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  •   JUNIOR  CERTIFICATE                       JEWISH  STUDIES   SECTION  4:    HOLY  PLACES    DRAFT  DOCUMENT   Louise  O'Sullivan  IBVM  
  •   2       SECTION  4   Holy  Places   Topic  4.1   The  Jerusalem  Temple   Description  of   Topic   The  biblical  account  of  the  building  and  decoration  of  the   Temple;  The  role  of  Priests  and  Levites  in  the  Temple  service;   The  purpose  and  nature  of  the  sacrificial  service;  The   significance  of  the  Jerusalem  Temple  as  the  central  holy  place;   The  relationship  between  Temple  and  Torah   The  destruction  of  the  first  Temple  by  Nebuchadnezzar  in  586   BCE  and  the  subsequent  exile  of  the  Jerusalem  inhabitants  to   Babylon  (Iraq)The  consequences  of  this  exile;  The  rebuilding  of   the  Temple  in  Jerusalem;  The  destruction  of  the  second  Temple   by  the  Romans  70  CE;  The  consequences  of  the  destruction  of   the  second  Temple   Learning   Outcomes   Identify  and  summarise  the  biblical  account  of  the  building  and   decoration  of  the  Temple;  explain  the  role  played  by  the  Priests   and  Levites  in  the  Temple  service;  explain  the  purpose  and   nature  of  sacrificial  service;  discuss  the  importance  of  the   Temple  in  ancient  Judaism  as  the  central  holy  place;  explain  the   link  between  Temple  and  Torah;  trace  the  events  surrounding   the  destruction  and  rebuilding  of  the  first  Temple  and  the   subsequent  exile  to  Babylon;  give  three  long-­‐lasting  effects  of   the  exile;  describe  when  and  how  the  second  Temple  came  to  be   built;  explain  when  and  why  the  second  Temple  was  destroyed;   explain  why  prayer  substituted  Temple  sacrifices  after  the   destruction  of  the  second  Temple;  explain,  with  examples,  how   the  dispersal  of  Jewish  people  to  Spain,  Europe,  Asia,  N.  Africa   after  the  destruction  of  the  second  Temple  has  impacted  on   diverse  customs,  music,  food,  etc,  amongst  the  Sephardic  and   Ashkenazic  cultures  to  the  present  time;  compare  the  first   Temple  and  the  second  Temple      
  •   3         Significance  of  the  Temple  as  the  Central  Holy  Place     1. The  Temple  was  regarded  as  a  national  centre.     2. It  was  the  site  of  revelation  of  Divine  Presence  and  the  preferred  place  for   prayer.     3. The   Temple   became   a   religious   centre   particularly   after   the   death   of   Solomon.     People   worshipped   idols   in   local   high   places.     This   led   to   increased  emphasis  on  the  special  significance  of  the  Temple  in  Jerusalem   and,  in  the  reign  of  Hezekiah  (715-­‐687  BCE)  and  Josiah  (641-­‐609  BCE),  to   the  prohibition  of  the  use  of  high  places  and  centralization  of  worship  in   the  Temple.     4. Enhanced  significance  of  the  Temple  is  apparent  in  the  statements  of  the   prophets:         a. Mt   Zion   is   the   mountain   of   the   Lord,   the   holy   mountain   (Isaiah,   Joel,  Zephaniah)   b. where  the  Lord  dwells  (Ps.  74).   c. The  Temple  is  the  house  of  the  G-­‐d  of  Jacb  and  the  Lord’  s  house   (Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  Ezekiel,  Joel,  Micah,  Haggai).       d. The  Temple  is  the  place  where  G-­‐d’s  name  is  called  (Jeremiah),  ‘a   glorious  throne  set  on  high  from  the  beginning’  (Jeremiah)   e. The  place  of  the  Divine  Presence  (Ezekiel,  Joel,  Habakkuk)   f.  The   place   from   which   the   Divine   Presence   reveals   itself   to   the   prophets.   g. The   place   of   prayer   for   Israel   and   for   all   the   nations   (Isaiah,   Jeremiah)         5. With   the   destruction   of   the   Temple,   prophecy   focused   on   its   reconstruction:     Ezekiel   has   a   vision   for   a   future   Temple;   Haggai   and   Zechariah   advocate   its   reconstruction   in   their   own   day;   and   Malachi   emphasises  its  reconstruction  and  the  purification  of  its  worship.                           View slide
  •   4     Some  Links  between  the  Temple  and  the  Torah     Adapted  from  Dan  Cohn-­‐Sherbok,  Judaism:    History,  Belief  and  Practice,  (pp.483-­‐ 485)   and   ‘The   Lost   Ark   of   the   Covenant’   from   http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/ark.html     1.  The  Akedah,  the  binding  of  his  Abraham’s  son   Isaac     The  naming  of  ‘the  land  of  Moriah’  (Genesis  22)   as  the  place  where  the  sacrifice  occurred  is  also   the  traditional  location  of  the  site  of  the  Temple   (II  Chronicles  3:1).    This  is  a  significant  event  in   Judaism.       2.     Many   of   the   Mitzvot   (commandments)   in   the   Torah   relate   to   the   Temple   sacrifices,   services,   and   various   priestly   functions.     (See   some   of   the   prescriptions  in  the  Book  of  Leviticus.)       3.  Moses  and  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant     In   Exodus   Chapters   25-­‐27,   it   is   told   that   Moses   made   a   portable   shrine,   tabernacle,  or  sanctuary  following  G-­‐d’s  instructions.    The  key  elements  of  this   Tabernacle   are   included   in   the   construction   of   Solomon’s   Temple.     This   temporary  structure  travelled  with  the  Israelites  in  their  journeys  through  the   desert.    It  was  placed  in  the  centre  of  the  camp  in  an  open  courtyard  which  was   1,000   cubits   by   50   cubits   in   size.1     The   fence   surrounding   the   courtyard   was   made  of  wooden  pillars  from  which  a  cloth  curtain  was  suspended.    Located  in   the  eastern  half  of  the  courtyard,  the  sanctuary  measured  30  cubits  by  10  cubits.     In  the  courtyard  there  was  also  an  outer  altar  on  which  sacrifices  were  offered,   as  well  as  a  brass  washing  facility  for  priests.   The   Tabernacle   was   the   resting   place   for   the   Ark,   and   also   contained   other   vessels   that   were   used   in   the   physical   worship   of   God.   The   Biblical   commentators  argue  over  why  G-­‐d  commanded  Moses  to  build  a  Tabernacle  in   the  first  place.    According  to  Rashi  (Ex.  31:18),  G-­‐d  realised  after  the  sin  of  the   Golden   Calf   that   the   Israelites   needed   an   outlet   for   physical   worship,   and   commanded   that   they   build   the   Tabernacle   as   a   way   of   expressing   their   own   need  for  physical  representation  of  G-­‐d.  According  to  Nachmanides  (Ex.  25:1),   however,  the  Jews  were  commanded  to  build  the  Tabernacle  even  before  the  sin   of  the  Golden  Calf;  rather  than  filling  a  human  need,  the  Tabernacle  was  G-­d's   method  of  achieving  continuous  revelation  in  the  Israelites'  camp.  These  two   opinions   as   to   whether   the   Tabernacles,   and   the   Temples   that   followed   them,                                                                                                                   1  A  cubit  is  measured  from  the  tip  of  the  middle  finger  to  the  elbow  or  from  the  base  of  the  hand   to  the  elbow.    It  ranges  between  17  and  22  inches  in  length  or  43-­‐56  centimetres.       View slide
  •   5   were   necessary   to   demonstrate   the   controversial   role   of   physical   worship   in   Judaism  as  a  whole.   At  the  end  of  the  sanctuary  was  the  Holy  of  Holies  which  was  separated  by  a   veil   hanging   on   five   wooden   pillars   on   which   were   woven   images   of   the   cherubim.    Inside  the  Holy  of  Holies  was  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant,  the  table  on   which   the   shewbread   was   placed,   the   incense   altar,   and   the   menorah   (the   eight-­‐branch  candelabrum).       The   Ark   was   a   box   with   the   dimensions   of   two-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half   cubits   in   length,   by   one-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half   cubits   in   heights,   by   one-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half   cubits   in   width   (a   cubit   is   about  18  inches).  It  was  constructed  of  acacia  wood,  and  was  plated  with  pure   gold,  inside  and  out.  On  the  bottom  of  the  box,  four  gold  rings  were  attached,   through  which  two  poles,  also  made  of  acacia  and  coated  in  gold,  were  put.    The   family   of   Kehath,   of   the   tribe   of   Levi,   would   carry   the   ark   on   their   shoulders   using  these  poles.    Covering  the  box  was  the  kapporet,  a  pure  gold  covering  that   was  two-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half  by  one-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half  cubits.  Attached  to  the  kapporet  were  two   sculpted  Cherubs,  also  made  of  pure  gold.  The  two  Cherubs  faced  one  another,   and  their  wings,  which  wrapped  around  their  bodies,  touched  between  them.   The  contents  of  the  Ark  have  been  debated  through  the  centuries.  The  general   consensus   is   that   the   first   tablets   containing   the  Ten   Commandments,   which   were   broken   by   Moses,   and   the   second   tablets,   which   remained   intact,   were   contained  in  the  Ark  (Bava  Batra  14b).  According  to  one  opinion  in  the  Talmud,   both   Tablets   were   together   in   the   Ark;   according   to   another,   there   were   two   Arks,  and  each  contained  one  set  of  Tablets  (Berakhot  8b).    The  Ark  was  built  by   Bezalel,   son   of   Uri,   son   of   Hur,   who   constructed   the   entire   Tabernacle   –   the   portable  Temple  used  in  the  desert  and  during  the  conquest  of  the  land  of  Israel.                                            
  •   6           The  First  Temple,  Solomon’s  Temple:    1  Kings  6   Biblical  Text     1  Kings  6    (From  the  New  International  Version,  NIV)     Solomon  Builds  the  Temple(A)   6  In  the  four  hundred  and  eightieth[a]  year  after  the  Israelites  came  out  of  Egypt,   in  the  fourth  year  of  Solomon’s  reign  over  Israel,  in  the  month  of  Ziv,  the  second   month,(B)  he  began  to  build  the  temple  of  the  Lord.(C)   2  The   temple   (D)   that   King   Solomon   built   for   the   Lord   was   sixty   cubits   long,   twenty  wide  and  thirty  high.[b]  3  The  portico(E)  at  the  front  of  the  main  hall  of   the   temple   extended   the   width   of   the   temple,   that   is   twenty   cubits,[c]   and   projected   ten   cubits[d]   from   the   front   of   the   temple.   4  He   made   narrow   windows(F)  high  up  in  the  temple  walls.  5  Against  the  walls  of  the  main  hall  and   inner   sanctuary   he   built   a   structure   around   the   building,   in   which   there   were   side  rooms.(G)  6  The  lowest  floor  was  five  cubits[e]  wide,  the  middle  floor  six   cubits[f]  and  the  third  floor  seven.[g]  He  made  offset  ledges  around  the  outside   of  the  temple  so  that  nothing  would  be  inserted  into  the  temple  walls.   7  In  building  the  temple,  only  blocks  dressed(H)  at  the  quarry  were  used,  and  no   hammer,  chisel  or  any  other  iron  tool(I)  was  heard  at  the  temple  site  while  it  was   being  built.   8  The   entrance   to   the   lowest[h]   floor   was   on   the   south   side   of   the   temple;   a   stairway  led  up  to  the  middle  level  and  from  there  to  the  third.  9  So  he  built  the   temple  and  completed  it,  roofing  it  with  beams  and  cedar(J)  planks.  10  And  he   built  the  side  rooms  all  along  the  temple.  The  height  of  each  was  five  cubits,  and   they  were  attached  to  the  temple  by  beams  of  cedar.   11  The  word  of  the  Lord  came(K)  to  Solomon:  12  “As  for  this  temple  you  are   building,   if   you   follow   my   decrees,   observe   my   laws   and   keep   all   my   commands(L)  and  obey  them,  I  will  fulfill  through  you  the  promise(M)  I  gave  to   David   your   father.   13  And   I   will   live   among   the   Israelites   and   will   not   abandon(N)  my  people  Israel.”   14  So  Solomon(O)  built  the  temple  and  completed(P)  it.  15  He  lined  its  interior   walls   with   cedar   boards,   paneling   them   from   the   floor   of   the   temple   to   the   ceiling,(Q)  and  covered  the  floor  of  the  temple  with  planks  of  juniper.(R)  16  He   partitioned  off  twenty  cubits  at  the  rear  of  the  temple  with  cedar  boards  from   floor   to   ceiling   to   form   within   the   temple   an   inner   sanctuary,   the   Most   Holy   Place.(S)  17  The  main  hall  in  front  of  this  room  was  forty  cubits[i]  long.  18  The   inside   of   the   temple   was   cedar,(T)   carved   with   gourds   and   open   flowers.  
