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Blood Typing

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  • In 1900 Dr. Karl Landsteiner identified the four major human blood groups. They are? A, B, AB and O. By mixing plasma and red blood cells taken from himself and five lab assistants he noted that the red cells introduced into foreign plasma either clumped together or they did not. ABO incompatibility is caused by the presence of antigens on the surface of the red blood cells, and antibodies (that react to antigens) in the plasma.
  • What determine the blood types are: Antigens (incorporated into the cell membrane of the red blood cell), and Antibodies (in the Plasma).
  • If you have type A blood you have: A antigens incorporated into the cell membrane of all your erythrocytes. B antibodies floating in your plasma.
  • If you have type B blood you have: B antigens incorporated into the cell membrane of all your erythrocytes. A antibodies floating in your plasma.
  • If you have type AB blood you have: A and B antigens incorporated into the cell membrane of all your erythrocytes. No antibodies floating in your plasma.
  • If you have type O blood you have: No antigens incorporated into the cell membrane of all your erythrocytes. A and B antibodies floating in your plasma.
  • From what we discussed we can create the following diagram indicates blood group compatibility. This does not include Rh factor. This diagram is correct, based on blood type only. When the Rh factor is introduced, it changes somewhat. O negative is the true universal donor. AB positive is the true universal recipient.
  • Point to and read the graphs for the class. Please identify that these are Canadian Statistics. Type O negative blood can be given to any blood type in emergency situations where there is no time to test for the patient’s own blood type.
  • Read these case studies and question the students : If Typing is complete: students know their blood type and should be able to answer the questions in the following six case studies. If Typing is ongoing: all students do not know their blood type and will have to answer the questions in the following six case studies generally ie “any student can give to Greg”. The teacher will be looking for a way to validate that the students have achieved the learning outcomes that we (CBS) have outlined. ANSWER: O, A, or B (type AB is the universal recipient).
  • ANSWER: O or B (O can be received as O is the universal donor, however type B, a perfect match, would be preferred).
  • ANSWER: O or A (O can be received as O is the universal donor, however type A, a perfect match, would be preferred).
  • ANSWER: O
  • ANSWER: O (since the blood type is unknown, type O, the universal donor, would be used).
  • ANSWER: AB (once the blood type is know, it is preferred to give the patient his/her blood type).

Blood Typing Blood Typing Presentation Transcript

  • Blood Typing
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Discovery of Blood Groups
    • Experiments with blood transfusions have been carried out for hundreds of years. Many patients have died and it was not until 1901, when the Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups, that blood transfusions became safer.
    • Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping or agglutination . The clumped red cells can crack and cause toxic reactions. This can have fatal consequences. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping was an immunological reaction which occurs when the receiver of a blood transfusion has antibodies against the donor blood cells.
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Discovery of Blood Groups
    • Karl Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and thus paved the way for blood transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930.
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • What are the different blood groups?
    • The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies .
    • The antigens are located on the surface of the red blood cells and the antibodies are in the blood plasma.
    • Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules. The blood group you belong to depends on what you have inherited from your parents.
                                                                                                                 
  • A B AB O
  • Antigen Antigen on the Red Blood Cell Membrane Antibodies in the Plasma Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody Antibody
  • A A - Antigen on the Red Blood Cell Membrane B - Antibodies in the Plasma B B B B B B B B
  • B B - Antigen on the Red Blood Cell Membrane A - Antibodies in the Plasma A A A A A A A A
  • AB A and B - Antigen on the Red Blood Cell Membrane No - Antibodies in the Plasma
  • No - Antigen on the Red Blood Cell Membrane A and B - Antibodies in the Plasma B A B B A A B A
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • AB0 blood grouping system
    • According to the AB0 blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or 0 (null).
                                                                                                                 
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • AB0 blood grouping system
          • Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
          • Blood group B If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma.
                                         
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • AB0 blood grouping system
          • Blood group AB If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.
          • Blood group 0 If you belong to the blood group 0 (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
                                                                               
