Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet            EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES               AND EFFICIENCY               Reform and counter-reform ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetThe Hungarian educational government of the early 2000srealised that the education system• is outdate...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           This presentation will review• the situation at the outset of the liberal reforms• the exp...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                    1           THE SITUATION IN 2002
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet             The Hungarian education system                   in the early 2000sPISA 2000:• the readi...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Reproducing unequal opportunities       1. There’s a vast performance gap between students...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet              1. Great performance gap       between students of different school types• The performa...
1                                                                                                                  2      ...
Pénzügy-  kutató  Intézet             Reading performance and school type                                 Year 106- or 8-g...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           2. Strong impact of socio-economic           background on student performance• The socio-...
Pénzügy-  kutató  Intézet                      Reading performance                 by mother’s highest qualification      ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Student performance and segregation           Relationship           _____ between student...
Student performance and segregation
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Student performance and segregation           Relationship           _____ between student...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Student performance and segregation           Relationship           _____ between student...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    Student performance and segregation           Relationship           _____ between student perfor...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Student performance and segregation           Relationship           _____ between student...
Source: Dr. Péter Vári’sPénzügy-                                                    table based on the PISAkutatóIntézet  ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet     3. Segregation of disadvantaged studentsInter-school segregation• the poorest and the Roma child...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetCurricular and content-based segregation• two-thirds of classes with a homogenous Roma student  popul...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Forced to follow a dead-end street   As a consequence of massive segregation, disadvantage...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet             The causes of segregation a widening gap between the rich and the poor increasing hous...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet     A measure inspired by the best intentions…                       A normál és a gyógypedagógiai n...
Source: MinistryPénzügy-                                                                                                 o...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet     Resistance on behalf of parents and teachers                  (surveyed in 2002)• Only one fifth...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                           2            BEFORE AND AFTER 2010              Comparing the liberal refo...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model      Conservative (Prussian) model’Public Ed...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                   General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model    Conservative (Prussian) modelcomp...
Pénzügy- kutató Intézet              General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model           Conservative (Prussian) model...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           The liberal reform of the education system                            2002-2010I.         ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           I/ Anti-discrimination legislationProhibition of negative discrimination:• The Public Educ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet• As a result, any administrative decision or measure can be  declared void if it is found to negativ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           II/ Specific measures and programs               1.a) EU-funded programs2004-2006 (Human R...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet2004-2006 (HRDOP) (continued)• to eliminate segregation in the public education system and to  promot...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    2007-2013 (Social Renewal Operative Program):Apart from supporting the integration of disadvantag...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                 1. b) Measures to promote           equal opportunities for Roma studentsNominating ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                           2. KindergartenLiberal model, 2002-2010                                   ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                         3. Primary schoolLiberal model, 2002-2010                                  C...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet             Primary school - continuedUnrestricted school choice for parents (2007), while          ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                        4. Secondary education                            – all school typesUnified c...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                       Secondary education                         (all school types)                ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet       4. Vocational secondary schoolsEncouraging comprehensive, multifunctional schools       Segreg...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet       5. The proportion of students passing           graduation and entering tertiary educationLibe...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet              5. The proportion of students passing           graduation and entering tertiary educat...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet             III. The impact of comprehensive           modernisation on equal opportunitiesLiberal m...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    The conservative model’s attitude               to human and civil rightsWhat has so far been pub...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet                            3     THE FIRST RESULTS TAKE SHAPE           A successful desegregation m...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Reading performance, PISA 2000-2009,                Central European countries           P...
Pénzügy- kutató Intézet                  Segregation index (Hungary, 1980 – 2011)The index (weighted by number of students...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           The causes of the improvement of the            performance of Hungarian students  • Overw...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    The National Educational Integration Network                       (established in 2003)Aim: deve...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetSustainability:• The program was successfully adapted to fit the requirements  of EU-funded equal opp...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet           Some results of the NEIN programIn terms of the pedagogical culture of the participating s...
Pénzügy- kutató Intézet            Some results of the NEIN programIn terms of the performance, skills and self-image of s...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools                  Admission into secondary school afte...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet    Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools                  Self-esteem, Grade 8                ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet  Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools                  Coping, Grade 8                       ...
Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetReading performance and integrated education                                  Source: Roma Education ...
Thank you for your attention.          Edited by: Júlia KárolyiThe creation of this presentation was supported by         ...
Equal Opportunity and Efficiency (konference Generace Fair, 14.11.2012, Bálint Magyar)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Equal Opportunity and Efficiency (konference Generace Fair, 14.11.2012, Bálint Magyar)

728 views
626 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
728
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
427
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Equal Opportunity and Efficiency (konference Generace Fair, 14.11.2012, Bálint Magyar)

  1. 1. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND EFFICIENCY Reform and counter-reform in the Hungarian education system Bálint Magyar Prague, 14 November 2012
  2. 2. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetThe Hungarian educational government of the early 2000srealised that the education system• is outdated and inefficient both in terms of its methods and itscontent• reproduces unequal opportunities rather than diminishing themA set of comprehensive reform measures was introduced toincrease the efficiency of the system and to fight unequalities.The current, conservative administration consciously strives toundo these reforms and restore the previous situation.
  3. 3. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet This presentation will review• the situation at the outset of the liberal reforms• the expected effects of the reform measures and the way these effects started to take shape by 2009• the basic differences between the liberal and the conservative approach to education in present-day Hungary
  4. 4. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 1 THE SITUATION IN 2002
  5. 5. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The Hungarian education system in the early 2000sPISA 2000:• the reading performance of Hungarian students proved to be below the OECD average• the relationship between students’ performance and their socio-economic background showed that the Hungarian education system reproduces most social unequalities rather than working as a vehicle of social mobility
  6. 6. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Reproducing unequal opportunities 1. There’s a vast performance gap between students attending different types of schools. 2. The socio-economic background of students has a significant effect on their performance. 3. Disadvantaged, especially Roma children are massively segregated at all levels of the system.
  7. 7. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 1. Great performance gap between students of different school types• The performance of those attending non-vocational secondary schools offering graduation („gimnázium”) is near the average of the best-performing OECD countries• Those attending vocational secondary schools offering no graduation („szakiskola”) perform around the average of the poorest-performing OECD countries• That is, the gap between the performance of a Hungarian „gimnázium” student and that of a „szakiskola” student is like the gap between the performance of an average Finnish and an average Mexican student
  8. 8. 1 2 4 3 5 6 level 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% kutató Intézet Pénzügy- A Gimnázium Blw Level 1 Finland (1-3) Korea (2-5) Kanada (4-7) Hollandia (1-5) Japán (2-7) Svájc (4-9) Belgium (4-8) Ausztrália (7-9) B 10. Évfolyam Új-Zéland (7-10) Izland (10-13) Dánia (10-14) Csehország (9-14) Franciaország (11-15) Svédország (12-16) Ausztria (13-18) Írország (15-18) Németország (14-18) Szlovákia (16-21) Norvégia (18-21) Luxemburg (19-21) C Szakközépiskola graduation D: Year 9 average E: Voc. school with no graduation Magyarország (19-23) Lengyelország (19-23) Spanyolország (22-24) D 9. Évfolyam Egyesült Államok (22-24) Hungary: one country – three worlds Olaszország (25-26) Portugália (25-26) A: Secondary school with graduation B: Year 10 average C: Vocational school with Görögország (27-27) Törökország (28-28) Általános iskola Mexikó (29-29) ESource: OECD (2004), Learning for tomorrow’s world: First results from PISA 2003, Table 2.5a, p.354. Szakiskola
  9. 9. Pénzügy- kutató Intézet Reading performance and school type Year 106- or 8-gradesec. sch. w. grad. 5914-grade sec. sch. w. gr. 561vocational secondaryschool with graduation 493voc. sch. w. no grad. 408 Source: National Competence Survey, 2006.