  •   7   Everything  was  cedar;  no  stone  was  to  be  seen.   19  He  prepared  the  inner  sanctuary(U)  within  the  temple  to  set  the  ark  of  the   covenant(V)   of   the   Lord   there.   20  The   inner   sanctuary(W)   was   twenty   cubits   long,  twenty  wide  and  twenty  high.  He  overlaid  the  inside  with  pure  gold,  and  he   also  overlaid  the  altar  of  cedar.(X)  21  Solomon  covered  the  inside  of  the  temple   with   pure   gold,   and   he   extended   gold   chains   across   the   front   of   the   inner   sanctuary,  which  was  overlaid  with  gold.  22  So  he  overlaid  the  whole  interior   with   gold.   He   also   overlaid   with   gold   the   altar   that   belonged   to   the   inner   sanctuary.   23  For   the   inner   sanctuary   he   made   a   pair   of   cherubim(Y)   out   of   olive   wood,   each  ten  cubits  high.  24  One  wing  of  the  first  cherub  was  five  cubits  long,  and  the   other   wing   five   cubits—ten   cubits   from   wing   tip   to   wing   tip.   25  The   second   cherub  also  measured  ten  cubits,  for  the  two  cherubim  were  identical  in  size  and   shape.   26  The   height   of   each   cherub   was   ten   cubits.   27  He   placed   the   cherubim(Z)  inside  the  innermost  room  of  the  temple,  with  their  wings  spread   out.   The   wing   of   one   cherub   touched   one   wall,   while   the   wing   of   the   other   touched  the  other  wall,  and  their  wings  touched  each  other  in  the  middle  of  the   room.  28  He  overlaid  the  cherubim  with  gold.   29  On  the  walls(AA)  all  around  the  temple,  in  both  the  inner  and  outer  rooms,  he   carved   cherubim,(AB)   palm   trees   and   open   flowers.   30  He   also   covered   the   floors  of  both  the  inner  and  outer  rooms  of  the  temple  with  gold.   31  For  the  entrance  to  the  inner  sanctuary  he  made  doors  out  of  olive  wood  that   were   one   fifth   of   the   width   of   the   sanctuary.   32  And   on   the   two   olive-­‐wood   doors(AC)  he  carved  cherubim,  palm  trees  and  open  flowers,  and  overlaid  the   cherubim   and   palm   trees   with   hammered   gold.   33  In   the   same   way,   for   the   entrance  to  the  main  hall  he  made  doorframes  out  of  olive  wood  that  were  one   fourth  of  the  width  of  the  hall.  34  He  also  made  two  doors  out  of  juniper  wood,   each   having   two   leaves   that   turned   in   sockets.   35  He   carved   cherubim,   palm   trees  and  open  flowers  on  them  and  overlaid  them  with  gold  hammered  evenly   over  the  carvings.   36  And  he  built  the  inner  courtyard(AD)  of  three  courses(AE)  of  dressed  stone   and  one  course  of  trimmed  cedar  beams.   37  The  foundation  of  the  temple  of  the  Lord  was  laid  in  the  fourth  year,  in  the   month  of  Ziv.  38  In  the  eleventh  year  in  the  month  of  Bul,  the  eighth  month,  the   temple  was  finished  in  all  its  details(AF)  according  to  its  specifications.(AG)  He   had  spent  seven  years  building  it.   Footnotes:   a. 1  Kings  6:1  Hebrew;  Septuagint  four  hundred  and  fortieth   b. 1  Kings  6:2  That  is,  about  90  feet  long,  30  feet  wide  and  45  feet  high  or  about  27  meters  long,  9  meters  wide  and  14   meters  high   c. 1  Kings  6:3  That  is,  about  30  feet  or  about  9  meters;  also  in  verses  16  and  20   d. 1  Kings  6:3  That  is,  about  15  feet  or  about  4.5  meters;  also  in  verses  23-­‐26   e. 1  Kings  6:6  That  is,  about  7  1/2  feet  or  about  2.3  meters;  also  in  verses  10  and  24   f. 1  Kings  6:6  That  is,  about  9  feet  or  about  2.7  meters  
  •   8   g. 1  Kings  6:6  That  is,  about  11  feet  or  about  3.2  meters   h. 1  Kings  6:8  Septuagint;  Hebrew  middle   i. 1  Kings  6:17  That  is,  about  60  feet  or  about  18  meters     Cross  references:   A. 1  Kings  6:1  :  6:1-­‐29pp  —  2Ch  3:1-­‐14   B. 1  Kings  6:1  :  Ezr  3:8   C. 1  Kings  6:1  :  Ezr  5:11   D. 1  Kings  6:2  :  Ex  26:1   E. 1  Kings  6:3  :  Eze  40:49   F. 1  Kings  6:4  :  Eze  41:16   G. 1  Kings  6:5  :  Jer  35:2;  Eze  41:5-­‐6   H. 1  Kings  6:7  :  S  Ex  20:25   I. 1  Kings  6:7  :  S  Dt  27:5   J. 1  Kings  6:9  :  SS  1:17   K. 1  Kings  6:11  :  1Ki  12:22;  13:20;  16:1,  7;  17:2;  21:17;  Jer  40:1   L. 1  Kings  6:12  :  1Ki  11:10   M. 1  Kings  6:12  :  2Sa  7:12-­‐16;  1Ki  9:5   N. 1  Kings  6:13  :  S  Lev  26:11;  S  Dt  31:6;  Jn  14:18;  Heb  13:5   O. 1  Kings  6:14  :  Ac  7:47   P. 1  Kings  6:14  :  1Ch  28:20;  2Ch  5:1   Q. 1  Kings  6:15  :  1Ki  7:7   R. 1  Kings  6:15  :  Eze  41:15-­‐16   S. 1  Kings  6:16  :  S  Ex  26:33   T. 1  Kings  6:18  :  ver  29;  Ps  74:6;  Eze  41:18   U. 1  Kings  6:19  :  1Ki  8:6   V. 1  Kings  6:19  :  S  Ex  25:10;  S  1Sa  3:3   W. 1  Kings  6:20  :  Eze  41:3-­‐4   X. 1  Kings  6:20  :  S  Ex  30:1   Y. 1  Kings  6:23  :  S  Ex  37:1-­‐9   Z. 1  Kings  6:27  :  S  Ge  3:24;  S  Ex  25:18   AA. 1  Kings  6:29  :  S  ver  18   BB. 1  Kings  6:29  :  ver  32,  35;  Eze  41:18,  25   CC.1  Kings  6:32  :  Eze  41:23   DD. 1  Kings  6:36  :  2Ch  4:9   EE.1  Kings  6:36  :  1Ki  7:12;  Ezr  6:4   FF.1  Kings  6:38  :  1Ch  28:19   GG. 1  Kings  6:38  :  Ex  25:9;  Heb  8:5             BACKGROUND     The  most  common  biblical  names  for  the  Temple  are:       "the  House  of  the  Lord"  (I  Kings  3:1)     "the  House  of  G-­‐d"  (Dan.  1:2)     "the  Holy  Temple"  (Jonah  2:5[4])     "the  Temple  of  the  Lord"  (II  Kings  24:13)     "the  Sanctuary"  (Ezek.  45:4)       In  the  Mishnah  (e.g.,  Ma'as.  Sh.  5:2)  and  Tosefta  (e.g.,  Tosef.,  Ber.  3:16),  the  name   commonly  used  is  Beit  (House)  ha-­Mikdash  (Miqdash),  which  occurs  only  once  in   the  Bible  (II  Chron.  36:7).       Following   the   destruction   of   Shiloh   (c.   1050   BCE),the   capital   of   Israel   before   Jerusalem,  the  need  for  a  central  Temple  was  felt.      For  a  generation  and  more,   the   ark   wandered   from   place   to   place   until   David   finally   brought   it   to   Mount   Zion,  where  he  erected  a  tent  for  it  (II  Sam.  6:17).      The  high  places  set  up  at  Nob,   north   of   Jerusalem,   (I   Sam.   21),   at   Gibeon,   which   is   8   miles   north-­‐west   of  
  •   9   Jerusalem,   (I   Kings   3:4),   and   at   other   sites,   e.g.,   Beth-­‐El,   12   miles   north   of   Jerusalem,  and  Mizpah,  between  5  and  8  miles  north  of  Jerusalem,  were  unable   to   serve   as   a   unifying   center   for   the   divided   tribes   who   were   competing   for   national  supremacy  (See  Map  below  and  locate  these  places).                 These  high  places  could  not,  in  consequence,  become  the  permanent  site  for  the   ark.  However,  with  the  capture  of  Jerusalem  (c.1000  BCE)  and  the  establishment   of  the  royal  palace  on  Mount  Zion  by  David,  a  suitable  place  for  this  purpose  was   found.           Jerusalem  was  situated  on  the  border  between  the  Rachel  tribes  and  the  Leah   tribes;  and  on  the  border  between  Judah,  the  tribe  to  which  David  belonged,  and   that  of  Benjamin,  the  tribe  from  which  sprang  Saul,  the  first  king  of  Israel.     As  a  newly  conquered  city,  it  had  not  been  incorporated  into  the  territory  of  any   one  tribe.  By  its  very  nature  it  was,  therefore,  the  one  and  only  place  likely  to   satisfy  the  claims  of  all  the  tribes.       The  threshing  floor  of  Araunah  the  Jebusite  was  chosen  as  the  site  of  the  Temple.     There  it  was  that  David  had  built  an  altar  to  check  a  plague  that  had  broken  out   among  the  people  (II  Sam.  24;  I  Chron.  21).  From  II  Chronicles  3:1,  it  appears  that   the  spot  selected  for  the  altar  was  also  the  place  which  tradition  had  identified  as   the  site  of  the  binding  of  Abraham‘s  son,  Isaac.    David  had  wanted  to  build  the   Temple  there,  but,  according  to  the  biblical  narrative,  he  was  dissuaded  by  the   prophet  Nathan  (II  Sam.  7)  on  the  grounds  that  it  would  be  more  appropriate  to   leave  the  project  for  his  son,  Solomon.      
