Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models ofthe Atom
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.                               ...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models of the Atom         Dalt...
Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models of the Atom             ...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
4                            4fHouse – SHELLFloor – SUBLEVELRooms - ORBITALS   3        4d                           4p   ...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic...
Chem 40Ss Unit 2 Notes
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  1. 1. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 1. Democritus a fifth century B.C. GreekModels of philosopher proposed that all matter wasthe Atom composed of indivisible particles called atoms (Greek for uncuttable). Democritus’s Model of the Atom - No protons, electrons, or neutrons - Solid and INDESTRUCTABLE
  2. 2. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 2. Billiard Ball Model (1803) - JohnModels of Dalton viewed the atom as a small solidthe Atom sphere. Each element was composed of the same kind of atoms. Each compound was composed of different kinds of atoms. Compounds are composed of atoms in specific ratios. Chemical reactions are rearrangements of atoms (mass is conserved).
  3. 3. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 3. Plumb Pudding Model (1897) - JosephModels of John Thomson proposed that the atomthe Atom was a sphere of positive electricity (which was diffuse) with negative particles imbedded throughout after discovering the electron, a discovery for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1906.
  4. 4. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 4. Solar System Model - ErnestModels of Rutherford discovered that the atom isthe Atom mostly empty space with a dense positively charged nucleus surrounded by negative electrons. Rutherford received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1908 for his contributions into the structure of the atom.
  5. 5. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 5. BOHR MODEL OF THE ATOM - InModels of 1913, Neils Bohr speculated that in thethe Atom atom, electrons revolve around the nucleus, occupying circular orbits with distinct energy levels.– The electrons orbit around the nucleus like planets orbit around the sun. – Each orbit has a specific energy. The orbits closest to the nucleus are the lowest in energy, and energy increases with distance from the nucleus.
  6. 6. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. – Each orbit has a specific energy. TheModels of orbits closest to the nucleus are thethe Atom lowest in energy, and energy increases with distance from the nucleus.
  7. 7. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. • A hydrogen atom contains only oneModels of proton and one electron, so these energythe Atom levels are simply numbered (e.g. 1, 2, 3, …) • For all other elements (w/ more than 1 proton and more than 1 electron), principal energy levels (numbered 1, 2, 3, …) are further divided into energy sublevels. • principal energy level (n): n=1,2,3,... • energy sublevels: s, p, d, and f
  8. 8. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models ofthe Atom
  9. 9. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom. 6. Electron Cloud Model (1920s)- anModels of atom consists of a dense nucleusthe Atom composed of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons that exist in different clouds at the various energy levels. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenburg developed probability functions to determine the regions or clouds in which electrons would most likely be found. In 1927, Werner Heisenburg stated that it is impossible to know the exact location and velocity of a subatomic particle at the same time. This is know as the uncertainty principle.
  10. 10. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityProbabilitie • According to Heisenburg, the precises and location cannot be determined, but byEnergy using equations one can determine theLevels probability of finding an electron in a particular spot. • If the probable location of these electrons is plotted, the diagram tends to look like a cloud
  11. 11. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models of the Atom Dalton’s Model Dalton’s model Thomson’s Plum-Pudding Rutherford’s Model Model Bohr’s Model Charge-cloud model (present)
  12. 12. Outcome 2-01Outline the historical development of the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.Models of the Atom + + + + + + . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . ... . . ... ..... . . . . . .. .... . .... ...... .. . . . .. .. . .. . . . ... . ... ... .. . . . . .. . .. .... .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . ... ............ . . .. .. ... . .. .. . .. ........ ... .. .. . . . .. .... ................ ........ ....... . ..... .. ... .... . .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . . .... .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . ... . .. .. . ......... .. . ... .. .. ... .. ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . ................ .. ... . . . .... ... . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ..... ... ........ . ........... .. .. .. . . . . . . ..... ... . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... .. . . . . .. . . . .............. ...... ... . . . .. . . ... .... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. ............. .......... .. . . .. . ...... ... ... .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ... .... ......... .... .......... .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . .. ... . .. . . ... ...... . ... ... . .. ... . ... ........ ..... . . .. . . . . . . . . ..... ..... . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. ...... ...... ....... ....... ... ... .... . . .. . ... . . . . . .. . . .... ...... ... . . .. ... . .. . . . . . . ... ... . .. ...... . ... .. .. .. . .. .. . .... . . . .. ....... ....... ... . . ....... . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... . ..... .... .... .... .. ... . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . .. . ... ... ... . . .. . ... ...... . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . .... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .. . . . . ........ . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. ... .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. .... . . . .... . . . .. . . . . . . ..... .. ... . .. . . .. . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .............. .. . . .. . . ... . . ....... .... . . . . . . . .. . .... . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .... .. . . . ..... ......... .. .. . .. . . .. . . . .... . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... . . . .... . ... . . . ....... .. . . . . . ..... .. . . .. . . . .. .. ...... ... ... .. . .. . . . ..... . ... . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. ..... .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . .. . . ... .... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ....... . ... . .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . ... .... . .. . .. .. . . ... . . . . . .... .. . . . ... . ...... . ... . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .... . . . .... . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .... .. . . . . . . .. ....... . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . ..... . .... . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .... ... . ... . . . . ...... ........ .. .. . .. . .. . .... .. . .. . .. . . . ... .. .. .. .... . . . . . .. . . . . .... .............. .. . .. . .... . .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .From the time of Dalton to . . . ..... ... .. .. . . . .... . .. .... .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. .... ... . . .. ... .. .. ... . . . .... ... . .. .. . .. . . . ... . . ...... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . ... .. . . . .. .. .. . ..... .. .... . ..... .. .... .. .. . . . .. ... . . .. .. .... ... . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .... ... .... .. . .. . . .... . .. ... . .. . . .... . .Schrödinger, our model . ... .................... .... . . . . ..... . . . .. . . . . .. . .. ....... . ... .. . . . . . .. .... . . .. .. . . . ..... .. . .. .. . ...... ............ ... .. .. . .. . . .... .... . ..... ... .. ... .... . .. . . . . ... . . .. .. .. . . . .. ...... .... .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .of the atom has undergone many . .. .. ... .... .. .. . . . .. . ... . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... ... . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . .... ..... ........ .... .... . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .... . .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . .. .... . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .... ... . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . ..... ........ . .... .. . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . ... . .modifications. ... . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .... ..... ......... ... . ...... ....... ........ . ... . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
  13. 13. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergy • Recall Bohr’s model involved aLevels of number of orbits.the • The smallest of these orbitsQuantumMechanical represented the lowest energy anModel electron can have. • It is called the ground state. • If an electron absorbs energy it can jump from the ground state to a higher orbit or “higher level”. • When an electron jumps to a higher level it is said to be excited. • When an excited electron falls back a level, energy is given off.
  14. 14. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergy • In the Quantum Mechanical ModelLevels ofthe (cloud model), there are no distinctQuantum orbits.Mechanical •The spherical shell seen inModel diagrams is the average position the electrons may hold for a particular energy level. •These new energy levels or shells are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. and are called the principal quantum number.
  15. 15. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergy • The quantum mechanical modelLevels ofthe states that every atom has principalQuantum energy levels and at least oneMechanical sublevel.Model • The energy within each sublevel is slightly different. • The number of sublevels in any principal level is the same as the principal quantum number. • That means the first principal energy level has one sublevel, the second has two, etc.
  16. 16. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergy • Each electron within a sublevelLevels ofthe has the same energy.Quantum • The lowest sublevel in eachMechanical principal level is called the sModel sublevel. (1s, 2s, 2s, etc.) • The next higher sublevel is called the p sublevel. There is no p sublevel when n=1. There is a p sublevel when n=2 or higher. • The third sublevel is the d sublevel and it wont be found unless n=3 or greater.
  17. 17. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergy • The fourth sublevel is the fLevels ofthe sublevel and is not found unlessQuantum n=4 or greater.Mechanical • More sublevels exist and areModel called g, h, i etc. but are not covered here. • There exists some overlapping of sublevels. For example, the 4s and 3d sublevels. The 4s has a lower energy state than does the 3d.
  18. 18. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergyLevels oftheQuantumMechanicalModel
  19. 19. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityEnergyLevels oftheQuantumMechanicalModel
  20. 20. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity • The electrons position can beOrbitals identified more specifically than the sublevels by describing the orbital they are found in. • A region within a sublevel or any energy level where electrons can be found are called orbitals. • Each s sublevel has 1 orbitals, each p has 3 orbitals, each d has 5 orbitals and each f has 7 orbitals. • Each orbital can only hold two electrons.
  21. 21. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity • With a maximum of 2 electron perOrbitals orbital an s sublevel can only hold 2 electrons, the p sublevel could hold 6, the d could hold 10 and the f could hold 14.
  22. 22. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron • Electrons exhibit a propertySpin known as electron spin. It can be clockwise or counterclockwise. • The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins. The atomic orbital containing two electrons with opposite spins is written as ↑↓.