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • AB0 blood grouping system
                       Blood Group Antigen on RBC Antibody in Serum Diagram O none A and B                             A A B                             B B A                             AB A and B None                            
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Blood Compatibility and Transfusions
    Who is the universal donor? Who is the universal acceptor?                                      
  • O AB “Type AB positive” is the true universal recipient “Type O negative” is the true universal donor B A
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Rh factor blood grouping system
          • Many people also have a so called Rh factor on the red blood cell's surface.
          • This is also an antigen and those who have it are called Rh+. Those who haven't are called Rh-.
          • A person with Rh- blood does not have Rh antibodies naturally in the blood plasma (as one can have A or B antibodies, for instance). But a person with Rh- blood can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh+ blood, whose Rh antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies.
          • A person with Rh+ blood can receive blood from a person with Rh- blood without any problems.
                                                                                                                      
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Blood group notation
    • According to the blood grouping systems, you can belong to either of following 8 blood groups:
    A Rh+ B Rh+ AB Rh+ 0 Rh+ A Rh- B Rh- AB Rh- 0 Rh-                                      
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Blood Compatibility and Transfusions
    • The ABO and Rh groups are factored together to identify 1 of the previous 8 blood types.
    • During blood transfusions, doctors must be aware of these blood types to prevent agglutination of the recipient’s blood.
                                         
  • Percentage of blood types amongst all Canadians Average percentage of blood types required by hospitals in Canada O positive is the most common blood type, shared by (and required by) 39% of the Canadian population. O negative blood is carried by only 7% of the population but, unlike other blood types, it can be given to patients of any blood group in emergency situations.
  • Greg is a 17-year-old who was admitted to hospital following a car crash. He suffered a crushing injury to his right leg. He is booked for surgery and his blood group is Type AB. Who in your group can give blood to Greg?
  • Benjamin is a three-month-old who was born with a major heart defect. He requires surgery to enable him to live past his first birthday. Benjamin’s blood group is Type B. Who in this class can give blood to Benjamin?
  • Sarah is a five-year-old Leukemia patient. She visits the hospital regularly to receive blood transfusions that she requires to continue fighting her disease. Sarah has Type A blood. Who in this class can give blood to Sarah?
  • Bill is a 50-year-old father of three teenage children. He is booked for heart surgery as two of the arteries in his heart are blocked. Bill’s blood group is Type O. Who in this class can give blood to Bill?
  • John is a 60-year-old man that has just been admitted to the Emergency Department vomiting large amounts of blood. His wife tells the physician that her husband has two stomach ulcers. The physician orders blood right away for this man. What blood group will this man receive?
  • Sam is a 20-year-old man who was shot in the lower abdomen while deer hunting. While in the Emergency Department he received three units of Type O negative blood. He is now booked for surgery and we now know that his blood is Type AB. Who in this class can give blood to Sam?
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    • Erythroblastosis fetalis is a blood disease of a newborn infant caused by blood group incompatibility between mother and child. With an Rh-negative mother and an Rh-positive father, the possibility exists that the fetus will be Rh positive. Blood mixing during pregnancy permits fetal red blood cells to enter the maternal circulation, causing the mother to start to produce antibodies against the Rh antigen from the fetus.
    • Maternal antibodies pass through the placenta into the fetus, where an excessive destruction of fetal red blood cells occurs. When this destruction begins during pregnancy, stillbirth may result.
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
    • Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    • There is little danger of damage to the fetus during the first pregnancy because not enough antibodies have been produced by the mother. However, by the second pregnancy, sufficient antibodies will have accumulated in the mother’s bloodstream to cause increasing danger.
    • The formation of maternal anti-Rh antibodies has been largely prevented in Canada by the injection of human immune globulin into the mother within 72 hours after delivery. This globulin contains antibodies against the Rh-positive fetal red blood cells, destroying them before the maternal bloodstream reacts by producing its own anti-Rh antibodies. Thus during the next pregnancy there will be few, if any, antibodies in the maternal bloodstream to destroy the fetal Rh-positive blood cells.
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing ?
  • Blood Groups & Blood Typing
  • http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educational/landsteiner/readmore.html Blood Transfusion Game Blood Typing