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Nutrition
 

Nutrition

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    Nutrition Nutrition Presentation Transcript

    • Your assignment is to write a story, describing the adventures of Indiana Jones as he travels through the alimentary canal. The journey must include descriptions of all the structures involved with the digestion process. Your story should include the exciting and horrifying adventures Indiana will encounter along his journey. Good luck!
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • What is fast food?
      • Where do you buy fast food?
      • How often do you eat fast food?
      • How often do you think you should eat it?
      • What is your favorite food and drink?
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • The following issues are raised in the film. Discuss what you think the film is going to show you.
      • The balance between corporate and personal responsibility for the food we eat.
      • The effect of advertising and brand imprinting on young children.
      • School canteens and the foods they serve.
      • How children’s exercise patterns have changed since the last generation
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION LAPS
      • Listen
      • Ask Questions
      • Picture what you see & hear
      • Summarize
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Express, in writing, your thoughts regarding the ‘ COST ’ of fast food compared with the food prepared at home.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Human Nutrition Food not only supplies energy vital for life, but also provides important building materials that allow organisms to grow, develop, and rebuild injured and damaged cells. Nutrition is the study of the composition of food, its energy content, and slowly synthesized organic molecules. In general, a nutrient is any substance that has a useful function when taken up by body cells.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Human Nutrition
      • In addition to providing energy, food must also provide certain essential nutrients that cannot be manufactured by the body. The human diet must provide the following:
        • joules (calories) - enough to meet daily energy needs.
        • amino acids - nine "essential" amino acids needed for protein synthesis and cannot be synthesized from other substances.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Human Nutrition - continued
      • fats - three "essential" fatty acids that cannot be synthesized from other substances.
      • minerals - a few like calcium in relatively large amounts; most, like potassium, in "trace" amounts.
      • vitamins - small organic molecules that we cannot synthesize from other substances in our diet.
      • water - the most abundant substance in the human body. The body requires about 2.5 L per day.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Nutrient Discussion There are over 40 different nutrients, but we organize them into six categories. If you eat a wide variety of foods, you will automatically be eating all 40 nutrients to help keep you healthy. Nutrients are chemical substances obtained from foods during digestion. The six nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water .
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Nutrient Discussion
      • The six nutrients basic functions are:
        • Carbohydrates = Primary Energy Source
        • Protein = Builds and Repairs the Body
        • Fats = Stored Energy
        • Vitamins = Regulates
        • Minerals = Many different functions
        • Water = Chemical Reactions, Cools and Cleans
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Carbohydrates
      • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. This groups includes such foods as rice, potatoes, fruits, breads, cake, pies, etc.
        • The Monosaccharides
        •    The least complex carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides.
          •    The most common simple sugar is glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). The main product of photosynthesis.
          •    Fructose or fruit sugar is another common simple sugar. Its molecular formula (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the same as glucose, but structurally it is different.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Carbohydrates
        • Disaccharides
        •    Complex carbohydrates are made by connecting two simple sugars with covalent bonds.
          •    Maltose is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules bonded together.
          •    Sucrose or table sugar is another disaccharide consisting of a glucose molecule bonded to a fructose molecule.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Carbohydrates
        • Polysaccharides
        •     Polysaccharides are made up of many simple sugars bonded together (poly means many).
      •    Polysaccharides are chains of monosaccharides that have been joined by many dehydration synthesis reactions.
        •    Starch and cellulose are example of polysaccharides.
          •    The bonding in cellulose is different than in starch and as a result humans and certain other mammals cannot digest cellulose. They can digest starch .
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Monosaccharides (ex. Glucose) Disaccharides (ex. Sucrose) Polysaccharides
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Disaccharide Formation and Structure + H 2 0 α - GLUCOSE α - GLUCOSE MALTOSE CH 2 OH H O H OH O H CH 2 OH H O H HO OH CH 2 OH H O H OH CH 2 OH H O H OH O
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Proteins
        • Contain the elements nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
        • Made up of amino acid groups joined in chains.