  23. 23. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron • Orbital diagrams are used toSpin show the placement of electrons in orbitals. • Arrows pointing in opposite directions indicate electrons spinning in opposite directions. • Two oppositely spinning electrons are called an orbital pair.
  24. 24. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron • Hund’s rule states that singleSpin & Hund’s electrons with the same spin mustRule occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.
  25. 25. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron • For example, the three 2 pSpin & Hund’s orbitals would be filled asRule
  26. 26. 4 4fHouse – SHELLFloor – SUBLEVELRooms - ORBITALS 3 4d 4p 3d 4s 2 3p 3s 2p 1 2s 1s
  27. 27. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron A teaching aid that students canSpin & Hund’s use to write the correct order forRule electron configurations can be to set up a diagram as shown below:
  28. 28. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectron Starting at theSpin top of the & Hund’sRule diagram, the orbitals are filled by following the direction of the arrows in such a manner: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, and so on.
  29. 29. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectronConfiguration
  30. 30. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectronConfiguration
  31. 31. Outcome 2-02Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityElectronConfiguration
  32. 32. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomic • The radius of an atom is theRadius andPeriodicity closest distance to which one atom will approach another atom. • The first covalent atomic radius refers to the effective distance between the nucleus of an atom and its valence shell when the atom bonds covalently with another atom.
  33. 33. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomic • Van der Waals radius refers toRadius and half the distance between thePeriodicity nuclei of identical atoms at their point of closest approach when no bond is formed. • A third type of radius is the atomic radius in metals, defined as half the distance between nuclei of atoms arranged in a metal-like crystalline structure.
  34. 34. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomicRadius andPeriodicity
  35. 35. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomic • The atomic radii generallyRadius and decrease as you move across aPeriodicity period. Since each additional electron is added to the same principal energy level, the additional electrons are not shielded from the increasingly positive nucleus. • The increased nuclear charge pulls the valence electrons closer to the nucleus reducing the atomic radius.
  36. 36. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomic • The atomic radii generallyRadius and increase as you move down aPeriodicity group. • As you move down a group the outermost orbital increases in size shielding the valence electrons from the pull of the nucleus. • These factors overpower the increased pull of the more positive nucleus on the valence electrons causing the atomic radius to increase
  37. 37. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityAtomicRadius andPeriodicity
  38. 38. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity Atomic Radius and Periodicity
  39. 39. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity Atomic Radius and Periodicit y
  40. 40. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonic When atoms lose electrons to formRadius and positive ions (cations) they alwaysPeriodicity get smaller. Two factors lead to the reduction in size. First, the lost valence electron may lead to a completely empty orbital. Second, the electron shielding/repulsion are reduced allowing the nucleus to pull them closer to the nucleus.
  41. 41. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonic When atoms gain electrons to formRadius and negative ions (anions) they alwaysPeriodicity get larger. The electron shielding/repulsion increases pushing the electrons farther from the nucleus.
  42. 42. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonic a. Periodic Trends in Ionic RadiiRadius and The size of positive ions decreasePeriodicity as you move across a period and the size of negative ions increase as you move across a period. b. Group Trends in Ionic Radii The ionic radii of both positive and negative ions increase as you move down a group.
  43. 43. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonic Radius and Periodicity
  44. 44. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonization • The ionization energy of an atomEnergy and is the energy required to removePeriodicity the most loosely held electron from the outer energy level of that atom in the gas phase. • The removal of an electron can be represented by the equation: M (g) + energy → M+ + e-
  45. 45. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonization • The removal of the first electronEnergy and from a neutral atom is called thePeriodicity first ionization energy. • The energy required to remove the second electron is the second ionization energy, etc. • Each successive ionization requires more energy because each successive electron separates from a particle that has increasingly greater net positive charge.
  46. 46. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonization 1. Identify the first ionizationEnergy and energies of the first 36 elementsPeriodicity (H to Kr). 2. Identify the atomic radii of the first 36 elements. 3. Graph the atomic number versus ionization energy for each element & the atomic number versus the atomic radii for each element. Place both line graphs on the same piece of paper.
  47. 47. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityIonization Ionization energy is the energyEnergy and required to remove an electron fromPeriodicity an atom in its gaseous state. These values indicate how strongly an atom’s nucleus holds onto its valence electrons. High ionization energy values indicate the atom has a strong hold on the electrons. Low ionization energy values indicate the atom has a weak hold on the electrons. Atoms with high ionization values are unlikely to lose electrons and form positive ions.
  48. 48. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodicTrends inIonizationEnergy
  49. 49. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic • The general trend is towards anTrends in increase in ionization energy alongIonizationEnergy with an increase in atomic number (with some exceptions), as you move across a period. • The opposite holds true when you move down a group.