  •   10     THE  FIRST  TEMPLE   Solomon  pursued  the  task  and  completed  it  with  the  assistance  of  King  Hiram  of   Tyre  under  the  supervision  of  a  craftsman  who  was  the  son  of  "a  man  of  Tyre"   and   "of   a   widow   of   the   tribe   of   Naphtali"   (I   Kings   7:14;   "of   a   woman   of   the   daughters  of  Dan,"  according  to  II  Chron.  2:13  [14]).     The   copper   required   for   the   columns   and   the   vessels   came   from   Solomon's   copper  mines  in  Edom,  on  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea  (I  Kings  7:46).  It  was  from   Solomon's   commercial   enterprises   and   especially   from   David's   war   booty   that   the  ample  silver  needed  for  the  project  was  acquired.       Thirty  thousand  Israelites  took  part  in  the  operation  (I  Kings  5:27–32),  together   with  150,000  Canaanites  who  served  as  porters  and  quarrymen  (II  Chron.  2:16,   17;   cf.   I   Kings   9:20–22),   and   "chief   officers   who   were   over   the   work,"   who   numbered  3,300  men  (I  Kings  5:30;  3,600  in  II  Chron.  2:17  [16]).       The  work  was  begun  in  the  month  of  Iyyar  in  the  fourth  year  of  Solomon's  reign   and   was   completed   in   the   11th   year   of   his   reign   in   the   month   of   Bul   (=   Marḥeshvan,  I  Kings  6:1,  38).  The  dedication  of  the  Temple,  which  took  place  in   the  presence  of  the  elders  of  Israel,  the  heads  of  the  tribes,  the  "leaders  of  the   fathers'   houses"   (I   Kings   8:1–2;   II   Chron.   5:2–3),   and   "a   great   assembly,   from   Lebo-­‐Hamath  unto  the  Brook  of  Egypt,"  lasted  14  days  (I  Kings  8:65;  II  Chron.   7:8).         THE  CONSTRUCTION  OF  THE  TEMPLE     The  two  principal  sources  for  the  plan  of  the  First  Temple  erected  on  Mt  Moriah   in  Jerusalem  between  the  fourth  and  the  11th  years  of  Solomon's  reign  are  I  Kings   6–8  and  II  Chronicles  2–4.       These  differ  in  several  important  details;  in  addition  to  the  Book  of  Kings,  the   editor   of   Chronicles   apparently   used   another   source   whose   description   of   the   Temple  plan  varied  considerably.  A  third  independent  description  is  found  in  the   Book  of  Ezekiel  (40ff.).   The   Temple   was   not   originally   intended   to   serve   as   a   place   of   prayer,   but   to   house  (or  as  an  abode  for)  the  ark  of  the  Lord,  symbol  of  the  Covenant  between   the  people  and  its  G-­‐d  (I  Kings  8:21).       As  a  tabernacle  it  was  not  necessary  for  it  to  be  large.  Its  structure  had  to  meet   the  requirements  of  a  symbolic  tabernacle  of  G-­‐d  and  a  place  of  storage  for  the   sacred  furniture  and  the  offerings  brought  to  G-­‐d  by  His  worshipers.       As  a  place  for  divine  worship  the  Temple  was  not  judged  by  its  size  but  by  the   splendor   and   enormity   of   its   construction   and,   indeed,   the   dimensions   of   the   main  hall  of  the  First  Temple,  which  in  II  Chronicles  2:4[5]  is  called  "great,"  did   not  exceed  40  ×  20  cubits  (approximately  66  ×  33  ft.).       It  should  be  noted  that  the  roof  of  the  Temple  was  not  supported  by  pillars  set  in  
  •   11   the  center  of  the  room  as  was  the  practice  in  palaces  of  this  period  and  its  width   was   the   maximum   which   was   structurally   possible.   Without   pillars   the   rooms   were  impressive  in  their  spaciousness.       The  Temple  was  also  relatively  high  –  30  cubits  (about  50  ft.)  –  much  taller  than   most  Canaanite  temples.         The  courtyard  of  the  Temple,  however,  had  to  be  extensive,  for  it  served  as  the   place  of  assembly  for  the  public  which  came  to  inquire  of  God,  to  bring  sacrifices,   and  to  pray.     The  "House  of  the  Lord"  was  built  originally  by  Solomon  as  a  royal  chapel,  like   the  temples  which  kings  in  the  Near  East  built  adjoining  their  palaces.       The   Temple   of   Solomon,   however,   was   quickly   transformed   into   a   national   religious  center  and  the  symbol  of  the  Covenant  between  the  people  of  Israel  and   its  G-­‐d.     The  Temple  was  oblong  in  shape  and  composed  of  three  sections  of  equal  width:   a  porch  or  hall  (the  vestibule,  ʾulam),   a  main  room  for  divine  service  heikhal  (hekhal),   and  the  "Holy  of  Holies"  (devir).     According  to  Ezekiel  41:13–14,  the  Temple  was  100  cubits  (about  165  ft.)  long   and  50  cubits  wide  (without  the  platform  on  which  it  was  built).       Adding  together  the  dimensions  of  the  rooms  of  the  Temple,  the  inner  and  outer   wall,  the  width  of  the  storehouse  –  a  three-­‐story  side  structure  (yaẓiʿa)  divided   into  cells  and  chambers  which  surrounded  the  Temple  on  three  sides  –  and  its   walls,  brings  us  almost  exactly  to  the  dimensions  mentioned  by  Ezekiel.       The  2:1  proportion  between  the  length  and  width  of  the  outer  measurements  of   the  Temple  was  also  followed  in  the  interior:       the  PORCH  measured  20  cubits  in  width  and  ten  cubits  in  length  (1:2);       the  MAIN  HALL,  40  cubits  in  length  and  20  cubits  in  width  (2:1);       while  the  HOLY  OF  HOLIES  was  a  square  (1:1).       The  20  cubits  width  of  the  Temple  was  almost  the  maximum  width  which  could   be   roofed   without   supporting   pillars.   Thus   the   dimensions   were   arrived   at   through  precise  planning.         THE  PORCH   The   function   of   the   porch   (Heb.   ʾulam;   apparently   borrowed   from   Akk.   ellamu,   "front")   was   to   separate   the   sacred   precinct   from   the   profane.    
  •   12     The  Septuagint  (Greek)  version  of  Ezekiel  40:49  cites  the  number  of  steps  which   led   to   the   Temple:   "and   they   ascended   it   by   ten   [ʿeser]   steps"   instead   of   the   original  text  "and  it  was  by  steps  that  [ʾasher]  it  was  ascended."     The  width  of  the  porch  –  alongside  of  which  the  entrance  was  located  –  was  20   cubits,  and  its  depth  was  10  cubits.  The  height  of  the  porch  is  not  certain.  The   only  source  which  mentions  its  height  –  120  cubits  –  is  II  Chronicles  3:4  and  the   text  is  apparently  corrupt.       Some  suggest  that  the  porch  rose  above  the  main   hall,   like   a   tower,   following   the   description   in   II   Chronicles   (this   interpretation   was   followed   by   the  builders  of  the  Second  Temple).       Others  lower  the  porch  and  still  others  conclude   from  the  silence  on  this  point  in  the  main  source   in  the  Book  of  Kings  that  the  height  of  the  porch   was  the  same  as  the  general  height  of  the  building   (30   cubits).   On   both   sides   of   the   entrance   stood   supporting  pillars  (Jachin  and  Boaz)  each  3  cubits   wide  and  5  cubits  thick;  the  width  of  the  entrance   gate  was  14  cubits  (23  ft.).         MAIN  HALL  (HEKHAL)  OR  HOLY  PLACE     The  main  room  was  entered  from  the  porch  through  a  gate,  10  cubits  wide,  in   which  two  doors  of  cypress  wood  were  set.      The  doorposts,  made  of  olive   wood,  were  apparently  composed  of  four  frames  set  one  within  the  other.      The   thickness  of  the  walls  between  the  porch  and  the  hekhal  was  6  cubits.  The  latter   was  the  largest  chamber  of  the  Temple,  measuring  40  ×  20  cubits  (approximately   66  ×  33  ft.)  ×  30  cubits  in  height.       The  hekhal  served  as  the  main  chamber  for  divine  service.  The  windows  of  the   hekhal   were   set   in   its   upper   part.   In   the   Bible   they   are   called   "windows   with   recessed  frames"  (I  Kings  6:4)  wide  on  the  outside  and  narrowing  toward  the   inside,  an  effect  achieved  by  the  use  of  window  frames  set  one  within  the  other.         HOLY  OF  HOLIES  (DEVIR)   The   Holy   of   Holies,   the   rear   part   of   the   Temple,   was   designed   to   serve   as   a   tabernacle   for   the   ark   of   the   Covenant   and   the   cherubim.     Its   interior   measurements  were  20  ×  20  ×  20  cubits.      It  may  be  assumed  that  the  raised  floor   of  the  Holy  of  Holies  served  as  a  sort  of  platform  on  which  stood  the  ark  and  the   cherubim  (a  hint  of  this  may  be  found  in  Isa.  6:1).       The  jambs  (vertical  portion  of  door-­‐frame)  of  the  devir  gate,  in  which  olive  wood   doors  were  set,  were  constructed  like  the  hekhal  gate  and  the  Temple  windows,  
  •   13   that   is,   of   five   frames   set   one   within   the   other   (I   Kings   6:31).   There   were   no   windows  in  the  Holy  of  Holies.     Josephus,  the  historian,  reported,  in  The  Antiquity  of  the  Jews,  that  the  vessels  in   the   Temple   were   composed   of   Orichalcum   (an   ancient   gold-­‐coloured   bronze   alloy,  second  in  value  to  gold).    According  to  I  Kings  7:48  there  stood  before  the   Holy  of  Holies  a  golden  altar  of  incense  and  a  table  for  showbread.  This  table  was   of  gold,  as  were  the  five  candlesticks  at  either  side  of  it.    The  implements  for  the   care  of  candles  –  tongs,  snuffers,  basins  and  fire-­‐pans  –  were  of  gold.    The  door   hinges  were  also  in  gold.         R.  de  Vaux  maintains  that  the  wall  between  the  main  hall  and  the  Holy  of  Holies   was  merely  a  thin  partition  of  cedarwood,  since  the  Bible  treats  the  hekhal  and   the  Holy  of  Holies  as  one  unit  and  gives  their  combined  length  in  one  figure  –  60   cubits,  with  that  of  the  hekhal  40  cubits,  and  that  of  the  Holy  of  Holies  20  cubits.       THE  ADJACENT  BUILDING  (YAZI’AH)   This  building,  whose  walls  ran  parallel  to  those  of  the  Temple  and  surrounded  it   on  all  sides  except  the  front,  was  of  three  stories  of  varying  widths.  The  inner   width  of  the  rooms  of  the  lowest  storey  was  5  cubits  and  to  lay  the  beams  of  the   roof  which  formed  the  floor  of  the  second  storey,  the  thickness  of  the  walls  was   reduced  so  that  the  width  of  the  rooms  of  the  second  storey  was  6  cubits  and  of   the  third  story,  7  cubits.  Each  storey  was  divided  into  about  30  chambers.       The  entrance  to  this  side  structure  was,  according  to  I  Kings  6:8,  on  the  south   side,  while,  according  to  Ezekiel  41:5–6,  it  was  entered  on  both  sides.  The  upper   storeys   were   reached   by   lulim,   i.e.,   apertures   in   the   shape   of   holes.   In   this   building  the  numerous  Temple  vessels,  utensils,  and  treasures  were  stored.  The   building  was  a  little  over  15  cubits  high  with  each  storey  5  cubits  (about  8.2  ft.)   high.       TEMPLE  FURNITURE     ALTARS   The  small  altar  (2  ×  2  ×  3  cubits),  made  of  cedar  and  overlaid  with  gold,  stood   before  the  entrance  to  the  Holy  of  Holies.  It  resembled  the  altars  of  the  ancient   Canaanite  temples.  The  large,  main  altar  for  burnt  sacrifices  and  the  fat  of  peace   offerings,  was  made  of  bronze  and  stood  in  the  court  of  the  Temple,  before  the   porch  (II  Chron.  8:12).       The  large  altar  at  Jerusalem  was  10  cubits  high  and  was  built   in  stepped  tiers.  The  lowest  tier,  which  was  sunk  in  the  earth   and  was  called  "the  base  on  the  ground"  (Ezek.  43:14),  was   set  off  from  the  floor  of  the  court  by  a  channel,  and  measured   20  ×  20  cubits.  The  length  and  width  of  the  three  tiers  above   it  were  16  ×  16,  14  ×  14,  and  12  ×  12  cubits,  respectively;  the   height  of  the  lowest  tier  was  2  cubits;  that  of  the  middle  4   cubits;  and  that  of  the  uppermost,  called  harʾel,  4  cubits.    