        • Amino acids derive their name due to the presence of an amine group and a carboxylic group as part of their composition. They have a central carbon with the amine group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, and a variable group (R group) attached to it.
        • The variable group is what is different from amino acid to amino acid and it is what give the amino acid its identity. There are twenty different variable groups, therefore there are twenty different amino acids.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Proteins
      • Amino Acids are:
        • Used to make structural proteins
          • Muscle, hair, skin, nails
        • Synthesis of other proteins
          • Hemoglobin
          • Enzymes
          • Hormones
        • Synthesis of body proteins
          • Requires all 20 amino acids
          • 9 must be supplied in diet-essential amino acids
          • Remaining 12 can be synthesized by the body
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Proteins
        • Several amino acids bonded together form a polypeptide chain or simply a protein .
        • Animal protein in meat, fish, eggs, and other animal products contain rich amounts of essential amino acids (amino acids that the body cannot make but are essential for body health). Vegetable or plant food contains low quality protein or small amounts of essential amino acids. Thus the need for a well balanced diet.
        • Complete proteins
          • Contain all 20 amino acids
          • Eggs, meat, milk
        • Incomplete proteins
          • Does not contain all amino acids
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Peptide Bond, Dipeptide, and Polypeptide Formation A peptide bond is the bond that is created when two amino acids are covalently bonded together. The carboxyl group of the first is bonded to the amine group of the second. This is carried out by a dehydration synthesis reaction with the loss of a water molecule. This forms a dipeptide.
    • Peptide Bond, Dipeptide, and Polypeptide Formation H 2 O The peptide bond is created between the carboxyl carbon of the first amino acid and the amine group of the second amino acid. Peptide Bond This is called a dipeptide. If the process is repeated many times a polypeptide is formed. H H O N C C – OH H R 1 H H O N C C –OH H R 2 + H H O N C C – H R 1 H O N C C –OH H R 2
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Fats/Lipids
        • Lipids are generally referred to as fats and provide energy for body activities.
        • They contain only C, H, and O and include fats, oils, and waxes.
        • Fats and oils consist of three fatty acid molecules bonded to one molecule of glycerol.
        • Animals use fats to build body parts such as the cell membrane and they store food in the form of fat.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats
      • If there are double or triple bonds in the hydrocarbon chain the lipids are said to be “unsaturated”
      • When double bonds form in hydrocarbon chains it causes them to bend. In unsaturated fats this prevents the molecules from being able to “stack” or “pack” themselves tightly, thus they remain in a liquid state at room temperature such as oils. If the hydrocarbon chains are saturated, the chains are straight and pack themselves close together forming a solid at room temperature (animal fat, butter, tallow, lard).
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
        • Saturated fats
          • Solids at room temperature
          • Animal origin - Exceptions: palm oil, coconut oil
          • Associated with cardiovascular disease
          • Trans fatty acids are worst
            • Hydrogenated unsaturated fatty acids
            • May reduce ability to clear cholesterol
        • Unsaturated fats
          • Oils have percentage of mono- and polyunsaturated fats
          • Polyunsaturated oils contain essential fatty acids
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Saturated vs Unsaturated Fats
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Lipid Structure
      • A triglyceride is composed of an alcohol called glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acid molecules by dehydration synthesis reactions.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Is this a saturated or unsaturated Fat? Why or Why not? It is saturated because there are no double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Triglyceride Formation H H-C—O H H-C—O H H-C—O H H GLYCEROL FATTY ACIDS H H-C— O H-C— O H-C— O H H 2 0 H 2 0 H 2 0 3 H 2 0 TRIGLYCERIDE What type of reaction forms a triglyceride? Dehydration Synthesis O H H H H H HO -C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H O H H H H H HO -C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H O H H H H H HO -C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H O H H H H H - C -C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H O H H H H H - C -C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H O H H H H H - C -C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Vitamins
        • There are many different vitamins that have specific functions in the body.
