LITERACY FOCUS
Comprehension Strategies: Application
How will I engage learners before, during and after reading the text?...
about the topic and these are listed in the W column of the chart. After reading,
learners answer the questions that are i...
Anticipation
Make up 6 sentences in a grid. Ask learners if they agree/disagree with each one or if
they think the stateme...
Working with Texts
The following are extended interactions with texts
Process stages Teaching strategies
1.Activation of p...
Reading for Meaning Exercises
Marking a text Highlight main points. Annotate, underline or circle important parts/main poi...
Spoken Language: Exploratory Talk – Talking to Learn!
Wait Time
Do not rush in to give an answer to
seek an answer. Give l...
Threshold Concepts
Troublesome knowledge!
Exploratory talk can help
learners master threshold
concepts or tease out
troubl...
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Focuson literacy

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Focuson literacy

  1. 1. LITERACY FOCUS Comprehension Strategies: Application How will I engage learners before, during and after reading the text? Choose two strategies at each of these three phases e.g. Reading text Two things to do before, during the after you read the text Before During After Pre-teach key words Create bookmarks as you go through the text Graphic organisers Anticipation KWL Reconstructing the text through turning the paragraph into a diagram or drama Interacting with the text/words Key Words Visual-verbal square Match word with definition Bookmark – what do learners know before they read, what does the text remind them of, how can they turn the text into something else? KWL Strategy What I know What I want to know What I learned (what I will know at the end) K W L What I know What I want to know What I learned Before During After KWL is about tracking learning and interacting with the text. It is an instructional reading strategy that is used to guide learners through a text. Learners begin by brainstorming everything they know about a topic. This is recorded in the K column of the chart. Then they generate a list of questions about what they want to know
  2. 2. about the topic and these are listed in the W column of the chart. After reading, learners answer the questions that are in the W column. The new information that they have learned is recorded in the L column of the KWL chart. It is a good idea to have a common chart displayed on the board or screen in addition to supplying each learner with their own individual chart on which to record their information. Discuss with learners what they wrote in the K column. Encourage them to look for answers to their questions in the text as they read it. Discuss the information they recorded in the L column. Encourage them to research any questions in the W column that were not answered by the text. QuADS This is a framework for helping learners to ask questions of a text, seek answers, note details and provide a source for this information. A chart is used. QuADS moves beyond KWL in that is pushes learners to use research and recording skills. Qu A D S Learners list the questions they have about the topic in this column. Learners record the answers they arrive at in this column. Learners expand or support these answers by including details in this column. Learners identify the source of the answer in this column. Another example of interacting with text is the 3:2:1 Strategy 3 things I learned 2 things I found interesting 1 thing I still do not understand 3 2 1 3 things I learned 2 things I found interesting 1 thing I still do not understand      
  3. 3. Anticipation Make up 6 sentences in a grid. Ask learners if they agree/disagree with each one or if they think the statements are true or false (T/F). Will I agree with these after I read the text? The teacher directs the learners what to look out for. Scanning, skimming and summarizing Teach learners to skip over some material and still continue reading. Teach them how to skim read. Teach them the structure/sitemap of textbooks; indices and tables of contents. Make it explicit. Start with learners’ language. Skim to find the section. Scan to read the particular information in that section. Skim the dictionary to find a particular section. Scan the meaning of a word e.g. Kashrut. This can be applied to any text. This helps learners to access information more effectively and become faster readers. SQ3R Survey, Question, Read, Review, Recall Learners use skimming techniques to get a flavour of the text and identify questions they want answered by a more thorough reading. Oral activity – whole class initially. Approaching the text in an active way, anticipating and expecting that their questions will be answered, information found and meaning revealed. Survey S Question Q Read R Review R Recall/Recite R Look at the cover, title, illustrations, first sentence, headings, last paragraph. What do you know about the topic already? What is the author’s purpose in writing this? Is this fact or opinion? Is there any evidence of bias? Ask yourself what is this about What do I need to know? Are there questions I have to answer? Specific information I must find? What evidence is there for the points made? Read the passage carefully and identify the main ideas and details. Can you follow the sequence of events? Can you distinguish between facts and opinions? Reread the parts you think are important and any parts you are not sure of. Note key points. Summarise points for your classmate. This is done with the book closed. Have the questions been answered? Remember the key words or main points. Tell your classmate.