  •   14   Set  at  the  four  corners  of  the  harʾel  were  "horns,"  exactly  as  on  small  Canaanite   incense  altars.       THE  BRAZEN  SEA   The   Brazen   Sea   was   10   cubits   in   diameter   and   5   cubits   high,  it  could  hold  approximately  1,765.78  cu.  ft.  of  water.   However,  in  the  light  of  the  statement  in  I  Kings  7:26  that   the  "sea"  held  2,000  bath  (II  Chron.  4:5  has  3,000  bath),   i.e.,  nearly  2,825.25  cu.  ft.,  it  may  be  assumed  that  it  had   sharply   convex   sides.   From   the   thickness   of   its   walls   (approximately   7.5   cm.,   about   3   in.)   its   weight   can   be   calculated  at  some  33  tons.       Some  scholars  believe  that  both  the  form  and  name  of  the  vessel  are  connected   with   the   mythological   "sea“.   The   division   of   the   12   oxen,   on   which   the   "sea"   stood,   into   four   groups   of   three,   each   of   which   faced   one   of   the   points   of   the   compass,  has  been  interpreted  as  symbolic  of  the  four  seasons.         THE  COLUMNS   W.F.  Albright  has  suggested  that  they  should  be  regarded  as  two  huge  incense   stands.  R.B.Y.  Scott  –  that  the  words  yakhin  (Jachin)  and  boʿaz  (or  be-­ʿoz)  were   the  first  words  of  inscriptions  engraved  on  the  columns:    ‘May  the  Lord  establish   (yakhin)   the   throne   of   David   and   his   kingdom   for   his   seed   forever’   or   ‘In   the   strength  (bo-­‐’az)  of  the  Lord  shall  the  king  rejoice.’  (See  the  pillars  at  the  porch   above)     BASES  AND  LAVERS   Archaeological  discoveries  have  helped  greatly  toward  understanding  the  design   of   the   ten   brass   bases   described   in   detail   in   the   Book   of   Kings,   especially   the   Larnaca  (in  Cyprus)  "base"  which,  in  most  of  its  details,  resembles  the  bases  of   the  Temple.  The  latter  measured  4  ×  4  ×  3  cubits.  Their  upper  parts  were  shaped   like  round  "collars,"  into  which  the  "lavers"  were  fitted.         THE  CHERUBIM   In  ancient  mythology  it  was  commonly  believed  that  the  cherubim  served  God   (cf.  II  Sam.  22:11),  and  that  their  main  task  was  to  guard  the  ark  of  the  Covenant   in  the  Holy  of  Holies  and  the  "Tree  of  Life"  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  (Gen.  3:24)         BUILDING  MATERIALS   Biblical   sources   provide   evidence   of   the   following   main   building   materials:   cedarwood,   floated   down   in   rafts   to   the   neighborhood   of   Jaffa,   and   "finished   stones,"   "stones   from   the   quarry,"   "costly   stones  –  hewn  stones"  (I  Kings  5:31),  which   were   used   for   the   foundation   of   the  
  •   15   structure.       A  detailed  account  is  also  given  of  the  stones  which  were  used  in  building  the   king's  palace  which  were  "sawed  with  saws"  as  well  as  of  "great  stones,  stones  of   ten  cubits,  and  stones  of  eight  cubits"  (I  Kings  7:9–10)  which  were  used  for  the   Temple  foundation.  In  addition,  Solomon  is  said  to  have  built  the  inner  court  of   the  Temple  "with  three  rows  of  hewn  stone,  and  a  row  of  cedar  beams"  (I  Kings   6:36).         The   biblical   account   leaves   no   doubt   that   the   lower   courses   of   Solomon's   building  were  of  large  hewn  stones,  that  its  exterior  walls  were  also  of  masonry,   and   that   its   interior   walls   were   paneled   with   cedarwood.   Within   the   courses,   beams  and  cedar  planks  were  set  to  brace  and  strengthen  the  building.  The  same   account   mentions   various   decorations:   carvings,   cherubim,   palm   trees,   open   flowers,  and  gold  chainwork.         Create  a  Word  Search  using  the  following  words  all  of  which  are  associated   with  the  First  Temple:   PORCH   HEKHAL   DEVIR   BRAZEN  SEA   LAVERS   COLUMNS   YAZIAH   CHERUBIM   ALTARS   COPPER   GOLD   CEDAR  WOOD   CYPRESS  WOOD   OLIVE  WOOD   STONES   SOLOMON                        
  •   16       Solomon’s  Temple:    Summary     Location:    Jerusalem,  The  Temple  Mount/Mount  Zion/Mount  Moriah   Dates:  10th  century  BCE  until  destruction  in  587  BCE   Three  Sections  of  the  Temple:  Temple  Hall  or  Vestibule  (Ulam);    Main  Room  for  divine  service   (Hekhal);  Holy  of  Holies  (Devir)     NAME   LOCATION   FUNCTION   DESCRIPTION   Ulam  or  Porch,   meaning   ‘front’   Near  the  Main  Hall;   to  be  approached  by   ten  steps   Separating  sacred  from   the  profane   Width  20x10  cubs.   Disputed  height  120  cubs.?   Hekhal  or  Holy   Place   Word  is   borrowed   from  word   meaning  ‘great   house’   From  the  porch   through  a  gate;   largest  chamber  of   Temple   Main  chamber  for  divine   service   10  cubs.  wide   Doors  of  cypress  wood;   Door-­‐posts  of  olive  wood   Room  width:  40x20  cubs.   Height:30  cubs.   Windows  up  high  with  recessed  frames   Devir  or  Holy   of  Holies   Rear  part  of  the   Temple   Most  holy  place   Designed  to  serve  as  a   tabernacle  for  the  ark  of   the  Covenant  and  the   cherubim.   Interior:    20x20x20  cubs.   Doors  of  olive  wood   Appearance  like  Hekhal  gate   No  windows   Cedarwood  partition  between  it  and  the  Main  Hall.   Gold  censers  for  incense   Golden  Menorah   Silver   Ark  of  the   Covenant   In  the  Holy  of  Holies   Tablets:  Covenant   inscribed  on  the  tablets;   Rod:  Symbolic  of  Aaronic   priesthood   Contained  the  two  stone  tablets  of  the  Covenant;     Contested  opinions  that  Aaron’s  rod  (and  a  box  of   manna)  were  kept  there   Small  Altar   Before  the  entrance   to  the  Holy  of  Holies     2x2x3  cubs.  made  of  cedar  and  overlaid  with  gold   Adjacent   building   Ran  parallel  to  the   Temple  walls  and   surrounded  it  on  all   sides  except  the   front.   Storage  of  vessels  and   utensils  and  treasures.   Building  of  three  stories,  each  different  widths  and  5   cubs.  high:   Lowest:  5  cubs.   Second  story:  6  cubs.   Third:  7  cubs.   30  chambers  in  each  story   Upper  stories  reached  by  lulim  (holes)   Large  Main   Altar     Har’el   (Mountain  of         G-­‐d)   In  the  court  of  the   Temple  before  the   porch   For  burnt  sacrifices  and   peace  offerings   Made  of  bronze   10  cubs.  high  with  stepped  tiers   Lowest  tier  sunk  in  the  earth  was  the  ‘base  on  the   ground’  and  was  set  off  the  floor  by  a  channel   Lowest  tier  was  2  cubs.;  highest  16  cubs.   At  the  four  corners  of  the  Har’el    (literally  mountain   of  G-­‐d)  were  horns.   Brazen  Sea   In  the  Temple  court,   southeast  of  Temple   proper.   For  the  ritual  washing  of   the  priests   Made  of  bronze   10  cubs.  in  diameter  symbolizing  the  Ten   Commandments  and  the  ten  Sefirot  (Manifestations   of  G-­‐d)   Weighed  33  tons   Could  take  17,000  gallons  of  water  (150  mikveh   baths)   Twelve  oxen  in  groups  of  three  representing  the   points  of  the  compass   Sea  represents  the  world   10  lavers   5  on  right;  5  on  left,   facing  eastward   Cleansing  of  the  entrails   and  feet  of  the  animals   sacrificed.       Bronze   Possibly  4x4x4  cubs.,  but  unspecified.   Upper  parts  like  round  collars  into  which  the  lavers   were  fitted.   Columns:     Jachin  and   Boaz   Ornamental  columns   at  the  entrance  of  the   porch   Possibly  two  incense   stands,  named  after  the   first  words  of  inscription.   4  cubs.  in  diameter     The  Cherubim     In  the  Holy  of  Holies   over  the  Ark  of  the   Covenant.   To  serve  God   Guardians  of  the   Covenant  in  the  Holy  of   Holies  and  the  ‘Tree  of   Life’  in  the  Garden  of   Made  of  olive  wood   10  cubs.  high   Combined  spread  of  four  wings:  20  cubs.  
  •   17   Eden       The  Levitical  Priests   Their  Function  and  Role  in  the  Holy  Temple       The  following  material  is  from  The  Temple  Institute  website:   http://www.templeinstitute.org/red_heifer/levitical_priests.htm     "And   it   shall   be   for   them   an   appointment   as   priests   forever,   for   all   generations."  (Ex.  40:15)     "For   the   Lord   your   God   has   chosen   him   out   of   all   your   tribes,   to   stand   to   serve  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  him  and  his  sons  forever."  (Deut.  18:5)   Who  are  the  Priests?   The   first   kohen,   the   founder   of   the   priestly   clan,   was   Aaron,   brother   of   Moses,  of  the  tribe  of  Levi.  All  of  Israel  are  descended  from  the  twelve  sons   of   Jacob.   Jacob's   third   son   was   Levi,   and   Aaron   was   a   fourth   generation   descendant  of  Levi.   Aaron  and  his  four  sons  were  designated  as  the  first  priests;  Aaron  served   as  the  first  High  Priest.  All  of  his  male  descendants  were  chosen  by  God  to   be   priests   forever;   it   is   an   eternal   covenant.   Thus   even   today,   a   kohen   amongst  the  Jewish  people  is  genealogically  a  direct  descendant  of  Aaron.   The  Role  of  the  Priests   The  Holy  One  chose  these  men  to  be  in  a  position  of  spiritual  leadership.  In   the  days  of  the  Temple,  they  were  responsible  for  the  sacred  service.  The   Hebrew   word   kohen   actually   means   "to   serve,"   and   a   deeper   linguistic   connection  can  be  found  in  the  word  ken,  meaning  "yes,"  itself  related  to   kivvun,   "to   direct."   Thus   a   kohen   is   called   upon   to   direct   himself,   and   others,  in  the  proper  service  of  God:  "And  you,  separate  your  brother  Aaron   and  his  sons  from  among  the  Israelites,  and  bring  them  close  to  you...  so  they   can  serve  me."  (Ex.  28:1)   A  Conduit  for  the  Reception  of  Divine  Blessing   The  reader  is  undoubtedly  most  familiar  with  the  primary  role  which  the   priests  perform  in  the  Temple,  that  of  officiating  at  the  sacrifices  and  other   parts   of   the   service.   But   more   importantly,   by   attending   to   the   various   aspects  of  the  Divine  service,  the  priests  serve  as  a  conduit  to  bring  down  
  •   18   God's  radiant  blessing  and  influence  into  this  world.  In  fact,  it  is  on  this   account  that  they  are  commanded  to  deliver  God's  blessing  of  peace  and   love  to  the  people,  as  well:  "Say  to  Aaron  and  his  sons...  Thus  shall  you  bless   the  people  of  Israel:  'May  the  Lord  bless  you  and  protect  you.  May  the  Lord   shine  His  face  upon  you,  and  be  gracious  unto  you.  May  the  Lord  lift  up  His   face  to  you  and  may  He  grant  you  peace'."  (Numbers  6:22  -­‐  26)   The  Priestly  Blessing  is  Delivered  Daily  in  the  Temple   Every   day   in   the   Temple,   at   the   conclusion   of   the   morning   service,   this   blessing   was   performed   by   the   officiating   priests,   standing   on   the   steps   leading  up  to  the  sanctuary.  Thus  while  it  is  only  God  who  has  the  power  to   bestow  blessing  upon  people,  the  function  of  the  priests  was  to  serve  as  a   vehicle,  a  medium,  through  which  the  Divine  influence  may  descend.   "...  He  stands  behind  our  wall...  "   This  concept  of  the  priests  "directing"  the  flow  of  Divine  blessing  is  alluded   to  by  a  verse  in  the  Song  of  Songs  (2:9  -­‐  10):  "Behold,  He  stands  behind  our   wall,  watching  through  the  windows,  glancing  through  the  cracks."   The  sages  of  the  Midrash  interpret  these  words  to  mean  that  it  is  God  who   stands  behind  the  priests  as  they  deliver  His  blessing.  The  illumination  of   His  Presence  shines  through  their  hands,  which  are  outstretched  as  they   utter  the  priestly  blessing.   The  Priests  Possess  Special  Qualities   The   priests   represent   kindness,   and   the   focusing   of   life's   energies   on   sanctity   and   Divine   purpose.   It   was   the   attribute   of   kindness,   understanding  and  love  for  all  which  Aaron,  the  first  High  Priest,  was  best   known  for,  and  his  descendants  are  entrusted  to  exemplify  Hillel's  famous   dictum  in  the  Chapters  of  the  Fathers  (Avot  1:12):  "Be  of  the  disciples  of   Aaron,  loving  peace  and  pursuing  peace,  loving  your  fellow-­creatures,  and   drawing   them   near   to   the   Torah."   This   quality   was   highly   visible   and   crucially   instrumental   following   the   rebellion   of   Korach,   when   it   was   Aaron   who   saved   the   people   from   the   full   extent   of   Divine   wrath   (see   Numbers  17).   Because   of   their   ability   to   invoke   Heavenly   influence,   the   sages   even   record   that   the   priestly   families   possess   distinctive   character   traits   and   qualities  which  are  part  of  their  special  spiritual  heritage:  they  are  known   to  be  joyful,  giving,  and  driven  by  a  loftier  nature.  In  the  era  of  the  Temple,   they   were   praised   for   their   zeal   and   dedication   to   fulfill   the   commandments  and  give  honor  to  the  Creator.  