  10. 10. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 2. Strong impact of socio-economic background on student performance• The socio-economic background of Hungarian students has a much stronger impact on their reading performance than the OECD average• The qualification of parents, and specifically that of the mother has a much stronger effect on students’ general performance than the OECD average
  11. 11. Pénzügy- kutató Intézet Reading performance by mother’s highest qualification Year 85-year tertiary (university)3-year tertiary (high 580school) 551secondary sch. graduation 515vocational secondary 4708 grades 4260-7 grades 373 Source: National Competence Survey, 2006.
  12. 12. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Student performance and segregation Relationship _____ between student performance and student SE background _____ between student performance and intra-school segregation _____ between student performance and inter-school segregation Source: OECD (2010): PISA 2009 Results… Vol. II.
  13. 13. Student performance and segregation
  14. 14. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Student performance and segregation Relationship _____ between student performance and student SE background _____ between student performance and intra-school segregation _____ between student performance and inter-school segregation Source: OECD (2010): PISA 2009 Results… Vol. II
  15. 15. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Student performance and segregation Relationship _____ between student performance and student SE background _____ between student performance and intra-school segregation _____ between student performance and inter-school segregation Source: OECD (2010): PISA 2009 Results… Vol. II
  16. 16. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Student performance and segregation Relationship _____ between student performance and student SE background _____ between student performance and intra-school segregation _____ between student performance and inter-school segregation Source: (OECD 2010) PISA 2009 Results… Vol. II
  17. 17. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Student performance and segregation Relationship _____ between student performance and student SE background _____ between student performance and intra-school segregation _____ between student performance and inter-school segregation Source: OECD (2010): PISA 2009 Results… Vol. II
  18. 18. Source: Dr. Péter Vári’sPénzügy- table based on the PISAkutatóIntézet Student performance and surveys equal opportunities PERFORMANCE AVERAGE PERFORMANCE ABOVE PERFORMANCE BELOW AVERAGE AVERAGEALMOST Canada Italy ALMOSTEQUAL OPPOR- Finland Mexico EQUALTUNITIES Iceland Russia OPPOR- Japan Spain TUNITIES Korea Sweden Austria Brazil Ireland Denmark Greece New-Zealand Norway Lichtenstein Poland PortugalGREAT Australia Czech Rep. GREATDIFFERENCES Belgium France Germany DIFFERENCESIN OPPOR- United Kingdom Switzerland Hungary IN OPPOR-TUNITIES USA Luxemburg TUNITIES
  19. 19. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 3. Segregation of disadvantaged studentsInter-school segregation• the poorest and the Roma children in a given settlement attend the school with the lowest prestige• schools admitting a large number of disadvantaged children tend to have significantly worse working conditions (in terms of staff and infrastructure)• there is a large number of schools with an exclusively Roma student populationIntra-school segregation (between classes)• approx. 30 thousand students attend classes where the majority of the children are Roma 19
  20. 20. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetCurricular and content-based segregation• two-thirds of classes with a homogenous Roma student population follow some kind of a ’catching up’ or ’simplified’ curriculum• about 20% of Roma students learn in special needs classes, while only 2% on non-Roma students are placed in such classes• because of the shrunken curriculum in special-needs classes, once placed in such a class, a student has virtually no chance of ever switching to a ’normal’ class
  21. 21. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Forced to follow a dead-end street As a consequence of massive segregation, disadvantaged children either drop out or end up almost exclusively in vocational secondary schools that provide no graduation: • one-tenth drop out before going to secondary school • two-thirds go to vocational secondary schools offering no graduation • disadvantaged children are vastly overrepresented within the student population of the vocational schools that offer no graduation and no prospect of coping in the labour market 21
  22. 22. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The causes of segregation a widening gap between the rich and the poor increasing housing segregation teachers’ outdated, fact-centered, verbality-oriented pedagogical attitude and one-way communication style hierarchical, authoritarian, patronising education system problems of teacher training and in-service training poor educational infrastructure, underqualified and unmotivated staff stakeholders’ unwillingness to cooperate disadvantaged parents’ low level of assertivity higher funding for schools that teach students with special needs widespread prejudices 22
