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  • The same thing happens when our lives are out of balance – it becomes difficult to carry out our normal tasks. Life balance is an individual choice, determined by setting priorities as to what is important to you. As we mature, some people take on more and more activities to balance, while others may not have enough different activities to provide balance.

Respiration Notes Respiration Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Gas ExchangeBiology 30S
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration The Respiratory System
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Gas Exchange All animals need food, water, and air to survive. The respiratory system of each animal is what handles these needs. Oxygen is taken from outside and exchanged with carbon dioxide in the lungs. That exchange is called respiration, and is composed of five basic events.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Gas Exchange
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Gas Exchange
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration • 1. Pulmonary Ventilation Air inside the lungs is exchanged with fresh air on the outside. • 2. External Respiration Fresh air in the lungs is moved into the blood, and used air in the blood is moved into the lungs to be removed. • 3. Respiratory Gas Transport The circulatory system pumps the blood, into which the fresh air has been moved, throughout the body. • 4. Internal Respiration The cells of your body remove air from your red blood cell and move the carbon dioxide into them.  5. Cellular Respiration The process by which cells obtain energy from food.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  During the trip that air takes through the conducting zone, it is humidified, cleaned, and warmed so that it does not harm any of delicate organs that it passes through. When the air finally reaches the alveoli, it is closer to the air in the tropics, which is the kind of air that your lungs prefer.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  During the trip that air takes through the conducting zone, it is humidified, cleaned, and warmed so that it does not harm any of delicate organs that it passes through. When the air finally reaches the alveoli, it is closer to the air in the tropics, which is the kind of air that your lungs prefer.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  Gas exchange in an alveolus takes place by diffusion across the moist membrane of the alveolus and the capillary walls. About 18% to 20% of the air is oxygen, which is a much higher concentration of oxygen than that found in the blood. Due to these differences in concentration, the oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries. At the same time, waste carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli due to a higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood than in the air in the alveoli.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  Gas exchange in an alveolus takes place by diffusion across the moist membrane of the alveolus and the capillary walls. About 18% to 20% of the air is oxygen, which is a much higher concentration of oxygen than that found in the blood. Due to these differences in concentration, the oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries. At the same time, waste carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli due to a higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood than in the air in the alveoli.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  During the trip that air takes through the conducting zone, it is humidified, cleaned, and warmed so that it does not harm any of delicate organs that it passes through. When the air finally reaches the alveoli, it is closer to the air in the tropics, which is the kind of air that your lungs prefer.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration External Respiration  Gas exchange in an alveolus takes place by diffusion across the moist membrane of the alveolus and the capillary walls. About 18% to 20% of the air is oxygen, which is a much higher concentration of oxygen than that found in the blood. Due to these differences in concentration, the oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood in the capillaries. At the same time, waste carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli due to a higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood than in the air in the alveoli.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Internal Respiration  As the oxygen laden blood passes through the body into the capillaries adjacent to the body cells, the reverse action takes place. This process is called internal respiration.  Because of the oxidation of food nutrients constantly going on within the cells (cellular respiration), the cells supply of oxygen is quickly depleted while the by-product of food oxidation, carbon dioxide, builds up.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Internal Respiration  As the oxygen laden blood passes through the body into the capillaries adjacent to the body cells, the reverse action takes place. This process is called internal respiration.  Because of the oxidation of food nutrients constantly going on within the cells (cellular respiration), the cells supply of oxygen is quickly depleted while the by-product of food oxidation, carbon dioxide, builds up.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Internal Respiration  This condition causes the oxygen to diffuse from the bloodstream into the cells, while the carbon dioxide leaves the cells and enters the bloodstream.  Oxygen must constantly be replenished in the body cells through the respiratory and circulatory systems as it cannot be stored by the body. Oxygen is absolutely essential in the cells, where it combines with food molecules, producing the energy needed to maintain the body functions.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Internal Respiration  This condition causes the oxygen to diffuse from the bloodstream into the cells, while the carbon dioxide leaves the cells and enters the bloodstream.  Oxygen must constantly be replenished in the body cells through the respiratory and circulatory systems as it cannot be stored by the body. Oxygen is absolutely essential in the cells, where it combines with food molecules, producing the energy needed to maintain the body functions.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Internal Respiration & External Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Cellular Respiration  Cellular Respiration or aerobic respiration involves the use of oxygen to break down glucose and produce energy in the cell. This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells. Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that converts the chemical energy of foods into energy that can be used by cells (ATP). Carbohydrates, usually in the form of glucose, are the most useable source of energy.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Cellular Respiration  The Chemical Equation for Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6H2O + 6CO2 + Energy (ATP) Glucose Oxygen Water Carbon Dioxide
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Structures of the Respiratory System
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Meet the Lung!
