unchanged. If the particles gained energy with every collision, the force of each collision would increase, increasing the pressure. If the particles lost energy with every collision, the force of each collision would eventually decrease, resulting in a lower pressure. This means that options one and two can not be valid options for collisions and actual events are more reflected by option three.
  • A pure substance is matter in which the particles that make it up are all of the same kind. A mixture contains more than one kind of particle. In mixtures, the individual components of the mixture retain their properties. For example, water is a pure substance if it only contains water molecules, but tap water is a mixture because it contains added chlorine, fluorine, dissolved air and sometimes other things like bacteria and metals we are not happy about. Pure substances can be in the form of elements or compounds. Elements are called the building blocks of matter, since they contain only on type of atom. Compounds are pure substances that contain two or more different atoms joined chemically. We call this chemical joining a chemical bond. Mixtures can be heterogeneous and homogeneous. The particles in a heterogeneous mixture are not evenly distributed and individual particles are often distinguishable. For example, a mixture of sand and water or salt and pepper are heterogeneous. The individual particles of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed and cannot be easily separated. For example, when solid sugar is dissolved in water, only a liquid is observed and the solid sugar particles are not visible.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chemistry 30S Unit 1 Physical Properties of Matter
    • 2. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Matter </li></ul><ul><li>In previous science courses, we have learned that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space, or has volume. </li></ul><ul><li>We have also learned that there are two types of matter: pure substances and mixtures. </li></ul>
    • 3. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Matter </li></ul>Page 87
    • 4. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition is a ___________. ? A. Solid. B. Vapour. C. Mixture. D. Pure Substance.
    • 5. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>States of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>There are four STATES of matter. SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES, and PLASMAS. Each of these states is also known as a PHASE. </li></ul>
    • 6. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><li>Solids hold their shape – DEFINITE SHAPE and VOLUME. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are in an orderly manner – close together. </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest forces of attraction are between the particles in a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles are too strongly held together to allow much movement – no diffusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms still move, however their motion is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression of a solid is limited – DEFINITE . </li></ul><ul><li>High density. </li></ul>
    • 7. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Are fluids – particles move freely and change positions. They are quite close together but still randomly arranged. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles moving rapidly in all directions with frequently collisions between other liquid particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater forces of attraction between the particles in a liquid compared to gases but less than a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Definite volume but takes shape of container. </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly high density. </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly hard to expand or compress. </li></ul>
    • 8. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion Which describes a substance that is in the liquid state? A. It has a definite shape. B. It has no definite volume. C. It can easily be compressed into a smaller volume. D. It has a definite volume.
    • 9. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Are fluids – particles can move freely and change positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas particles are not neatly arranged and often do not touch each other – widely spaced with no definite shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no forces of attraction between the particles so they are completely free of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles move rapidly in all directions, frequently colliding. </li></ul><ul><li>Very low density. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to expand and compress – no definite volume. </li></ul>
    • 10. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion What defines a gas? A. Gases have a definite volume and shape. B. Gases have a definite volume but take the shape of their container. C. Gases have no definite volume or shape. D. Gases have a definite shape but no definite volume.
    • 11. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Solids, Liquids, & Gases </li></ul>
    • 12. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Solids, Liquids, & Gases </li></ul>
    • 13. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmas are a lot like gases, but the atoms are different because they are made up of free electrons and ions of the element. You don't find plasmas too often when you walk around. They aren't things that happen regularly on Earth. If you have ever heard of the Northern Lights or ball lightning, you might know that those are types of plasmas. It takes a very special environment to keep plasmas going. They are different and unique from the other states of matter. </li></ul>
    • 14. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
    • 15. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>How are plasmas formed? </li></ul><ul><li>A plasma can be made from a gas if a lot of energy is pushed into it. All of this extra energy makes the neutral atoms break apart into positively and negatively charged atoms and free electrons. The electrons are pulled off of neutral atoms, leaving ions and electrons in a big gaseous ball. A plasma is formed. </li></ul>
    • 16. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Finding a Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Think about a fluorescent light bulb. They are not like regular light bulbs. Inside the long tube is a gas. When the light is turned on, ELECTRICITY flows through the tube. This electricity acts as that special energy needed and charges up the gas. This charging and exciting of the atoms creates a glowing plasma inside the bulb. Another example of plasma that you may have seen is a neon sign. Neon signs are glass tubes filled with gas. When turned on the electricity flows through the tube. The electricity charges the gas, possibly neon, and creates a plasma inside of the tube. </li></ul>
    • 17. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Plasma - Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Are a lot like gases – however significant differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmas can be created by adding lots of energy to a gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Is made up of free electrons and ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Not that common on earth – most common type of matter in the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Low densities. </li></ul>
    • 18. C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion <ul><li>Plasma - Research </li></ul><ul><li>Your assignment is to research how a plasma TV works. You will be evaluated on how well your report is done as well as the quality of your resources. You need to find and include at least three resources. Of the 3, one has to be a resource other than an internet one. Good Luck! </li></ul><ul><li>This assignment is due on Friday, September 16. </li></ul>
    • 19. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 1. The particles are vibrating in place and the substance has a definite shape and volume. The state of matter is ... A. solid B. liquid C. gas D. plasma
    • 20. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 2. These particles do not form rigid clumps. They can slip past each other. Because of this the particles cannot hold their shape. The state of matter described is ... A. solid B. liquid C. gas D. plasma
    • 21. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 3. What state of matter are the particles the farthest apart? A. solid B. liquid C. gas D. plasma
    • 22. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 4. What state of matter are the particles in this picture? A. solid B. liquid C. gas D. plasma
    • 23. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 5. Which describes the motion of ALL particles in matter? A. they do not move B. only move to the left C. back and forth D. do not move
    • 24. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-01 Describe the properties of gases, liquids, solids, and plasma. Include: density, compressibility, diffusion 6. Which of the following best describes the particles of a liquid? A.The particles are far apart and moving fast. B.The particles are close together but moving past each other. C.The particles are far apart and moving slowly. D.The particles are closely packed and vibrate in place.