        • The basic function of vitamins as a whole is to regulate the body functions.
        • Vitamins do not supply our bodies with calories or energy, but they are vital in keeping our body healthy.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Vitamins
        • Vitamins are organic nutrients that are required in small amounts to maintain growth and metabolism.
        • Vitamins can be categorized into two main groups: fat soluble and water soluble.
        • Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the liver. However, accumulation of excess amounts can be toxic (poisonous).
        • Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored by the body and must be included regularly in the diet.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Minerals
        • Minerals, like vitamins, contain no calories or energy value.
        • Minerals are inorganic substances.
        • There are many different minerals, and they complete many different functions in the body.
        • Minerals usually function as a whole, and act to build and regulate the body's tissues and organs, bones and muscles.
        • Key minerals include: calcium, sodium, and iron.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Water
        • All living things require water to survive.
        • Approximately 70-90% of your body is water.
        • Water facilitates the chemical reactions in your body and is necessary for the breakdown of foods during digestion (hydrolysis).
        • Water is also an excellent solvent and helps to maintain body temperature.
        • Your body loses approximately 2.5 L of water per day through exhalation, sweat, and urine. You must replenish this lost water or dehydration can result.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Food Labels
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Food Labels
        • Have you ever looked at the information provided to you on food labels? The information currently provided varies depending on the type of food and the manufacturer. Health Canada is working to improve nutrition information on pre-packaged food labels. The following "Nutrition Facts" box will be present on all foods and provide the consumer with important nutritional information.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Nutrition Assignment
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Canada’s Food Guide
        • The Canada Food Guide is a guide to help you make wise food choices.
        • The rainbow side (see diagram below) of the Food Guide places foods into 4 groups: Grain Products, Vegetables and Fruit, Milk Products, Meat and Alternatives. It also tells you about the kinds of foods to choose for healthy eating.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Canada’s Food Guide
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Canada’s Food Guide
        • The bar side of the Food Guide helps you decide how much you need from each group every day. It shows you serving sizes for different food and tells you how other foods that are not part of the four food groups can have a role in healthy eating. Because some of these 'other foods' are higher in fat or Calories, the Food Guide recommends using these foods in moderation.
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Canada’s Food Guide
        • 'Other Foods' are foods and beverages that are not part of any food group.
        • They include:
          • Foods that are mostly fats and oils such as butter, margarine, cooking oils and lard
            • foods that are mostly sugar such as jam, honey, syrup and candies
          • high-fat and/or high-salt snack foods such as chips (potato, corn, etc.) or pretzels
          • beverages such as water, tea, coffee, alcohol and soft drinks
          • herbs, spices and condiments such as pickles, mustard and ketchup
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION Canada’s Food Guide
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION You Are What You Eat! Required Portfolio Assignment
    • Digestive Disorders Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    •  
    • Diarrhea
      • Diarrhea is defined either as watery stool, or increased frequency, or both, when compared to a normal amount. It is a common problem that may last a few days and disappear on its own.
      • Diarrhea may be acute (short-term), which is usually related to bacterial or viral infections, or chronic (long-term), which is usually related to a functional disorder or intestinal disease.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Causes of Diarrhea
      • Diarrhea may be caused by a number of conditions,including:
      • a bacterial infection, a viral infection, food intolerances or allergies, parasites, an intestinal disease, etc.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Symptoms of Diarrhea
      • cramping
      • abdominal pain
      • bloating
      • nausea
      • urgent need to use the restroom
      • fever
      • bloody stools
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Treatment of Diarrhea
      • Treatment usually involves replacing lost fluids, and may include antibiotics when bacterial infections are the cause.
      • Specific treatments will vary.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Ulcers Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Ulcers
      • An ulcer is an open sore, or lesion, usually found on the skin or mucous membrane areas of the body.
      • An ulcer in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, where hydrochloric acid and pepsin are present, is referred to as a peptic ulcer.
      • 2 common types; gastric and duodenal ulcers.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Causes of Ulcers
      • In the past it was believed lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet caused ulcers.