  50. 50. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic • Why?Trends inIonizationEnergy
  51. 51. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic a. Periodic Trends in First IonizationTrends in EnergiesIonization As you move across a period, the firstEnergy ionization energy generally increases. For example, lithium has a low first ionization energy indicating it will easily lose an electron to form the Li+ ion. Lithium atom has one valence electron and it is this electron that is easily removed from its atom.
  52. 52. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic As you move across the row it becomesTrends in increasingly harder to remove a valenceIonization electron from the atom. The reason forEnergy this is that the increased nuclear charge of each successive element produces an increased hold on the valence electrons thereby increasing the ionization energies. The stronger nuclear charge makes it harder to remove a valence electron as the electrons are pulled closer to the positively charged nucleus.
  53. 53. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Therefore, neon which is located at theTrends in end of the row, has a high first ionizationIonization energy indicating it will unlikely lose anEnergy electron to form Ne+ ion. Neon has a stable outer energy level (8 electrons) so it does not want to readily give up an electron.
  54. 54. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic b. Periodic Trends in SuccessiveTrends in Ionization EnergiesIonization Table 6-5 (in McGraw-Hill Chemistry:Energy Matter and Change, 192) lists the successive ionization energies for the period 2 elements. The table shows that the energy required for each successive ionization energy increases as you move across a period. The primary reason for this is that the increase in positive charge binds the electrons more strongly. .
  55. 55. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic The table also shows that for eachTrends in element, the energy required for aIonization specific ionization displays a significantEnergy increase. The reason for this is that atoms tend to lose or gain electrons in order to acquire a full energy level because this is the most stable state. The energy jump occurs when a core electron, as opposed to a valence electron, is being removed.
  56. 56. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic c. Group Trends in IonizationTrends in EnergiesIonizationEnergy The ionization energies decrease as you move down a group. The increasing atomic size pushes the valence electrons further away from the nucleus. Consequently it takes less energy to remove the electron because the strength of attraction is less.
  57. 57. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodicTrends inIonizationEnergy
  58. 58. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Electronegativity is defined as the abilityTrends in of an atom in a molecule to attractElectro- electrons to itself. The first and mostnegativity widely used electronegativity scale was developed by Linus Pauling, who based his scale on thermochemical data.
  59. 59. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Trends in electronegativity across aTrends in periodElectro- As you go across a period thenegativity electronegativity increases. The chart shows electronegativities from sodium to chlorine - you have to ignore argon. It doesnt have an electronegativity, because it doesnt form bonds.
  60. 60. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Why does electronegativity increaseTrends in across a period?Electro- Consider sodium at the beginning ofnegativity period 3 and chlorine at the end (ignoring the noble gas, argon). Think of sodium chloride as if it were covalently bonded.
  61. 61. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Why does electronegativity increaseTrends in across a period?Electro- Both sodium and chlorine have theirnegativity bonding electrons in the 3-level. The electron pair is screened from both nuclei by the 1s, 2s and 2p electrons, but the chlorine nucleus has 6 more protons in it. It is no wonder the electron pair gets dragged so far towards the chlorine that ions are formed. Electronegativity increases across a period because the number of charges on the nucleus increases. That attracts the bonding pair of electrons more strongly.
  62. 62. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Trends in electronegativity down aTrends in groupElectro- As you go down a group,negativity electronegativity decreases. (If it increases up to fluorine, it must decrease as you go down.) The chart shows the patterns of electronegativity in Groups 1 and 7.
  63. 63. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Why does electronegativity fall asTrends in you go down a group?Electro- Think of hydrogen fluoride andnegativity hydrogen chloride. The bonding pair is shielded from the fluorines nucleus only by the 1s2 electrons. In the chlorine case it is shielded by all the 1s22s22p6 electrons.
  64. 64. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Why does electronegativity fall asTrends in you go down a group?Electro- In each case there is a net pull from thenegativity centre of the fluorine or chlorine of +7. But fluorine has the bonding pair in the 2-level rather than the 3-level as it is in chlorine. If it is closer to the nucleus, the attraction is greater. As you go down a group, electronegativity decreases because the bonding pair of electrons is increasingly distant from the attraction of the nucleus.
  65. 65. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodic Most chemistry texts will have a periodicTrends in table that contains electronegativityElectro- values for each element. By taking thenegativity difference between the values for each element, it is possible to predict the type of bonding that occurs between the atoms.
  66. 66. Outcome 2-04Identify periodic trends among the properties of elements and relate to electron configuration.Include: atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electronegativityPeriodicTrends inElectro-negativity

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