  •   19   Later,  through  the  ensuing  course  of  history,  it  was  generally  the  tribe  of   Levi   and   the   priestly   family   in   particular   that   were   exemplary   in   their   zealousness   for   the   honor   of   God.   Thus   it   was   the   priestly   family   of   the   Hasmonaim  -­‐  the  famous  "Maccabees"  -­‐  who  led  the  revolt  against  foreign   idolatrous  influence  and  rededicated  the  Holy  Temple,  events  marked  by   the  holiday  of  Hanukkah.   The  daily  blessing  of  the  priests  in  the  Temple  serves  to  open  the  Heavenly   gates   of   mercy.   Through   it,   the   people   of   Israel   merit   not   only   material   well-­‐being  -­‐  including  offspring  and  longevity  -­‐  but  spiritual  blessings  as   well;  mercy,  Divine  protection  and  the  greatest  blessing  of  all...  true  peace.   Since   the   priests   themselves   represent   the   attribute   of   kindness,   their   service  brings  the  flow  of  God's  blessing  down  to  His  people.                              
  •   20   Sacrificial  Service  in  the  Temple                           Although  the  idea  of  the  sacrifices  may  seem  difficult  for  contemporary  people  to   accept,  it  was  the  commandment  of  G-­‐d.     The  Webster  Dictionary  definition  is:  an  act  of  offering  something  precious  to  a   deity;   specifically   the   offering   of   an   immolated   victim;   something   offered   in   something  else;  something  given  up  or  lost;  loss;  deprivation.   However,  the  Hebrew  word  for  "sacrifice"  (Korban,  le-­‐hakriv)  is  from  the  same   root   as   "to   come   near,   to   approach.   .   .   .   to   become   closely   involved   in   a   relationship  with  someone."      This  is  meant  to  be  the  essence  of  the  experience   which  the  bearer  of  the  sacrifice  undergoes.    The  sacrifices  have  great  spiritual   and  symbolic  value  and  an  intrinsic  importance  in  themselves.     Abel   and   Cain   are   the   first   people   mentioned   in   the   Bible   to   have   offered   sacrifice:  vegetable  or  bloodless  sacrifices,  and  animal  or  blood-­‐giving  sacrifices.     In  the  Book  of  Exodus,  the  proper  place  for  sacrifices  was  to  be  ‘before  the  door   of  the  tabernacle’  where  the  altar  of  burnt  offerings  stood  and  where  G-­‐d  met  his   people,  or  simply  before  G-­‐d,  and  later  in  the  Jerusalem  Temple  (Deuteronomy)     In  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  Solomon  himself  (though  not  a  priest)  offered  three   times   every   year   burnt   offerings,   thank-­‐offerings   and   incense.     He   also   built   altars  in  high  places  to  idols.    This  practice  continued  down  to  the  destruction  of   the  Temple  e.g.  vegetable,  animal  and,  even  sometimes,  human  sacrifices  to  Ba’al,   Moloch,  Astarte  and  other  false  gods.        
  •   21   The  prophets  showed  no  enthusiasm  for  sacrifice:     Hosea:     ‘I   desire   mercy,   not   sacrifice;   knowledge   of   G-­‐d   over   burnt   offerings’   (Hosea  6).   Amos:    ‘I  (G-­‐d)  hate  and  despise  your  feast-­‐days….  If  you  offer  me  burnt  offerings   and  your  bloodless  offerings,  I  will  not  accept  them,  nor  will  I  regard  the  thank-­‐ offerings  of  your  fat  beasts,  …  but  let  justice  flow  like  water’  (Amos  5).     The  Mosaic  sacrifices  are  set  forth  in  Leviticus.    The  categories  are  of  bloodless   and  blood-­‐giving  kinds.    The  division  takes  into  account  the  nature  of  the  offering   or   the   occasion   for   which   the   sacrifice   is   being   made   and   the   accompanying   sentiments  or  motives  of  the  offerers.      Sacrifices  may  also  be  divided  into  those   which   are   obligatory,   such   as   the   daily   morning   and   afternoon   sacrifices,   and   those  which  are  voluntary,  offered  by  individuals  for  various  personal  reasons.     Every   sacrifice   required   sanctification   and   was   brought   to   the   Court   of   the   Sanctuary.    These  were  the  main  types  of  sacrifices:     (a) Burnt  offerings  or  Olah  (Animal  usually):    14  types  were  included  in  this   category   e.g.   a   woman   who   had   given   birth;   ram   brought   by   the   High   Priest  on  Yom  Kippur.    Only  male  animals  could  be  use  and  either  sex  of   fowl.     (b) Guilt   offerings   or   Asham:     There   were   six   types   of   guilt   offerings   e.g.   Asham  gezilot,  the  "guilt  offering  of  theft."  If  a  person  denied  falsely  under   oath  that  he  owed  another  person  money,  he  had  to  return  the  amount   owed  plus  an  additional  fifth,  and  bring  this  sacrifice,  consisting  of  a  two-­‐ year-­‐old  ram.  The  guilt-­‐offering  is  regarded  as  serving  to  impress  upon   the  person  bringing  the  sacrifice  the  enormity  of  his  sin,  to  the  extent  that   whatever   happened   to   the   animal   that   was   sacrificed   should   by   rights   have  happened  to  the  sinner.     (c) Sin   offering   or   Hatat:     This   sacrifice   was   brought   when   a   person   or   an   entire  community,  through  negligence,  violated  a  commandment,  where   the  punishment  for  the  deliberate  violation  would  have  been  Karet  (being   "cut  off"  from  the  community).  Depending  on  the  specific  hatat  involved,  a   bull  aged  two  or  three  years,  a  year-­‐old  he-­‐goat,  a  year-­‐old  female  sheep   or   goat,   or   a   fowl   was   offered.   Where   the   hatat   was   to   atone   for   a   sin   committed  by  the  High  Priest  or  by  the  entire  community,  the  animal  or   fowl  was  burned  outside  the  Temple.  In  all  other  cases,  the  priests  ate  the   meat.     (d) Peace  offerings  or  Shelamim:  (Animal,  usually)  There  were  four  kinds  of   peace  offering  e.g.    the  "community  peace  offering,"  brought  on  Shavu’ot   or  the  "festival  peace  offering"  and  the  "festive  peace  offering,"  brought  by   an  individual,  the  former  as  a  way  of  celebrating  a  festival,  the  latter  as  a   way  of  expressing  thanks  to  G-­‐d.     (e) A  different  form  of  sacrifice  was  that  of  the  First  Fruits,  consisting  of  the   Seven   Species   for   which   the   Land   of   Israel   is   praised:   wheat,   barley,   grapes,  pomegranates,  figs,  olives,  and  dates.    The  species  were  carried  in  
  •   22   a   joyful   procession   to   Jerusalem,   especially   for   Shavu'ot,   but   could   be   brought  until  Hanukkah.  Each  person  who  brought  his  first  fruits  to  the   Temple   had   to   make   a   declaration   before   a   priest,   the   text   of   which   is   recorded  in  Deuteronomy  26:5-­‐10.     Animal  sacrifices  were  usually  accompanied  by  bloodless  offerings  e.g.  wine  or   drink-­‐offering.    The  Law  required  that  all  animals  be  perfect  though  fowl  lacked   this  restriction.  The  utmost  care  was  taken  by  the  priest  to  receive  the  blood;  it   represented  the  life  or  the  soul.    Only  a  circumcised  Levite  who  was  Levitically   pure  and  dressed  in  proper  vestments  could  perform  this  act.    The  sprinkling  of   blood   was   the   exclusive   privilege   of   the   priests   who   were   the   sons   of   Aaron.     Bloodless  offerings  were  brought  alone  e.g.  the  showbread  or  the  frankincense   offering  on  the  golden  altar.           No  particular  time  of  day  was  specified  for  sacrifice  except  that  the  daily  animal   offerings  were  to  be  killed  in  the  morning  and  ‘between  the  two  evenings’.    Each   special  day,  such  as  the  Sabbath  and  the  days  of  each  of  the  festivals,  had  its  own   list  of  sacrifices  as  prescribed  in  the  Torah.    A  detailed  list  of  these  is  to  be  found   in  Numbers  28-­‐29.     Describe  the  main  types  of  sacrificial  offerings  of  the  Temple  services.   Explain  their  purpose.     Jonah’s  Diary  entries  about  the  Destruction  of  the  Temple:  586  BCE     My  name  is  Jonah.    My  family  lived  very  near  the  Temple  in  Jerusalem.    We  loved   that  place  so  much  because  it  was  the  house  of  G-­‐d;    G-­‐d  was  present.    We  saw   people  coming  from  all  directions  daily  to  offer  sacrifice.    On  three  occasions  in   the  year  they  came  to  ‘see  and  be  seen  by  the  face  of  G-­‐d’.    This  was  a  magnificent   Temple,  the  largest,  most  beautiful  constructed  for  miles  around.  I  thought,  in  the   back  of  my  mind  that,  surely,  the  prophet  Jeremiah  could  never  have  been  right   when  he  suggested  that  the  Temple  could  be  destroyed.    Had  we  gone  that  far   away  from  the  commandments  of  God,  that  this  should  happen?  No  way!    That   was  a  ridiculous  thought!  I  mean  look  at  all  the  acacia  and  olive  wood  doors,  the   beautiful  columns,  the  glistening  gold,  silver  and  bronze,  the  magnificence  of  the   Main  hall,  and  the  height  of  the  building  which  dwarfed  us  considerably  in  its   shadow.         But   then   again…   all   had   not   been   well   in   the   last   years   of   Solomon’s   reign.     Prophets   were   sent   to   warn   him   and   his   followers   of   their   idolatry   but   they   didn’t   heed   their   warnings   and   considered   them   to   be   false   messengers   who   were  scaremongering.    Before  Solomon’s  time,  we  don’t  forget  the  fate  that  befell   Zechariah,  the  prophet.    In  661  BCE  he  warned  the  people  of  their  ways  and  said   unless  they  changed  that  they  would  be  destroyed.    But  instead  of  listening  and  
  •   23   heeding  Zechariah’s  message,  they  murdered  him  in  cold  blood  on  Yom  Kippur.   Being   disobedient,   their   lives   became   less   secure   and   they   were   thrust   into   conflict  with  neighbouring  kingdoms.    Other  prophets  have  come  and  gone  in  the   intervening  years.    They  were  still  trying  to  talk  sense  to  Solomon  but  they  might   as   well   have   been   talking   to   the   wall.     He   had   loads   of   material   possessions,   wealth  greater  than  most  in  the  region  at  the  time,  but  he  had  gone  astray  from   the  commandments  of  G-­‐d  and  the  keeping  of  the  Law.         We   were   always   in   the   middle   of   power-­‐struggles   between   the   Assyrians,   the   Egyptians   and   now   the   Babylonians.         We   thought   that   we   were   strong   in   standing  up  to  the  Babylonians,  that  we  could  defeat  them…    But  then  again,  why   would  they,  or  any  of  these  kingdoms,  be  worried  about  us.    After  all,  aren’t  we   only  very  small?    What  good  would  we  be  to  them?    Why  would  they  bother  with   us?    Weren’t  there  bigger  fish  to  fry  elsewhere?  …  but  then  again…  we  were  in  a   great   strategic   location.     We   were   in   the   heart   of   the   Levant   giving   access   to   western  Asia,  the  eastern  Mediterranean,  and  northeast  Africa...  Of  course,  how   could   we   have   been   so   stupid?   To   conquer   Jerusalem   would   have   meant   the   inevitable  extension  of  neigbouring  kingdoms  ….We  thought  that  we  would  have   been  protected  by  Egypt  but  they  were  too  worried  about  themselves  and  their   own   protection   to   get   involved…     But   we   couldn’t   counter   the   might   of   the   Babylonians.  We  got  too  self-­‐important,  relying  on  our  own  power  and  on  idols,   not  on  G-­‐d’s.    We  thought  we  could  do  it  without  G-­‐d.    We  just  couldn’t.    As  I  write   the  tears  are  streaming  down  my  face.    The  pain  of  this  is  so  difficult  to  bear.         That   man,   King   Nebuchadnezzar   of   Babylonia…such   a   name   …   NE-­‐BU-­‐CHAD-­‐ NEZZAR  …  I  can  hardly  pronounce  it…  his  name  is  said  to  mean  ‘Nebo,  defend  my   boundaries’…   we   should   have   known,   even   from   that,   the   lengths   this   idol-­‐ worshipper  would  go  to  in  order  to  exert  his  power.    To  say  his  name  fills  me   with  such  fear  and  desolation.    For  the  last  months  he  and  his  armies  have  been   slowly  advancing  from  the  north,  and  finally  they  arrived  to  Judea  and  began  to   cut  us  off.    By  the  early  part  of  the  summer  they  encamped  around  Jerusalem.     You  should  have  seen  them.    It  appeared  to  have  been  thousands.    I  will  never   forget  what  happened  then.    On  the  7th  of  Av,  the  Babylonian  armies  besieged  the   city,  breaking  down  its  walls.         I  saw  fires  coming  out  of  the   royal   palace   and   other   buildings  of  the  city.    It  was  a   violent   assault;   the   armies   killed  nearly  940,000  people,   men,   women   and   children.   Thousands   died   after   that   immediate  assault  and  many   died  as  a  result  of  disease  or   fire.     My   memory   is   filled   with   the   most   appalling   images,   terrible   sounds,   and   the  stench  of  death.  I  cannot   get   them   out   of   my   head.    