  23. 23. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet A measure inspired by the best intentions… A normál és a gyógypedagógiai normatívafor schools 1992-2003 Normative per capita funding változása (1992-2003) 500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 gyógypedagógiai normatíva student with special needs normál tantervűneeds with no special normatíva Source: Ministry of Education
  24. 24. Source: MinistryPénzügy- of EducationkutatóIntézet … and its unintended consequences A The number of children with special needs aged 6-14 6-14 éves iskolás és fogyatékos gyermekek számának alakulása (1992-2002) (1992-2002) 60000 1100000 50000 1050000 40000 1000000 30000 950000 20000 900000 10000 850000 0 800000 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 fogyatékos 6-14 éves gyermekek száma 6-14-year-olds with special needs iskolás 6-14 éves gyermekek száma all 6-14-year-olds
  25. 25. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Resistance on behalf of parents and teachers (surveyed in 2002)• Only one fifth of parents and teachers support integration, all the others favour some degree of segregation• More than half of the parents would find it disturbing if their child had a classmate with behaviour disorder or unpolished manners• One third would find it disturbing if their child had an over- age classmate and/or one with poor abilities• Gypsy and/or poor classmates would disturb one fifth of parents Source: Ministry of Education, TÁRKI
  26. 26. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 2 BEFORE AND AFTER 2010 Comparing the liberal reform and the conservative counter-reform
  27. 27. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model Conservative (Prussian) model’Public Education’ ’Public Training’education is a public service, ’serving the public’teachers are service providers teachers are personnel on dutypartnership bw. stakeholders hierarchical structure of(student-teacher-parent- stakeholders with the state onmaintainer-government) topdecentralisation, subsidiarity centralisation, state ownershipsharing rights and the state vindicates all theresponsibilities rightsheadmaster appointed by headmaster appointed by theschool maintainer minister / government bureau responsible for school maintenance
  28. 28. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model Conservative (Prussian) modelcompetence-based facts-and-figures-basedpromoting critical and handing down the dominantproblem-solving thinking ideology („Hungarian thinking”)student-teacher partnership authoritarian relationship (teacher: training officer, student: twink)plurality of content and centrally prescribedmethodology homogeneityindividuals choose their the state prescribes whatprofessional line autonomously professionals need to beand market-sensitively trained
  29. 29. Pénzügy- kutató Intézet General comparisonLiberal (Anglo-Saxon) model Conservative (Prussian) modelcompulsory education until the compulsory education until theage of 18 age of 16late bifurcation points along the early bifurcation points, earlyprocess, late choice of profession, choice of profession, limitedpenetrable walls between school penetrabilitytypesensuring that no student can drop no secondary school type isout under the age of 14 obliged to admit those not admitted elsewhereextension of student and parent limiting student and parent rightsrightsintegrating, inclusive education the education system reproducessystem working as a vehicle of social unequalities and obstructssocial mobility mobility
  30. 30. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The liberal reform of the education system 2002-2010I. General anti-discrimination legislation – the legal guarantees of desegregationII. Specific measures and programs supporting equal opportunities and desegregationIII. The general mobility increasing impact of the comprehensive reform of the education system in terms of content and methodology
  31. 31. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet I/ Anti-discrimination legislationProhibition of negative discrimination:• The Public Education Act specifically included the ban of negative discrimination• Act CXXV of 2003 on Promotion of Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunities - Chapter III is dedicated solely to education• Legal declaration of the rights of parents and students• Setting up the Authority for Equal Treatment (Government Decree 362/2004)
  32. 32. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet• As a result, any administrative decision or measure can be declared void if it is found to negatively discriminate against a group of children or one single child with regard to their gender, age, ethnicity, family background or any other factor.• Parents can seek legal redress in such situations.Drawbacks after the introduction of the new legal framework:• The legal procedures were lengthy (sometimes took years).• Sanctions were too light, with no deterring power.• The individual cases (whatever the outcome) had no impact on the whole of the system.