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Structures of the Respiratory System The Conducting Zone The subsystem that removes carbon dioxide from the lungs and moves in fresh air from outside is made up of the: • nasal cavity (nose ) • the pharynx • the larynx • the trachea • the bronchi (and all the smaller branches of the bronchi)
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Structures of the Respiratory System The Respiration Zone This subsystem consists of: the bronchioles (not the large bronchi) the alveolar ducts air sacs, or alveoli (all of which basically make up the lungs. This is where the oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged)
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Nasal Cavity  The nose is the first and last organ that air passes through.  The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the hard palate.  Turbinate bones extend into the nasal cavity - which increases the surface area in the nose.  As part of the conducting zone, it cleans the air of dust and other impurities, warms the air if it is too cool, and moistens the air if it is dry.  Cilia help trap dust and dirt.  Moisture is supplied from secretions of the epithelial tissue.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pharynx  The pharynx, most commonly known as the throat, serves duel purposes. Not only does it move the air into your lungs, but it also moves food into your stomach.  The pharynx is separated into distinct regions, chosen by location and function: the nasopharynx and the oropharynx.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pharynx
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pharynx The nasopharynx is located above the part of the pharynx that food enters and as a result must be blocked when swallowing to prevent food from entering. The nasopharnyx is covered with ciliated epithelial cells that trap dust. They contain the tonsils and adenoids. The oropharynx lies behind the mouth cavity and is a passageway for both food and air.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Larynx  Also known as the voice box, the larynx is what allows you to speak. It is made up of cartilage; thyroid cartilage, epiglottis and glottis.  The larynx is located at the opening of the respiratory passageway.  The larynx has an inlet at the top that allows substances to pass through it or not. When food is being swallowed, the inlet is closed, forcing food into the stomach. When air is being breathed, the inlet is wide open so that air can enter your lungs.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pharynx & Larynx
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Trachea  The trachea, or windpipe connects the larynx to the bronchi.  The trachea is made up of between 16 and 20 cartilage rings in the shape of a "C".  The trachea is made up of smooth muscle.  The trachea is lined with mucous and cilia that help carry any foreign substances up to be swallowed.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Bronchi  The trachea branches off into two main bronchi, your left and right primary bronchi, which lead to the left and right lung respectively.  Each bronchi enters its lung and begins on a series of branches, called the bronchial or respiratory tree.  The final branches are called the terminal bronchioles.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli  Respiration begins when the terminal bronchioles lead into the respiratory bronchioles.  These bronchioles are covered with thin-skinned air sacs that allow for gasses to pass through them. These sacs, which contain alveoli, are called alveolar sacs, and are at the end of alveolar ducts.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli  The alveoli are covered in inter linking capillaries through which blood flows.  Your lungs rely simply on diffusion to exchange the gasses, and that moves enough gas to have a steady supply of oxygen in your body.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pleura  The Pleurae is a thin, double-layered tissue which lines the walls of the lungs and heart.  The outer membrane is called the parietal pleura and it lines the inner surface of the chest wall and covers the diaphragm.  The pulmonary pleura adheres to the lungs.  The intrapleural fluid separates the two membranes.  The pleura help isolate each lung and act as a lubricant, reducing friction.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Pleura
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Mechanics of Breathing
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Mechanics of Breathing  Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration.  During inspiration, the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles contract. The diaphragm moves downwards increasing the volume of the thoracic (chest) cavity, and the intercostal muscles pull the ribs up expanding the rib cage and further increasing this volume.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Mechanics of Breathing  This increase of volume lowers the air pressure in the alveoli to below atmospheric pressure. Because air always flows from a region of high pressure to a region of lower pressure, it rushes in through the respiratory tract and into the alveoli.  During expiration the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax. This returns the thoracic cavity to its original volume, increasing the air pressure in the lungs, and forcing the air out.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air air rib cage rib cageRib cage moves Rib cage movesup and out. down and in.external internalintercostal muscles intercostal musclesDiaphragm contracts Diaphragm relaxesand moves down. and moves up.Pressure in lungs Pressure in lungsdecreases, and air increases, and air iscomes rushing in. pushed out.pleuralmembranes a. Inspiration diaphragm b. Expiration diaphragm
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air rib cageRib cage movesup and out.externalintercostal muscles
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air rib cageRib cage movesup and out.externalintercostal musclesDiaphragm contractsand moves down.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air rib cageRib cage movesup and out.externalintercostal musclesDiaphragm contractsand moves down.Pressure in lungsdecreases, and aircomes rushing in.pleuralmembranes a. Inspiration diaphragm
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air air rib cage rib cageRib cage moves Rib cage movesup and out. down and in.external internalintercostal muscles intercostal musclesDiaphragm contractsand moves down.Pressure in lungsdecreases, and aircomes rushing in.pleuralmembranes a. Inspiration diaphragm