  •   24   They   will   stay   with   me   forever.     Within   one   month   they   had   destroyed   any   Jewish   resistance.   Those   who   could   do   so   fled.   But,   unknown   to   them,   the   Babylonians  had  created  giant  slave  camps  in  the  vicinity  of  the  city  into  which   these  people  went.    They  had  ensnared  them  so  they  could  not  escape.    About   10,000  were  deported  to  Babylon  including  the  new  king  Jeconiah  (either  8  or  18   years  of  age),  his  court  officials  and  prominent  craftmen.    The  high  priest  and   some   of   his   cohort   were   executed.     I   was   one   of   the   many   poor   people   who   survived  and  was  allowed  to  remain  in  Jerusalem.  We  were  left  tending  our  vines   and   fields.   We   were   now   ruled   by   a   puppet-­‐king,   Zedekiah,   employed   by   Nebuchadnezzar.     And  the  Temple,  the  dwelling  place  of  G-­‐d    was  completely  destroyed.      At  sunset   of  the  9th  of  Av,  they  set  fire  to  the  Temple.  That  date  is  seared  into  all  of  Jewish   memory   for   ages   to   come.     I   remember   it   so   clearly.     Flames   licked   the   sky.     Everything  was  destroyed.  Everything  of  value  like  the  sacred  vessels,  artwork,   gold  and  silver,  were  plundered  and  taken  by  the  Babylonian  armies,  the  prize  of   their  ‘victory’.      The  city  and  the  Temple  were  completely  ravaged.    I  am  filled   with  rage  and  uncertainty  about  the  future.    It  seems  so  quiet  here  now  in  the   smouldering   rubble   and   the   stifling   stench   of   death   all   around.   I   don’t   know   anything  anymore.  I  don’t  even  know  who  I  am.         Questions     1. Where  did  Jonah  live?   2. What  was  the  year  of  this  diary  entry?   3. Describe  the  significance  of  the  Temple  for  Jonah.   4. Solomon  was  the  person  who  built  the  first  Temple.    What  problems  were  happening  to   Solomon  as  the  years  went  by  during  his  reign?   5. Write  a  note  on  the  strategic  importance  of  Jerusalem.   6. Where  is  Babylonia  in  present-­‐day  maps?   7. Who  was  the  king  of  Babylonia  ?   8. What  was  the  meaning  of  his  name?   9. Why  did  the  siege  of  Jerusalem  happen?   10. What  were  the  effects  of  the  siege  on  the  city  and  on  its  inhabitants?   11. What  is  meant  by  deportation?   12. Give  other  examples  of  deportations  from  Jewish  history.   13. Why  was  the  destruction  of  the  Temple  so  significant  in  Jewish  thought?   14. As  the  Temple  was  the  place  of  divine  presence,  what  was  now  to  happen  to  the  Jewish   people  in  their  relationship  with  G-­‐d?   15. Explain  what  you  think  Jonah  means  by  his  statement  at  the  end  of  his  diary  entry:    ‘I   don’t  even  know  who  I  am.’   16. If  the  Jewish  people  listened  carefully  to  the  prophets,  what  changes  would  they  have   had  to  make  to  their  lives  if  the  outcome  was  to  be  different  to  what  is  described  above?                              
  •   25     Consequences  of  the  Babylonian  Exile     1. The   breakup   and   displacement   of   Jews   removed   the   threat   of   national   revival.    This  was  achieved  by  keeping  the  leaders  in  captivity  and  leaving   the  poor  behind  to  tend  the  crops  and  vineyards  meant       2. Life   in   captivity   was   not   all   slavery   or   horror.     They   were   given   social   freedom  and  economic  opportunity.    They  were  allowed  to  move  about   freely,  to  live  within  their  communities  in  small  or  larger  cities,  and  carry   on   a   normal   life.     Their   skills   were   valued   by   their   captors.     So   secure   were   their   lives,   that   after   Cyrus   granted   them   freedom   70   years   later,   many  refused  to  leave  and  remained  in  Babylon.     3. The  fall  of  Jerusalem  was  a  turning  point  in  Israel’s  religious  life  because   they  never  again,  according  to  scholars,  returned  to  idol  worship.         4. The  captivity  experience  seemed  to  impress  upon  the  Jewish  people  that   the  G-­‐d  of  Israel  was  a  jealous  G-­‐d.    The  prophets  had  been  right  in  their   warnings  of  the  doom  and  destruction  that  would  follow  if  the  people  did   not   repent   and   follow   their   G-­‐d   and   Him   alone.   The   nation   as   a   whole   accepted  the  verdict  that  G-­‐d’s  anger  had  been  poured  down  upon  them   for  the  sin  of  image  worship.  They  reached  the  conclusion  that  only  the   God  of  Israel  should  be  worshipped.     5. Israel  became  a  very  zealous  nation  for  its  G-­‐d.  This  zeal  took  the  form  of   devotion   to   G-­‐d’s   law,   which   led   over   the   years   to   the   creation   of   numerous  rules  of  conduct  that  went  beyond  the  law  itself.    This  has  been   described  as  building  “a  hedge  around  the  Law  to  render  its  infringement   or  modification  impossible”  (Alfred  Edersheim).     Imagine  that  you  and  your  family  were  part  of  the  Babylonian  Exile.    Write   a  first-­hand  account  of  the  effects  of  deportation  on  you  and  your  family.         SECOND  TEMPLE     ZERUBBABEL,  CYRUS,  CAMBYSES,  DARIUS:    520  -­19  BCE     HEROD:    19  BCE  –  70  CE       The  Desire  to  build  a  Second  Temple   New   government   in   Persia:     Cyrus   the   Great   in   538   BCE   made   re-­‐ establishment  of  city  of  Jerusalem  and  rebuilding  of  Temple  possible.   Jewish  exiles  began  to  return  after  70  years  in  captivity:    42,360  returned   (Ezra  2:65)   They   had   a   strong   religious   impulse   and   wanted   to   build   the   Temple   and   bring  back  sacrificial  rituals  (Korbanot)  
  •   26   Zerubabbel,   the   governor,   invited   them,   gave   them   gifts,   and   so   the   foundations  commenced.     Altar   Altar  erected  on  site  of  old  altar   Clearing  of  debris   535  BCE  foundation  stones  were  laid   Samaritans  offered  to  help.  Zerubabbel  declined  saying  that  the  Jews  must   build  their  Temple  without  help.   Cyrus  died  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Cambyses.   An   imposter   ruled   for   seven   or   eight   months   until   Darius   I   of   Persia   took   over  in  522  BCE  and  saw  the  project  to  its  completion     Consecration   The  Temple  was  consecrated  in  Spring  of  516  BCE,  twenty  years  after  the  return   from   captivity   amidst   great   rejoicing.     Jews   were   no   longer   an   independent   people  but  subject  to  a  foreign  power.         The  Second  Temple  lacked:     The  Ark  of  the  Covenant  containing  the  Tablets  of  Stone,  pot  of  manna  and   Aaron’s  rod   The  Urim  and  Thummim  (High  Priest’s  Breastplate)   The  holy  oil  for  ordination  to  priesthood,  the  High  Priest,  and  consecration  of   certain  articles  of  the  Tabernacle   The  sacred  fire       The  Second  Temple  had:   Holy  of  Holies  which  was  now  separated  from  the  hekhal  by  a  veil  and  not  by   a  walled  partition.     The  Menorah   The  Table  of  Showbread   The  golden  altar  of  incense  with  golden  censers.     Political  Changes  Affecting  Second  Temple   Judea  was  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  Egypt  until  200  BCE   Judea  was  part  of  the  Seleucid  (Greek-­‐Macedonian)  Empire  of  Syria   Second  Temple  looted,  religious  services  stopped  and  Judaism  outlawed.   167   BCE   Antiochus   ordered   an   altar   to   Zeus   erected   in   Temple,   banned   circumcision,  ordered  pigs  to  be  sacrificed  at  the  altar.   Maccabean  Revolt  (167-­‐160  BCE):  Rural  Jewish  priest  led  revolt  by  refusing   to  worship  Greek  gods.  His  son  Judas  Maccabee  led  a  Jewish  army  to  defeat   the  Seleucids.   Hanukkah  celebrates  the  re-­‐dedication  of  Temple                
  •   27   Reconstruction  under  Herod       Massive  expansion  of  Temple  Mount   The  Temple  Mount  was  originally  intended  to  be  1600  feet  wide  by  900  feet   deep  by  9  stories  high,  with  walls  up  to  16  feet  deep,  but  had  never  been   finished.     To   complete   it,   a   trench   was   dug   around   the   mountain,   and   huge   stone   "bricks"  were  laid.   Some  of  these  weighed  well  over  100  tons,  the  largest  measuring  44.6  feet  by   11  feet  by  16.5  feet  and  weighing  approximately  567  to  628  tons,  while  most   were  in  the  range  of  2.5  by  3.5  by  15  feet  (approximately  28  tons).     Architects  were  Greek,  Roman,  Egyptian   Blocks  quarried  using  pick-­‐axes   These  were  cut  into  squares  and  numbered  for  their  re-­‐location   Oxen  and  specialised  carts  used  to  haul  the  loads   Roman  pulleys  and  cranes  also  used     Pilgrimages  to  the  Second  Temple   From  all  across  the  Roman  Empire   Arrived  in  Jaffa  (Tel  Aviv)  by  boat;  then  three  days  trek  down  to  Jerusalem   Changed  money,  found  lodging,  purchased  animal  for  sacrificial  offering  e.g.   pigeon,  lamb   Approached  public  entrance  on  south  side  of  the  Temple  Mount       Checked  animal   Visited  mikveh  (ritual  bath)  for  purification   Retrieved   animal,   headed   for   Huldah   gates   and   eventually   to   Court   of   the   Gentiles.        