  33. 33. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet II/ Specific measures and programs 1.a) EU-funded programs2004-2006 (Human Resource Development Operative Program)Nearly 30.5 M € (cc. 22.7 M € drawn from the European SocialFund, cc. 7.8 M € from the Hungarian state budget) for thefollowing goals:• to prevent school failure and dropping out of disadvanaged pupils• to promote the educational success and, thereby improve the labour-market prospects and social integration of disadvantaged youth Forrás: Roma Education Fund
  34. 34. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet2004-2006 (HRDOP) (continued)• to eliminate segregation in the public education system and to promote non-discriminatory, inclusive educational practices• training of educational professionals involved in the education of disadvantaged, especially Roma pupils, and pupils with special educational needs; development of related curricula and methodology to promote inclusive education• supporting the adaptation and implementation of inclusive educational programmes at the level of individual institutions• supporting local extracurricular teaching workshops for drop- out students (the so-called ’tanoda’-network) Forrás: Roma Education Fund
  35. 35. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 2007-2013 (Social Renewal Operative Program):Apart from supporting the integration of disadvantaged students(through ’tanoda’-type extracurricular instruction and thedevelopment of specifically integration-centered schools), thisprogram provides• 50 M € between 2007 and 2014 for the financial and professional support of the implementation of Equal Opportunity Plans• support for cc. 300 projects (in 2008-2009) for education infrastructure development and more than 500 for education innovation – school maintainers have the obligation to start the implementation of their equal opportunity plans while implementing the development projects.• support for the implementation of equal opportunity action plans (budget: cc. 12 M € for 2007 – 2009) Source: Roma Education Fund
  36. 36. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 1. b) Measures to promote equal opportunities for Roma studentsNominating a ministry commissioner responsible for the ?integration of disadvantaged and Roma children (2003)Stricter conditions for declaring that a child has special No legal quaranteesneeds or is slightly mentally disabled’Leave the Last Bench’ program to undo such decisions if ?they were unjustified (2003)Realistic chance for the Romani and Beash languages to be ?taught at Hungarian schools„Útravaló” scholarship for poor children including one-to-one mentoring, involving 4000 mentors and 18,000students each year (2004)Training and employing Roma family coordinators to act asmediators between teachers and Roma families
  37. 37. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 2. KindergartenLiberal model, 2002-2010 Conservative model, 2011Encouraging disadvantaged families to send children to Compulsorykindergarten: kindergarten for every child over the• Compulsory admission for the children of disadvantaged age of 3 and/or unemployed parents (2003) (from 2014)• Optional admission to kindergarten over the age of 2 (2009)• Monthly benefit to help cover kindergarten-related expenses (2008)• Free meals at the kindergarten for disadvantaged children (2003)• State support for extending kindergarten capacity in disadvantaged regions (Regional Operative Program)• Making it easier to set up private kindergartens and day- care facilities
  38. 38. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 3. Primary schoolLiberal model, 2002-2010 Conservative model, 2011Free textbooks and coursebooks for those in need (2004) School-owned books that can be used free of charge by all students (from 2012 or 2013)Double childcare benefit in August to ease the burdens of ?starting the schoolyear (2002) Stricter regulations for becoming a private pupil to ? discourage schools from getting rid of ’problematic’ students this way (2003)All children with special needs may participate in a ?capability development training backed by a normativesubsidy of 17,000, later 20,000 HUF (1997)Per capita normative funding for every ’integrated’ ?student: ~ 50,000 HUF (2003)
  39. 39. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Primary school - continuedUnrestricted school choice for parents (2007), while The new legislationschools can’t hand-pick students. doesn’t regulate theHaving admitted all applicants, the remaining free capacity catchment areas ofmust be filled up with disadvantaged children. primary schools.It is legal to start primary education as late as the age of 8 Schooling compulsory(2003) from the age of 6, starting at age 7 the latestNo failing and no 1-5 marking in the first 3 grades of Both measures undone inprimary school (2004) 2011Basic skill-building extended beyond the first 4 grades to Basic skill buildinginclude Grades 5 and 6 (2004) restricted to Grades 1-4’Tanoda’ program to encourage extracurricular afternoon ?tuition of drop-out students – almost 60 such institutionscreated after 2003Teacher training content development and courses toprepare for the challenges of integration (2003)National Educational Integration Network (2004) ?
