3 IT infrastructure is reaching a breaking point. 70¢ per $1 85% idle 1.5x In distributed computing environments, up to 85% of computing capacity sits idle. Explosion of information driving 54% growth in storage shipments every year. 70% on average is spent on maintaining current IT infrastructures versus adding new capabilities. 2 billion 3.3 billion An estimated 2 billion people will be on the web by 2011 Worldwide mobile telephone subscriptions reached 3.3 billion in 2007 – one for every two people on the planet
4 As the world gets smarter, demands on IT will grow Intelligent oil field technologies Smart retail Smart energy grids Smart traffic systems Smart healthcare Smart food systems Smart water management Smart regions Smart weather Smart countries Smart supply chains Smart cities
5 CLOUD “the complicated stuff” that propels the Internet
8 What is Cloud Computing? A user experience and a business model
Cloud computing is an emerging style of IT delivery in which applications, data, and IT resources are rapidly provisioned (on-demand) and delivered as standardized offerings to users over the web in a flexible pricing pay-for-usage model.
An infrastructure management and services delivery methodology
Cloud computing is a way of managing large numbers of highly virtualized resources such that, from a management perspective, they resemble a single large resource. This can then be used to deliver services with elastic scaling.
Service Consumers DatacenterInfrastructure AccessServices Monitor & ManageServices & Resources IT Cloud Component Vendors/Software Publishers Service Catalog, ComponentLibrary CloudAdministrator Publish & UpdateComponents, Service Templates
9 Economics of Cloud Computing CLOUD COMPUTING + + + = = VIRTUALIZATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDIZATION AUTOMATION leverages virtualization, standardization and automation to free up operational budget for new investment Reduced Cost + + + = = AGILITY BUSINESS & IT ALIGNMENT SERVICE FLEXIBILITY INDUSTRY STANDARDS OPTIMIZED BUSINESS allowing you to optimize new investments for direct business benefits
10 Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers Collaboration CRM/ERP/HR Industry Applications Java Runtime Application Business Processes Middleware Database Development Tooling Platform Web 2.0 Application Runtime Infrastructure Servers Networking Storage Data Center Fabric
Access to client, partner network, and third party resources
ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE
30 TRADITIONAL SECURITY PRIVACY INFANCY Challenges and Opportunities THIRD PARTY CONTROL AVAILABILITY ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Challenge is to design cloud services in such a way as to decrease privacy risk, and to ensure legal compliance
Government compliance and restrictions limit usage of cloud services as currently designed
There have been a number of high-profile privacy breaches
Concerns arise when it is not clear to individuals why their personal information is requested or how it will be used or passed on to other parties
32 Infancy of the Field
Most existing cloud-computing offerings are either proprietary or dependent on software that is not amenable to experimentation
Lack of research tools fail to answer most fundamental questions in the field
EUCALYPTUS, an open-source cloud computing framework that is modular and open to experimental instrumentation has recently been created by UCSB Computer Science Department
33 Traditional Security
Concerns involve computer and network intrusion or attacks
VM-level attacks such as the vulnerabilities that appeared in VMWare, Xen, and Microsoft Virtual PC
Platform level attacks such as SQL injections or cross-site scripting
Phishing cloud provider
Cloud providers argue that their security measures and processes are more mature and tested
Concerns on critical applications and data being available
One-day outage of Gmail in mid-October, 2008
Over 7-hour downtime of Amazon S3 on July 20, 2008
18-hour outage on October 31, 2008
Cloud providers argue that their server uptime compares well with the availability of the cloud
Concern that third-party cloud would not scale enough
There are more single points of failure and attack
Assurance of computational integrity
Stanford’s Folding@Home project gives the same task to multiple client to reach a consensus on correctness
35 Third Party Control
Legal implications of data and applications being held by third party are complex and are not yet well understood
Lack of potential control and transparency when third-party holds the data
Implementation independent is one reason why cloud computing cool but also one of its main reason that why it is not
36 Energy Consumption
Data centers are known to be expensive to operate and they consume huge amounts of electric power
It is important that they be designed to be energy efficient
New techniques have to be investigated for allocation of resources
37 Summary Cloud computing is as much as about the business model as it is about the technology. Biggest challenge is the fact that there are no standards yet. Cloud fears largely stem from loss of control of sensitive data. Cloud Computing isn’t a quick fix. It needs a LOT of thinking. It requires a strong foundation of best practice in software development, software architecture and service management.
Image Credits Images & Text from Slides 3, 4, 8, 24, 28 (Series of Boxes, Cloud) What is Cloud Computing? Powerpoint Presentation. IBM Technologies. Images from Slide 37 (Series of Boxes) The Benefits of Cloud Computing: A new era of responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency in IT service delivery. IBM. Dynamic Infrastructure. July 2009. Sun Report on Cloud Computing Architecture. March, 2009 ThinkGrid Business IT on Demand White Paper on Cloud Computing Images from Slide 3 (Man with Question Mark) Greenpeace International. White Paper on Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change The Benefits of Cloud Computing: A new era of responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency in IT service delivery. IBM. Dynamic Infrastructure. July 2009. All company logos from their respected websites Google Docs, Google Maps API, Open Social, OpenID, Office Live, Salesforce.com, Akamai, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, NetSuite, Sun, Zoho, Amazon, Digg.com, University of Iowa, Youtube, AppNexus, Bluelock, Emulab, ENKI, EU Reservoir Project, Flexiscale, GoGrid, Google, HP, Joyent, Nirvanix, OpenFlow, RackSpace, Skytap, Terremark, The Globous Alliance, UCSB, 10gen 38
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