    • 25. <ul><li>The Kinetic Molecular Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The Kinetic Molecular Theory is a single set of descriptive characteristics of a substance known as the Ideal Gas . </li></ul><ul><li>All real gases require their own unique sets of descriptive characteristics. Considering the large number of known gases in the World, the task of trying to describe each one of them individually would be an awesome task. In order to simplify this task, the scientific community has decided to create an imaginary gas that approximates the behavior of all real gases. In other words, the Ideal Gas is a substance that does not exist. The Kinetic Molecular Theory describes that gas. While the use of the Ideal Gas in describing all real gases means that the descriptions of all real gases will be wrong, the reality is that the descriptions of real gases will be close enough to correct that any errors can be overlooked. </li></ul>C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 26. <ul><li>The major points of the theory are: </li></ul><ul><li>The particles that make up matter are very small. </li></ul><ul><li>There are spaces between the particles. In gases, this distance is much larger than the particles themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The particles are in constant motion. In gases, the particles are in constant straight-line motion. They only change direction when they collide with another particle or the sides of the container. </li></ul><ul><li>As the temperature increases, the speed of the particles increases. As the temperature decreases, the particles' speed decreases. That is, the kinetic energy of the particles increases with increasing temperature and decreases with decreasing temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>There are forces of attraction between the particles. In gases, these forces are negligible. </li></ul>C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 27. KMT – Part 1 This is based on the idea that all real gas particles are of extremely small volume. To establish uniformity among the many real gases it is assumed that they all are of the same volume. That volume is zero. While this is obviously not true, the amount of error that it introduces into the description of gases is slight and will generally be of little importance. The gas consists of objects with a defined mass and zero volume. C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 28. KMT – Part 2 Gas particles are always in motion except for the very specific condition known as Absolute Zero. As they travel, they will travel in straight lines. The only way that they will deviate from that straight-line path is if they collide with other particles or the walls of any container that they might be in. The gas particles travel randomly in straight-line motion where their movement can be described by the fundamental laws of mechanics . C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 29. KMT – Part 3 If an object were to undergo elastic collisions, then the kinetic energy of the system will be maintained. All collisions involving gas particles are elastic; the kinetic energy of the system is conserved even though the kinetic energy among the particles is redistributed. C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 30. KMT – Part 3 While the gas phase system undergoes elastic collisions, it is possible for the distribution of the kinetic energy in the system to change. That is, some objects can gain kinetic energy, but only if others lose kinetic energy. The important point is that the TOTAL kinetic energy of the system remains constant. C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 31. KMT – Part 4 Based on the earlier parts of the Kinetic Molecular Theory, the individual gas particles will exist with ever changing quantities of kinetic energy. If all the kinetic energy of all the particles were to be averaged, then the resulting value for that average will be directly representative of the temperature of the system. The gas phase system will have an average kinetic energy that is proportional to temperature . C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 32. KMT – Part 5 As the gas particles collide with one another, they will not interact with each other. They will not establish any bonding or interactions of any sort. In addition, any collisions with walls of any container will also occur free from any attractive forces. The gas particles do not interact with each other or the with the walls of any container. C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 33. The average of kinetic energy of particles in a substance is measured by its ____. A. mass B. density C. temperature D. pressure C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 34. Establishment of the KMT of Gases The three most prominent scientists whose work led to the KMT were Rudolf Clausius, James Clerk Maxwell, and Ludwig Boltzmann. Your assignment is to research the contribution of 1 of these gentleman and share it will your fellow group members. Your research should be presented in the form of a letter written to your 2 colleagues, outlining your theory and ideas. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Projects/Johnson/Chapters/Ch4_3.html http://www.math.umd.edu/~lvrmr/History/index.shtml C30S-1-02 Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain properties of gases.