  40. 40. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 4. Secondary education – all school typesUnified competence-based written entrance examination Oral exam reintroduced (from 2012)Compulsory nationwide competence survey in Grades 6, 8 Non-anonymousand 10 to evaluate the performance of individual schools nationwide written exam(not the students!) at the end of Grade 8, which is also the entrance exam to secondary schoolForeign-language focussed free one-year preparatory Practically abolishing itcourse before starting secondary school for 12-15 through extra-strictthousand students/year (2004) regulationsEvery student entitled to take part in the prep course and No entitlementto learn English as the first foreign language (introductionplanned for 2009, but postponed even in 2010)
  41. 41. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Secondary education (all school types) – continuedHarmonizing the requirements of the state language examsand the ECDL exams with the secondary school graduationexams, thus making these exams free (as school-leavingexams are free of charge)Secondary school graduation exams become the admissionexams into tertiary level (2005)Modifying the regulations for the Arany János TalentSupport program to consider among the eligibilityconditions individual social background rather than just theeconomic situation of students’ home town (2003)Introducing a special boarding school program fordisadvantaged students, with the school receiving triple percapita funding for these students
  42. 42. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 4. Vocational secondary schoolsEncouraging comprehensive, multifunctional schools Segregated ’profile clearing’Unified general knowledge content up to grade 10 in Shrinking general knowledgesecondary schools providing graduation whether content in vocational schools:vocational or not those providing graduation: 2 days/week no grad.: 5 lessons/weekCompulsory admission into non-graduation providing No compulsory admission –vocational schools of students not admitted elsewhere ’Bridge Program’ for those(compulsory schooling until age 18) not admittedThose finishing secondary school without graduating can Hopelessly largetake the final exam after completing a 2-year extra knowledge gapcourseProgram for improving vocational schools providing no Ending the programgraduationEncouraging students to switch from one school type to Switching is up to theanother target school’s willingnessVocational secondary schools can organise post- Just universities cansecondary vocational trainings provide such trainings
  43. 43. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 5. The proportion of students passing graduation and entering tertiary educationLiberal model, 2002-2010 Conservative model, 2011Expanding the capacity of secondary Aiming to reset the numbers to thoseeducation providing graduation: before 2000:• Increasing the number of those • Graduates of non-vocational secondary graduating from non-vocational schools: 20 % secondary schools: from 20% to 35%• Increasing the number of those • Graduates of vocational secondary graduating from vocational secondary schools: 20-25 % schools from 25% to 45%.• Decreasing the number of those • Finishing vocational schooling without finishing vocational school without graduation: 45 % graduating from 45% to 20%.
  44. 44. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 5. The proportion of students passing graduation and entering tertiary education (continued)Liberal model, 2002-2010 Conservative model, 2011• Those not graduating can prepare for • Because of the shrunken general the exam in a 2-year complementary knowledge component, the gap is too course large for those intending to take a• Language exams and advanced-level graduating exam having attended a graduating exams give extra scores at school not preparing them for it. university admission. • Language exams and advanced level• Result: 35 % of a cohort enter tertiary graduating exams are compulsory level. admission requirements • Result: only 20-25 % of a cohort are expected to enter tertiary level
  45. 45. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet III. The impact of comprehensive modernisation on equal opportunitiesLiberal model, 2002-2010 Conservative model, 2011Maximising the number of lessons / week, decreasing More lessons / weekstudent burdensDevelopment of competence-based materials, extensive Favours traditional, facts-teacher-training, encouraging schools to use the project and-figures basedmethod methods3-level content regulation: National Core Curriculum – local Compulsory frameworkcurriculum – school’s pedagogical program curriculum leaving justExtensive agency of all stake-holders, specific needs easily 10% to be filled at schoolincorporated levelMinimum 12% of lessons spent on individual tutoring ?Competence-based materials to be used in 25-50% of ?lessons in Grades 5 and 6 (2003)
  46. 46. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The conservative model’s attitude to human and civil rightsWhat has so far been published of the new educationalregulations• clashes with the Hungarian Constitution and with several EU directives concerning the rights of parents and students• wishes to disband all the organisations excercising civic and professional control over the educational administration• underregulates the system on the level of the Act of Public Education and wishes to regulate every aspect of the process through ministerial decrees• aims to cenralise the system and give all the power to the minister, doing away with the principle of subsidiarity