  •   28   Court  of  the  Gentiles   Vendors  selling  souvenirs,  sacrificial  animals   Money  changers   Kohanim   (Priests)   in   white   garments   directed   pilgrims,   advised   type   of   sacrifices  necessary     Surrounding  the  Court  of  the  Gentiles   Behind   was   the   Royal   Portico   which   had   a   marketplace,   administrative   quarters  and  a  synagogue   On  the  upper  floors,  the  great  Jewish  Sages  held  court;  Kohanim  (priests)  and   Levites  performed  chores;  tourists  could  observe   To  the  east  was  the  Portico  of  Solomon   To  the  north,  the  Soreg,  giant  stone  structure  separating  public  from  Jewish   areas.   Within  the  Soreg  was  the  Temple  itself.     TEMPLE WARNING: NO FOREIGNER IS TO GO BEYOND THE BALUSTRADE AND THE PLAZA OF THE TEMPLE ZONE WHOEVER IS CAUGHT DOING SO WILL HAVE HIMSELF TO BLAME FOR HIS DEATH WHICH WILL FOLLOW Inside  the  Soreg   According   to   Jewish   historian   Josephus   there   were   ten   entrances   to   the   inner   courts:    four  on  the  north;  four  on  the  south;  one  on  the  east;  one  for  east  and   west.    Within  this  section  was  the  Court  of  the  Women,  the  Court  of  the  Israelites   and  the  Court  of  the  Priests.     Court  of  the  Women   For  men  and  women   Place   for   lepers,   considered   ritually   unclean   Ritually   unclean   cohen   (priests)   could   perform  limited  duties   Ritual   barbershop   for   Nazirites   (took   vows)     Court  of  the  Israelites  and  the  Court  of  the   Priests   Court  of  the  Israelites  could  only  be  entered   by  men   Sacrifices  of  the  high  priest  from  the  Court   of  Priests  was  visible  from  there.   Court  of  the  Priests  was  reserved  for  Levite   Priests        
  •   29   Below  is  a  picture  of  the  High  Priest  in  full  ceremonial  garments         Destruction  of  the  Second  Temple   In   66   CE   the   Jewish   population   rebelled   against   the   Roman   Empire.    Four  years  later,  in  70   CE,   Roman   legions   under   Titus   retook   and   subsequently   destroyed   much   of   Jerusalem   and  the  Second  Temple.         Although   Jews   continued   to   inhabit   the   destroyed   city,   Jerusalem   was   razed   by   the   Emperor   Hadrian   at   the   end   of   the  Bar  Kokhba  Revolt  in  135  CE   when  he  established  a  new  city   called  Aelia  Capitolina.                   Exercise   Compare  the  First  Temple  and  the  Second  Temple.            
  •   30   Consequences  of  the  Destruction  of  the  Second  Temple     There  is  one  excellent  online  resource  with  interactive  maps,  photos  and  images  which  would  be   very   good   in   dealing   with   this   topic.     It   is   Resources   for   History   Teachers   but,   nevertheless,   its   content   is   very   helpful   for   context   of   JS.     The   URL   is   as   follows:         http://resourcesforhistoryteachers.wikispaces.com/7.23     1. Jewish  people  were  again  separated  from  their  contact  with  G-­‐d.     2. Sadducees,  Essenes  and  Zealots  faded  away  because  there  was  no  longer   anything  to  fight  for.    Their  existence  focused  on  Temple  ritual.    Without   the   Temple   more   than   half   of   the   laws   of   Judaism   were   no   longer   applicable.      Pharisees  and  Christians  survived  because  they  incorporated   the  memory  of  the  Temple  in  their  religious  life  even  after  its  destruction.     3. Rabbinic  Judaism  found  a  portable  solution  to  religious  practice  no  longer   dependent   on   the   physical   existence   of   the   Temple.     Religious   practice   shifted  to  rabbinical  authority.         4. Approximately   70   years   after   the   Roman   Conquest   of   Jerusalem   Jews   began   to   anticipate   the   Messianic   redemption.   They   believed   that   the   master  of  history  who  rebuilt  the  second  Temple  seventy  years  after  the   destruction  of  the  first  would  now  build  the  third.    The  optimistic  spirit  of   hopeful  anticipation  which  was  typical  of  this  period  is  expressed  most   effectively  by  the  leading  Pharisee  of  the  time  Rabbi  Akiva  (c.  17-­‐  c.137   CE).     5. Rabbi  Akiva  hailed  the  charismatic  military  leader  Simon  Bar  Koziva  as   Messiah.  He  changed  his  name  to  Bar  Kochba,  meaning,  "son  of  the  star"   and  appointed  him  leader  of  the  Revolt  which  was  to  overthrow  Rome,   reestablish   Jewish   sovereignty   in   Jerusalem   and   culminate   in   the   rebuilding  of  the  Temple.    The  Revolt,  which  lasted  from  132-­‐135  CE  won   mass  support  among  the  Jews.  They  fled  to  the  caves  of  Judea  and  to  the   hills   of   the   Galilee   filled   with   enthusiasm   and   messianic   fervour.   Early   successes   provoked   a   fierce   Roman   counter-­‐attack   culminating   in   the   slaughter  of  600,  000  men,  women  and  children.  Underground  warriors   died  of  starvation.  Akiva  was  publicly  tortured.    Jewish  name  of  the  city  of   Jerusalem   was   replaced   by   Latin   one:     Aelia   Capitolina.     The   hopes   of   reclaiming  Jerusalem  were  completely  dashed.         6. Emperor  Hadrian  attempted  to  root  out  Judaism  completely.     7. The   consequences   of   the   Bar   Kochba   revolt   precipitated   a   significant   Jewish  Diaspora,  details  of  which  follow  below.         8. In  the  second  century  (CE)  Jewish  communities  could  be  found  in  nearly   every  notable  centre  throughout  the  Roman  Empire,  as  well  as  scattered   communities  found  in  centers  beyond  the  its  borders  in  northern  Europe,   in  eastern  Europe,  in  southwestern  Asia,  and  in  Africa.    Farther  to  the  east  
  •   31   along  trade  routes,  Jewish  communities  could  be  found  throughout  Persia   (Iraq)  and  in  empires  even  farther  east  including  in  India  and  China.       9. In  western  Europe,  following  the  collapse  of  the  Western  Roman  Empire   in   476,   and   the   re-­‐orientation   of   trade   due   to   the   Moorish   (Islamic)   conquest   of   Iberia   (Spain   and   Portugal)   in   the   8th   century,   communications   between   the   Jewish   communities   in   northern   parts   of   the  former  western  empire  became  less  frequent.    At  the  same  time,  rule   under   Islam   resulted   in   freer   trade   and   communications   within   the   Muslim  world.    Communities  in  Iberia  remained  in  frequent  contact  with   Jewry  in  North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East.    Communities  further  afield,  in   central   and   south   Asia   and   central   Africa,   remained   more   isolated,   and   continued  to  develop  their  own  unique  traditions.       10. For  the  Sephardim  in  Spain,  it  resulted  in  a  "Hebrew  Golden  Age"  in  the   10th   to   12th   centuries.   The   1492   expulsion   from   Spain   by   the   Catholic   Monarchs  however,  made  the  Sephardic  Jews  hide  and  disperse  to  France,   Italy,   England,   the   Netherlands,   parts   of   what   is   now   northwestern   Germany,  and  to  other  existing  communities  in  Christian  Europe,  as  well   as  to  those  within  the  Ottoman  Empire,  to  the  Maghreb  in  North  Africa   and  smaller  numbers  to  other  areas  of  the  Middle  East,  and  eventually  to   the  Americas  in  the  early  17th  century.     11. In   northern   and   Christian   Europe   during   the   17th   century   financial   competition  developed  between  the  authority  of  the  Pope  in  Rome  and   other   states   and   empires.   This   dynamic,   with   the   Great   Schism,   anti-­‐ Christian   religious   Crusades,   and   later   protestations   and   wars   between   Christians   themselves,   caused   repeated   periods   and   occurrences   of   persecution  against  the  established  Jewish  minority  in  ‘Ashkenaz’  -­‐  that   is,  the  areas  that  are  now  northern  France  and  Germany  -­‐  masses  of  Jews   began  to  move  further  to  the  east.  There,  they  were  welcomed  by  the  king   of  Poland,  and  with  Lithuania,  grew  greatly,  and  relatively  flourished  to   the  end  of  the  18th  century.           12. In   western   Europe,   the   conditions   for   Jewry   differed   between   the   communities   within   the   various   countries   and   over   time,   depending   on   background   conditions.   With   both   pull   and   push   factors   operating,   Ashkenazi  emigration  to  the  Americans  would  increase  in  the  early  18th   century  with  German-­‐speaking  Ashkenazi  Jews,  and  end  with  a  tidal  wave   between   1880   and   the   early   20th   century   with   Yiddish-­‐speaking   Ashkenazim,   as   conditions   in   the   east   deteriorated   under   the   failing   Russian   Empire.   With   the   Holocaust   and   the   destruction   of   most   European  Jewry,  North  America  would  hold  the  majority  of  world  Jewry.          