    • 35. <ul><li>The Kinetic Molecular Theory can also be applied to solids and liquids. Most properties of solids and liquids can be related to the KMT. </li></ul><ul><li>The various properties of solids and liquids can be related to the distances between particles, intermolecular forces of attraction and the average kinetic energy of the particles. </li></ul>C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Kinetic Molecular Theory - Related to Solids and Liquids
    • 36. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Properties of Solids & Liquids <ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed volume but takes shape of container </li></ul><ul><li>Only slightly compressible </li></ul><ul><li>Densities much higher than gases </li></ul><ul><li>Very little free space between molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are able to flow past each other; slow diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Least compressible of all </li></ul><ul><li>Densities compare to liquids, maybe a little higher on average </li></ul><ul><li>Less free space than in liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules held in fixed positions; very slow diffusion </li></ul>RECALL
    • 37. The Liquid State Liquids are not easily compressed and because of this they have relatively high density (the particles must still be very close together and densely packed). Liquids do not have a definite shape. This means the forces of attraction between liquid particles must not be as strong as those in a solid. The forces are strong enough to hold the particles in an open container so the volume can be measured, but not strong enough to hold the particles in a constant shape. If the particles in a liquid are not held in a constant shape, the particles must be moving around more than the particles of a solid. The particles of a liquid are able to just slide past each other. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 38. The Liquid State The liquids state exhibits neither the complete chaos of a gas nor the neat order of a solid. In a liquid, molecular motion and attractive forces are both important in helping to explain another characteristics of liquids; viscosity . C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 39. Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of how well a liquid resists moving or flowing. Highly viscous liquids do not flow very well whereas less viscous liquids flow easily. Viscosity is determined by the type of intermolecular forces, size and shape of particles, and temperature. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 40. Viscosity <ul><li>Viscous liquids pour slowly because of the strong intermolecular attractions between molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Large, irregular shaped molecules are more viscous. Long chains of molecules result in a higher viscosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the temperature decreases viscosity because the added energy allows the molecules to overcome intermolecular forces and flow more freely. </li></ul>C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 41. The Liquid State <ul><li>Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount. </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesion is the force of attraction between identical molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion is the force of attraction between molecules that are different. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary action is the upward movement of liquid into a narrow cylinder, or capillary tube. </li></ul>C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 42. The Solids State Since solids are not easily compressed, the particles must be so close together that they cannot be easily forced any closer. The high density of most solids also suggests there are more particles per unit volume than both liquids and gases. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 43. The Solids State The definite shape and volume of solids also suggests that the particles are held together quite tightly and must not move very much, in fact they probably just vibrate in place. Therefore, the forces of attraction between particles or intermolecular forces in a solid must be very high. A solid can be held together by the forces of chemical bonding or by intermolecular forces. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 44. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Crystalline Solids A crystalline solid consists of atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in a orderly, geometric, three-dimensional, repeating pattern called a crystal lattice.
    • 45. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. What is a Crystalline Solid? Email your answer to bcoulter@pwsd.ca
    • 46. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Crystalline Solids A unit cell is the smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal.
    • 47. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids can be classified as atomic, ionic, molecular, network covalent, or metallic .
    • 48. The crystal arrangement holds the individual particles of the solid into that form, so the only movement that is possible is vibrational. As the temperature increases, random motion increases causing the particles to move further apart, decreasing strength of the forces holding the solid together. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT. Crystalline Solids
    • 49. Properties of Crystalline Solids Melting Point Boiling Point Solubility How do the attractive forces holding crystalline solids together, help determine these properties? C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 50. <ul><li>Amorphous solids are solids in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous solids form when the atoms or molecules are unable to achieve order. This may occur because the molecules are too complex in shape, the molten material cools quickly , or because impurities are found in the solid. </li></ul>C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 51. The smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal that has the same pattern as the crystal is called ____. A. crystal lattice B. unit cell C. crystalline D. geometric cell C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 52. The viscosity of a liquid will increase as: A. particle size decreases B. temperature decreases C. intermolecular forces decrease D. particle size increases C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 53. Densities of Solids & Liquids As a solid heats up, the spacing between particles increases as well as the molecular motion and thus lowers the density. As a solid melts, the density usually continues this trend, lowering the density. This is true for most solids and liquids. However there are some exceptions. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 54. Why is ice less dense than water? The unusual behavior of water near its melting point temperature is due to the arrangement of water molecules in the crystal lattice. In the solid state, water molecules are arranged in a fairly open pattern. When ice melts, the open structure collapses. Allowing some of the molecules to fill some of the empty space. C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 55. Compare – Contrast Exercise Using a compare-contrast frame, compare and contrast each of the following. Be sure to include both observable characteristics and properties based on our model of matter. a. Solids and Liquids b. Liquids and Gases c. Solids and Gases d. Gases and Plasma e. crystalline and amorphous solid C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.
    • 56. ASSESSMENT C30S-1-03 Explain the properties of liquids and solids using the KMT.

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