      • Later, researchers determined that stomach acids -- hydrochloric acid and pepsin -- contributed to ulcer formation.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Symptoms of Ulcers
      • Most common ulcer symptom is agnawing or burning pain in the abdomen between the breastbone and the navel.
      • belching
      • nausea
      • vomiting
      • poor appetite
      • loss of weight
      • feeling tired and weak
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Treatment of Ulcers
      • Lifestyle changes
      • Medications
      • Antibiotics
      • Surgery
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Constipation
      • A person is constipated when fewer than 3 bowel actions happen in a week, or if there is often a need to strain to pass a stool.
      • Constipation is not a disease. Occasionally, however, it can be a symptom of underlying disease.
      • Constipation is hardly ever harmful. You won’t become ‘poisoned’ or ‘dirty’ if your bowels don’t open.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Causes of Constipation
      • Diet - usually a lack of fibre (roughage) in the diet.
      • Bad bowel habits - most people have an urge to go to the toilet once or twice a day. This often happens after a meal. If this urge is ignored, the stool dries out and becomes hard. The next bowel movement may then be difficult or painful.
      • Unco-ordinated straining. Some people do not strain effectively and/or fail to relax the muscles around the back passage when they strain.
      • obstruction to the bowels by scarring, inflammation or tumours
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Treating Constipation
      • Increasing fibre in diet.
      • Laxatives.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Appendicitis
      • The appendix is a hollow, wormlike structure attached to your intestines.
      • Several different mechanisms begin a process of inflammation which usually progresses to rupturing of the appendix and spilling of its toxic contents into the abdomen, if it is not treated.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Causes of Appendicitis
      • Most of the time the tiny channel inside your appendix gets plugged up with a food particle, causing it to swell, get infected, and fill up with pus.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Symptoms of Appendicitis
      • The standard sequence of events begins with four to six hours of generalized abdominal pain, followed by nausea and vomiting, followed by localization of the pain at your appendix in the lower right abdomen.
      • That area becomes very tender to the touch.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Treating Appendicitis
      • Appendicitis requires immediate medical attention. The standard treatment is emergency surgery.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Hepatitis
      • Hepatitis is a disease that impairs liver function either temporarily or permanently, sometimes even leading to death.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Causes of Hepatitis
      • It can be initiated by a host of factors but primarily by viruses.
      • Drugs can also cause hepatitis.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Symptoms of Hepatitis
      • May have none.
      • Adults may have light stools, dark urine, fatigue,fever and jaundice.
      • Mild flu-like symptoms.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Treatment of Hepatitis
      • Anti-virals with varying success.
      • Interferon and combinations therapies with varying success.
      • Preventative vaccines.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Dysentery
      • Dysentery is a more severe form of diarrhea in which white cells and mucus - and occasionally blood -appear in the stool. It usually includes cramps and fever.
      • Dysentery should not be thought of as a separate disease, but simply one end of the spectrum of diarrheal disease.
      Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Eating disorders
        • Obesity
          • Body weight 20% above normal
          • 28% women and 10% men in US are obese
          • Hormonal, metabolic, and social factors
            • May be linked to lack of leptin- satiety hormone
          • Behavior modification is usual treatment
          • Avoid cycle of gaining and losing weight
        • Bulimia Nervosa
          • Can coexist with obesity or anorexia
          • Binging and purging-damage from vomiting
          • Overly concerned about body shape and weight
          • Can damage kidneys and cause fatal arrhythmias
          • Psychotherapy and medication are treatments
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION
      • Eating disorders cont’d.
        • Anorexia Nervosa
          • Morbid fear of gaining weight
          • Athletes at risk
          • Distorted self-image
          • All symptoms of starvation
            • Low blood pressure
            • Constant chilliness
            • Irregular heartbeat
          • Can result in death
          • Force-feeding and psychotherapy are critical
    • Biology 30S Unit 2 DIGESTION & NUTRITION