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air air rib cage rib cageRib cage moves Rib cage movesup and out. down and in.external internalintercostal muscles intercostal musclesDiaphragm contracts Diaphragm relaxesand moves down. and moves up.Pressure in lungsdecreases, and aircomes rushing in.pleuralmembranes a. Inspiration diaphragm
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration air air rib cage rib cageRib cage moves Rib cage movesup and out. down and in.external internalintercostal muscles intercostal musclesDiaphragm contracts Diaphragm relaxesand moves down. and moves up.Pressure in lungs Pressure in lungsdecreases, and air increases, and air iscomes rushing in. pushed out.pleuralmembranes a. Inspiration diaphragm b. Expiration diaphragm
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Mechanics of Breathing
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Respiratory Volumes • There are totally about 700 million alveoli in the two lungs of an adult human being. This increases the surface area enormously. The total surface area of the lungs is 70 square metres which is almost the size of the tennis court. It is nearly 100 times the surface of the human body (skin). Thus, the lungs can hold a lot of air, about 6000 ml. This lung capacity is defined as the maximum air which can be held in the two lungs at any given time.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Vital capacity
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Respiratory Volumes • Tidal volume • Amount of air moving in and out with each breath • Average is 500 ml • Vital capacity • Maximum volume moved in and moved out in a breath • Illness can affect vital capacity • Inspiratory reserve volume • Forced inhalation • Amount of air brought in above tidal volume • Normally about 2,900 ml
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Respiratory Volumes • Expiratory reserve volume • Forced exhalation • Air exhaled beyond tidal volume • Normally about 1,400 ml • Residual volume • Amount of air always remaining in lungs • Normally about 1,000 ml • Not useful for gas exchange • Oxygen depleted • The vital capacity is tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Vital capacity
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Vital capacity
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing  Breathing movements are controlled by the diaphragm and intercostal muscles. These muscles are stimulated by nerve impulses from the brain. This system of brain, nerves, lungs, and muscles constitutes one of the many negative feedback mechanisms that maintain homeostasis in the human body.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing  The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata of the brain (located at the back of the brain). The medulla is connected to the respiratory muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) by motor neurons. A set of sensory neurons conducts impulses from the lungs to the respiratory center.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing  During inspiration, the respiratory center sends a nervous impulse to the respiratory muscles that causes them to contract. This inflates the lungs.  The expansion of the lungs initiates impulses in the sensory neurons that extend from the lungs to the brain. These impulses inhibit the breathing center, which then ceases to send impulses to the respiratory muscles.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing  No longer stimulated, these muscles relax, and the lungs deflate in an expiration. The deflated lungs stop stimulating the sensory neurons which then stop sending impulses to the respiratory center of the brain.  No longer inhibited, the respiratory center once again sends out nerve impulses that stimulate the respiratory muscles, and the process repeats.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Regulation of Breathing
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  Normal breathing usually supplies enough oxygen to meet the body’s needs and removes carbon dioxide as fast as it is formed.  Occasionally, however, carbon dioxide may begin to accumulate in the blood or oxygen concentration may fall -- two changes that often occur simultaneously. Either of these conditions increases the rate and/or the depth of breathing.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  It should be noted that the body is more sensitive to the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood than to the oxygen concentration.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  Recall, breathing rate is mainly controlled by the respiratory center in the brain. The respiratory centre monitors the carbon dioxide level in the blood.  Oxygen levels are monitored by chemoreceptors in the aorta and the carotid arteries.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  When carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which then ionizes to form a bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion: CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 H2CO3 → HCO3- + H+
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  As more carbon dioxide enters the blood, the hydrogen ion concentration rises. The high concentration of hydrogen ions rather than the dissolved carbon dioxide gas stimulates breathing.  The high hydrogen ion concentration in the blood stimulates the respiratory center in the brain, which then sends impulses to the respiratory muscles and the breathing rate is increased.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Control of Breathing Rate  Neurons with endings (chemoreceptors) in the aorta and the carotid arteries are sensitive to oxygen concentration. These neurons monitor the blood continuously, and when the oxygen concentration begins to fall, they also stimulate the respiratory center in the brain.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Respiratory Diaphragm and Center intercostal muscles contract Blood pH Breathing rate is lowered increases and CO2 is released Exercise Blood pH returns to normal
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Respiratory Disorders
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is Asthma? • Asthma is a chronic lung condition. It is characterized by difficulty in breathing. People with asthma have extra sensitive or hyper responsive airways. The airways react by narrowing or obstructing when they become irritated. This makes it difficult for the air to move in and out. This narrowing or obstruction can cause one or a combination of wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is Asthma?