  47. 47. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet 3 THE FIRST RESULTS TAKE SHAPE A successful desegregation model and improving PISA performance
  48. 48. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Reading performance, PISA 2000-2009, Central European countries Poland Hungary Slovenia Czech Rep. Slovakia Austria Source: PISA 2000-2009
  49. 49. Pénzügy- kutató Intézet Segregation index (Hungary, 1980 – 2011)The index (weighted by number of students) in larger catchment areas (black solid line),micro‐regions (blue longdashed line) and larger municipalities (towns and cities; greendashed line). Hungary, 1980 through 2011.Note: The index after 2006 is based using our benchmark imputations for the missing data.The segregation index shows the fraction of interethnic contact possibilities that are made impossible by segregation (0<=S<=1)Catchment areas are clusters of villages, towns and cities that are closed in terms of student commuting, and they are defined by ususing the observed commuting patterns.Source: Gabor Kertesi and Gabor Kezdi: „Ethnic segregation between Hungarian schools: Long run trends and geographic distribution”,Hungarian Statistical Review, Special No.16,. forthcoming. Figure 2.
  50. 50. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The causes of the improvement of the performance of Hungarian students • Overwriting the old pedagogical paradigm: training a large number of teachers for the use of competence-based, cooperative, differentiated, activity- and child-centered methods and constructive feedback • Widespread desegregation of disadvantaged students (involving hundreds of schools across the country) Source: The results of PISA 2009 published by the Hungarian Education Bureau in 2010
  51. 51. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet The National Educational Integration Network (established in 2003)Aim: developing and spreading a primary school desegregationprogram, providing its quality controlTools:• informing and financially motivating schools to join the network• creating a pool of 45 basis schools• providing teacher training, local counselling and consultation – cooperation with nearly 1,000 participating schools• ongoing content development• as a ’side effect’ of desegregation, significant modernisation of the pedagogical culture of the schools involved: adopting cooperative, differentiated, competence-based teaching methods
  52. 52. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetSustainability:• The program was successfully adapted to fit the requirements of EU-funded equal opportunity programs, which provided further financial motivation for schools to join the networkMeasurable outcome:• providing training to cc. 10,000 teachers – significant pedagogical modernisation across the board• longitudinal survey of 30 classes participating in the program and 30 control classes with similar parametersThe following graphs reflect the findings of this survey, but as thetwo main components of the liberal educational reform werealso desegregation and pedagogical modernisation, they make itpossible to gain insight into the perspectives of the reforms.
  53. 53. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Some results of the NEIN programIn terms of the pedagogical culture of the participating schools:• increased integration within the school• extensive use of child-centered methods• increased student autonomy and independence• more extensive use of cooperative teaching methods Forrás: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  54. 54. Pénzügy- kutató Intézet Some results of the NEIN programIn terms of the performance, skills and self-image of students:• better cognitive skills in all measured dimensions than those of the control group• slightly better marks and reading performance• greater chance of continuing studies at a secondary school that provides graduation• greater chance of feeling responsible for their own fate• higher general self-esteem• in the cognitive and academic dimensions the increase is the most spectacular among the Roma students, but ALL groups show some degree of improvement Source: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  55. 55. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools Admission into secondary school after Grade 8 Secondary school providing graduation Vocational secondary school providing graduation Vocational secondary school providing no graduation No further education Source: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  56. 56. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools Self-esteem, Grade 8 Forrás: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  57. 57. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézet Comparing 30 program and 30 control schools Coping, Grade 8 Forrás: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  58. 58. Pénzügy-kutatóIntézetReading performance and integrated education Source: Roma Education Fund, 2009
  59. 59. Thank you for your attention. Edited by: Júlia KárolyiThe creation of this presentation was supported by the Roma Education Fund Roma Education Fund

×