  4. 4. Working with Texts The following are extended interactions with texts Process stages Teaching strategies 1.Activation of previous knowledge Brainstorming Concept mapping KWL grids 2. Establishing purposes Question-setting KWL grids QuADs grids 3. Locating information Situating the learning in meaningful contexts 4. Adopting an appropriate strategy Metacognitive discussion Teacher modeling 5. Interacting with text DARTs Text marking Restructuring Genre exchange 6. Monitoring understanding Teacher modelling Strategy charts 7. Making a record Teacher modeling Writing frames Grids 8. Evaluating information Modelling Discussion of biased texts 9. Assisting memory Review Revisit Restructuring 10. Communicating information Writing in a range of genres Writing frames Non-fiction books Drama Other alternative outcomes
  5. 5. Reading for Meaning Exercises Marking a text Highlight main points. Annotate, underline or circle important parts/main points. Helps learners analyse, understand and remember content. Use colours for good visual effect. Use 2 colours to compare/contrast … advantages/disadvantages Scan text and find these four keywords… Underline in red the sentence that tells you why … Underline in blue the sentence that tells you where… Underline in black the sentence that tells you how … Place key word in margin as a reminder of content. Alternative to highlighting is to use stick notes. Give learners 5 post-its and ask them in pairs the most important key points of the text. Table/Diagram completion The learning is in the completing, the searching the text and the discussion around it – so don’t do it for them! Allow learners search the text. Use skimming and scanning to categorise and clarify their learning. In pairs, fill in a table with headings (like this table). Fill in the missing word To reinforce key words and key concepts that are relevant to the topic. Can supply key words or leave learners to search the text. Work in pairs. Cloze exercises Oral exercise for pairs/groups. Cloze = complete missing parts of a passage. Not an individual, written activity with predictable outcomes. It is an activity carried out orally and in groups of at least 2. Learners are given text with words deleted at regular intervals. Paragraph 1 is intact so they get a gist of the piece and a sense of the style and purpose. They read it silently or 1 reads it quietly for the group. When s/he comes to the first deletion s/he invites suggestions for the missing word. Justify it. There may be several right answers. It is all about talking, negotiating, clarifying, justifying. Whole class discuss solutions. Highlight clues to the solutions that are contained in the text. Sequencing – putting them in the right order Asking learners to put a ‘mixed up’ piece of text into the correct order – read the text carefully and make sense of the ideas contained within. These are the instructions for _____. The sequence is mixed up. Put the sentences in the correct order by matching the number in the table with the correct letter e.g. 1. C 2. 3. 4. Or write out the instructions for …. In the correct order in the table below: 1 2 3 4 Matching the headings Reading with the aim of completing a task will focus the reader on the text. Learners read the text closely, with the help of a task. Matching the heading is one such exercise that allows learners to focus their reading. Learners are asked to read a piece of text and choose appropriate labels or headings for each paragraph. The teacher provides headings for learners initially. These exercises can be increased in difficulty or simplified. Learners could come up with their own headings for the exercise. Read this paragraph about … How many paragraphs are there? Look at the list of words on the right. Each word is a heading for a paragraph in the story. Can you decide which heading goes with which paragraph?
  6. 6. Spoken Language: Exploratory Talk – Talking to Learn! Wait Time Do not rush in to give an answer to seek an answer. Give learners time to think or discuss the questions in pairs or small group and take feedback. Open Questions Ask questions worth pursuing – encourage reflection, analysis, compare and contrast, problem- solving and critical thinking. What might happen if… why do you think … offer a counter-argument… what argument could be presented from another perspective … etc. Answers Record learners’ ideas and use as a basis for further exploration. Use learners’ own vocabulary in taking and recording feedback and build on this. Thinking Time Real questions need to be considered before answering. Avoid Bidding Do not ask for a show of hands. Nominate learners to speak Use learners’ answers to develop further feedback from others. Extended Exchanges Use extended exchanges to help learners to refine their own ideas and to think critically. Author Ideas When ideas are recorded on the board identify the source/author of each idea. Validates learners’ ideas or feedback Homework Set homework based on ideas generated by learners and related to class discussion. Follow Through Classroom and homework should follow on from ideas developed and refined through exploratory talk. Avoid simple recall questions. Foster higher-order thinking and problem-solving. Encourage learners to explore perspectives, apply to various contexts, identify the relevance of the learning for their lives and for others.
  7. 7. Threshold Concepts Troublesome knowledge! Exploratory talk can help learners master threshold concepts or tease out troublesome knowledge.

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