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Factors Provoking Asthma? • This narrowing or obstruction is caused by airway inflammation (meaning that the airways in the lungs become red, swollen and narrow) and bronchoconstriction (meaning that the muscles that encircle the airways tighten or go into spasm) • Two factors provoke asthma: a) Triggers b) Causes or Inducers
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Triggers • Triggers irritate the airways and result in bronchoconstriction although they do not cause inflammation and therefore do not cause asthma. The symptoms and bronchoconstriction caused by triggers tend to be immediate, short-lived, and rapidly reversible. The airways will react more quickly to triggers if inflammation is already present in the airways. • Common triggers of bronchoconstriction include everyday stimuli such as: cold air, dust, strong fumes, exercise, inhaled irritants, emotional upsets, and smoke.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Inducers • In contrast to triggers, inducers cause both airway inflammation and airway hyper responsiveness and are recognized as causes of asthma. Inducers result in symptoms which may last longer, are delayed and less easily reversible than those caused by triggers. • The most common inducers are allergens and respiratory viral infections. • Allergens • Respiratory Viral Infections
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Diagnosing Asthma • Making a correct diagnosis is extremely important: if asthma is correctly diagnosed it can be treated appropriately. • The diagnosis of asthma involves the following: • Detailed history • Physical examination
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Managing Asthma • The consensus of asthma specialists is that the best way to manage asthma is to have the individual actively involved in his or her own treatment. • This includes: • Education • Environmental Control • Medications
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is pneumonia? • Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants. • It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Symptoms of Pneumonia • shaking chills • chattering teeth • severe chest pain • cough that produces rust-colored or greenish mucus • high temperature • heavy perspiring • rapid pulse • rapid breathing • bluish color to lips and nailbeds • confused mental state or delirium
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Treatment for Pneumonia • Treatment may include antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia. • There is no clearly effective treatment for viral pneumonia, which usually heals on its own. • Other treatment may include appropriate diet, oxygen therapy, pain medication, and medication for cough.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is chronic bronchitis? • Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucous, as well as other other changes. • To be classified as chronic bronchitis: cough and expectoration must occur most days for at least three months per year, for two years in a row. • In acute bronchitis, bacteria or viruses may be the cause, but in chronic bronchitis there is no specific organism recognized as the cause of the disease.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis • Symptoms may include: • cough • expectoration (spitting out) of mucus • frequent and severe respiratory infections • narrowing and plugging of the breathing tubes (bronchi) • difficult breathing
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Treatment for chronic bronchitis • oral medications • bronchodilators for inhaled medications • oxygen supplementation from portable containers • lung reduction surgery to remove damaged area of lung • lung transplantation
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is Emphysema? • Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli, or air sacs, may be: destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched, over-inflated • Emphysema occurs when a breakdown in the chemical balance that protects the lungs against the destruction of the elastic fibers occurs. • There are a number of reasons for the breakdown in chemical balance: smoking, exposure to air pollution, irritating fumes and dusts on the job
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is Emphysema?
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Symptoms of Emphysema • Early symptoms of pulmonary emphysema may include: shortness of breath cough • Other symptoms may include: fatigue anxiety sleep problems heart problems weight loss depression
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Treatment for Emphysema: • The goal of treatment for people with pulmonary emphysema is to live more comfortably with the disease by providing relief of symptoms and preventing progression of the disease with a minimum of side effects. Treatment may include: • quitting smoking - the single most important factor for maintaining healthy lungs • antibiotics for bacterial infections • oral medications • bronchodilators and other inhaled medications • exercise • oxygen supplementation from portable containers • lung reduction surgery to remove damaged area of the lung • lung transplantation
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration What is lung cancer? • Lung cancer is cancer that usually starts in the lining of the bronchi, but can also begin in other areas of the respiratory system, including the trachea, bronchioles, or alveoli.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Symptoms of lung cancer: • Lung cancer usually does not cause symptoms when it first develops, but they often become present after the tumor begins growing. A cough is the most common symptom of lung cancer. Other symptoms include: • constant chest pain • shortness of breath • wheezing • recurring lung infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis • hoarseness • fever for unknown reason
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Treatment for lung cancer: • Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may be used in the treatment of lung cancer.
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Normal lung versus cancerous lung
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Gas Exchange in the Lungs
  • Unit 3 Transportation & Respiration Gas Exchange in the Lungs