  •   32       This document was downloaded from www.jewishprograms.org. The Temple… … gave … allowed …represented … reminded … offered … meant … symbolized … showed
  •   33     This document was downloaded from www.jewishprograms.org. Activity 2 The Temple in Our Time: The Story of Loss and Life The following practices continue among Jews as reminders of the practices of the Temple and its destruction*: MOURNING TRADITIONS due to the loss of the Temple which continue to be practiced: Without the Temple and sacrifice, the time between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur became a time of repentance, based on a person’s ability to change his or her own life Jewish worship includes prayers for the rebuilding of the Temple Leaving a visible area of a house incomplete Breaking a glass at a wedding Omitting some food item from a party or banquet Eating eggs at the Seder was instituted because eggs are part of a mourner’s first meal after the burial of a loved one Traditional laws of mourning are adapted: In the Three Weeks prior to Tisha B’Av (the 9th day of the month of Av, on which the Destruction of the Temple is commemorated as a Fast Day): no weddings take place, there are no parties or public celebrations, some people abstain from getting haircuts and shaving or refrain from listening to music, one does not eat a new fruit which would require saying Shehechiyanu During the Nine Days prior to Tisha B’Av: some people refrain from eating meat and drinking wine (except on Shabbat), buying or wearing new clothes is not done, unnecessary bathing and laundry are avoided On Tisha B’Av: mourning customs are practiced: sitting on low stools, no wearing of leather shoes or greeting people. RITUAL PRACTICES which serve as reminders of the life of the Temple: Salting challah after reciting motzi because salt was offered with every Temple sacrifice Laws of personal purity and the use of the mikveh remind us of the purification practices at the Temple We face Jerusalem when we pray Ritual hand washing prior to eating duplicates the actions of the High Priests Offering the Priestly Blessing as it was done at the Temple Eating the sandwich of matzah and maror as Rabbi Hillel had done in the time of the Temple The lulav is used on each day of Sukkot as it was in the Temple The Torah is ‘dressed’ using garments that mirror the garments of the High Priest The placement of the roasted shank bone on the Seder plate as a reminder of the paschal sacrifice Giving tzedakah establishing an important addition to the worship service * The extent to which practices are observed varies with the tradition of each Jewish community
  •   34   Create  a  Word  Search  with  the  following    words:   TEMPLE   DEVIR             SYNAGOGUE     A  Synagogue  is  also  known  as       Beit  K’nesset  (House  of  Assembly)   Beit  K’nesset  means  the  House  of  Assembly.   It  is  a  place  for  the  Jewish  community  to  come  together  for  all  types  of   meetings,  celebrations  and  other  community  activities.     Beit  Tefillah  (House  of  Prayer)   Beit  Tefillah  means  House  of  Prayer.   It  is  where  Jews  come  to  worship  God.   Jews  also  worship  at  home  but  worshipping  with  others  is  an  important   part  of  Judaism.     Beit  Midrash  (House  of  Study)   Beit  Midrash  means  House  of  Study.   It  is  where  Jews  come  to  learn  the  Jewish  language  of  Hebrew  and  to  learn   about  Judaism.   In  most  synagogues,  children  and  adults  can  take  classes  in  Hebrew,  study   important  Jewish  religious  books  and  learn  all  about  Judaism.     Although  synagogues  existed  a  long  time  before  the  destruction  of  the  Second   Temple   in   70   CE,   communal   worship   in   the   time   while   the   Temple   still   stood   centred   around   the   korbanot   (sacrificial   offerings   brought   by   the   kohanim   –   priests  –  of  the  Holy  Temple)     During  the  Babylonian  captivity  (586-­‐537  BCE)  the  Men  of  the  Great  Assembly   formalised  and  standardised  the  language  of  Jewish  prayers.    Before  that,  people   prayed   as   they   wished,   with   each   person   praying   in   his   or   her   own   way;   no   standard  prayers  were  recited.       Rabbi  Yohanan  ben  Zakkai  (30-­‐90  CE)  spoke  of  the  idea  of  creating  individual   houses   of   worship   wherever   Jews   found   themselves.     They   were   then   able   to   maintain  a  unique  identity  and  a  portable  way  of  worship  despite  the  destruction   of  the  Temple.       Synagogues  in  the  sense  of  purpose-­‐built  spaces  for  worship,  or  rooms  originally   constructed  for  some  other  purpose  but  reserved  for  formal,  communal  prayer,   however,  existed  long  before  the  destruction  of  the  Second  Temple    
  •   35   The  earliest  archaeological  evidence  for  the  existence  of  very  early  synagogues   comes  from  the  Palestinian  synagogues,  which  date  from  the  first  century  CE.       Synagogue  Layout   In  Orthodox  synagogues  men  and  women  sit  separately,  and  everyone  (except   young  girls)  has  their  head  covered.      In  a  Reform  synagogue  men  and  women   can  sit  together.     Synagogue   services   can   be   led   by   a   rabbi,   a   cantor   or   a   member   of   the   congregation.     Traditional  Jewish  worship  requires  a  minyan  (a  quorum  of  ten  adult  males)  to   take  place.     In  an  Orthodox  synagogue  the  service  will  be  conducted  in  ancient  Hebrew,  and   the   singing   will   be   unaccompanied.     In   a   progressive   (Reform,   Liberal)   synagogue  the  service  will  be  at  least  partly  in  English,  there  may  a  choir  and   instruments,  and  men  and  women  can  sit  together.     Clothing   The  most  common  hat  for  men  in  the  synagogue  is  a  small  round  cap  called  a   yarmulke  (Yiddish)  or  a  kippah  (Hebrew),  but  an  ordinary  homburg  or  street  hat   is  acceptable.     Adult  men  (i.e.  those  over  the  age  of  13)  often  wear  a  Tallit  or  prayer  shawl  for   morning   prayer.   In   Reform   synagogues,   women   may   also   do   so.     A   Tallit   has   fringes   (called   tzitzit)   on   the   edges   to   remind   the   wearer   to   observe   G-­‐d's   commandments  -­‐  as  commanded  by  G-­‐d  in  the  Bible.         Tefillin  are  small  leather  boxes  that  contain  the  Shema  Israel,  Deuteronomy  6:4-­‐ 9,  and  are  strapped  to  the  head  and  arm  during  weekday  morning  prayers.     INSIDE  THE  SYNAGOGUE     ARON  KODESH   The  Ark  is  named  after  the  wooden  chest  which  held  the  stone  tablets  of  the   Covenant  that  G-­‐d  gave  to  Moses  on  Mount  Sinai.   Every   synagogue   contains   an   Ark,   which   is   a   cupboard   where   the   Torah   Scrolls,  which  contain  the  text  of  the  Hebrew  Bible,  are  kept.       TORAH  SCROLLS   Contained  within  the  Ark   Torah  Breastplate  and  Crown  similar  to  the  attire   worn  by  the  High  Priest  in  the  Temple          
  •   36   ARON  KODESH  CURTAIN   The  Ark  has  an  inner  curtain  called  a  parokhet.     This  curtain  is  in  imitation  of  the  curtain  in  the  Sanctuary  in  the  Temple.   Embroidery  can  be  abstract  or  biblically-­‐based     NER  TAMID   Eternal  light  which  burns  above  the  Ark   Symbol  of  G-­‐d’s  presence   It   also   represents   the   pillar   of   fire   that   guided   the   Jewish   people   on   their   early  journey.     TEN  COMMANDMENTS/ASERET  HA-­D’VARIM   Given  to  Moses  by  G-­‐d  at  Mt  Sinai  (  Exodus  34:28,  Deuteronomy  4:13;  10:4)   Judaism   teaches   that   the   first   tablet,   containing   the   first   five   declarations,   identifies  duties  regarding  our  relationship  with  G-­‐d   The   second   tablet,   containing   the   last   five   declarations,   identifies   duties   regarding  our  relationship  with  other  people     BIMAH   The  platform  and  the  desk  for  Torah  readings  are  called  the  Bimah  and  in  an   Orthodox  synagogue  are  in  the  centre  of  the  building.     In  a  Reform  synagogue,  the  Bimah  is  usually  close  to  the  Ark.       RABBI’S  PODIUM   The  place  from  which  the  Rabbi  speaks  during  the  synagogue  services.        
  •   37   STAINED  GLASS  WINDOWS   While  there  are  no  statues  or  representations  of  G-­‐d  or  humans  in  the  synagogue,   the   windows   represent   different   aspects   of   Jewish   ritual,   significant   biblical   events,  or  abstract  scenes.     LIONS   Often  lions  are  depicted  in  the  synagogue  stained  glass  windows  or  on  the   doors  of  the  Ark.   They  represent  the  tribe  of  Judah,  one  of  the  southern  tribes  of  Israel.   In  Genesis  49:9,  Jacob  refers  to  his  son  Judah  as  Gur  Aryeh,  a  lion,  when  he   blessed  him.     MENORAH     Calls   to   mind   the   seven-­‐branched   candelabrum  used  in  the  Temple   Priests   lit   the   menorah   in   the   Sanctuary   every   evening   and   cleaned   it   out   every   morning,   replacing   the   wicks   and   putting   fresh  olive  oil  into  the  cups   Menorah   of   the   First   and   Second   Temples  had  seven  branches   Symbol  of  nation  of  Israel       MAGEN  DAVID/STAR  OF  DAVID   Shape  of  King  David’s  Shield   Top  triangle  moves  upward  toward  G-­‐ d;   lower   triangle   moves   downward   towards  the  world.   Intertwining   of   triangles   represents   united  nature  of  Jewish  people   Three   sides   represent   the   Kohanim   (descended   from   Aaron),   Levites   and   Israel   Identity  badge  of  Jews  in  Nazi  Germany   On  the  flag  of  State  of  Israel     QUESTIONS   1. By  what  other  names  is  a  synagogue   known?   2. Name  the  three  functions  of  the  synagogue.   3. Explain  these  functions.   4. Where  would  you  find  synagogues  located  in  Ireland?   5. Give  any  three  points  of  your  choice  about  the  historical  development  of   the  synagogue.   6. Where   would   you   find   the   earliest   archaeological   evidence   of   the   existence  of  a  synagogue?  
  •   38   7. In  what  languages  are  the  synagogue  services  conducted  in  an  Orthodox   and  a  Reform  synagogue?   8. Why  are  there  differences?     9. What  is  the  name  given  to  the  head-­‐covering  worn  by  Jewish  men  in  the   synagogue?   10. Give  the  Hebrew  name  for  the  prayer  shawl  worn  by  Jewish  men.   11. The   fringes   (tzitzit)   of   the   prayer   shawl   have   a   particular   significance.     What  is  it?   12. Why  might  that  be  so  important  in  the  live  of  a  Jew?   13. Explain  the  function  of  the  Aron  Kodesh  (Ark)  in  the  synagogue.   14. Why  is  there  a  curtain  on  the  Ark?   15. Give   reasons   why   the   Ten   Commandments   included   in   the   design   of   a   synagogue?   16. What  is  a  Bimah?     17. Where  in  the  synagogue  would  you  expect  to  find  the  Bimah?   18. Give  three  reasons  why  the  Ner  Tamid  is  significant  for  the  Jewish  people.   19. Describe  what  might  be  on  the  stained  glass  windows  of  a  synagogue.   20. Explain  the  significance  of  the  inclusion  of  a  Menorah  in  the  synagogue.   21. What  are  the  three  sides  of  the  Star  of  David  said  to  represent?   22. Write  a  note  about  the  Star  of  David  in  Judaism.         Match  the  correct  name  on  the  left  to  the  definition  on  the  right  hand  side   of  the  diagram  below   (Adapted from the TES site: http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Synagogue-6192619/) The Jewish Synagogue Star of David Bimah Rabbi Ark Torah Yad Ner Tamid (eternal light) Menorah Podium A. Most Jews think that this is the most important part of the Synagogue as the Torah is kept in it. It is like a big ornate wardrobe with the 10 commandments placed above them. Sometimes called the Ark of the Covenant. B. One of the most common symbols used in Judaism. It is a 5 pointer star named after the great King David C. A pointer that is used when reading the Torah as you are not allowed to tough the pages. D. This is where the Rabbi stands to read the torah scrolls. It is a more important table than the podium. E. Similar to a Priest but also a teacher. F. Can also be known as the Eternal Light. It is a hanging light that stays on ALL the time in the synagogue. G. The Jewish Holy book. It contains the first five books of the Jewish Bible and is kept inside the ark. H. A seven pointer candle holder used in the synagogue. The 9 pointed candle holder is used during Hanukah. I. A little stand like table where the Rabbi preaches from to the people. It usually has a microphone on it so everyone can hear.
  •   39   Key for above exercise: A.  Ark;    B.  Star  of  David;  C.  Yad;  D.  Bimah;  E.  Rabbi;  F.  Ner  Tamid;  G.  Torah;       H.  Menorah;  I.  Rabbi’s  Podium     Identify  the  different  parts  of  the  synagogue  as  they  are  numbered  below: (From http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Synagogue-6192619/)   1. ___________________________________________________________   2. ___________________________________________________________   3. ___________________________________________________________   4. ___________________________________________________________   5. ___________________________________________________________   6. ___________________________________________________________   7. ___________________________________________________________   8. ___________________________________________________________   9. ___________________________________________________________   10. ___________________________________________________________       Key for the teacher: 1-Aron Kodesh (Ark); 2 – Torah Scrolls; 3 – Ner Tamid (Eternal Light); 4 – Menorah; 5 –Ten Commandments; 6 – Rabbi’s/Cantor’s seats; 7 – Cantor’s or Torah ReadingTable; 8 – Rabbi’s Podium; 9 – Bimah; 10 – Congregational Seating
  •   40   Draw  a  diagram  of  a  synagogue,  putting  in  the  missing  parts  and  naming   them.       Fill  in,  name,  and  draw  the  parts  of  the  synagogue  ,  and  draw  an  image  which  one   might   expect   to   see   in   a   stained   glass   window   in   a   Jewish   synagogue.     The   following  is  a  key  to  aid  you  in  the  completion  of  the  diagrams.         Directions     • The  ark  is  in  the  centre  of  the  room  on  the  back  wall.  Just  below  the  eagle   on  the  Ark  is  where  the  Ten  Commandments  go.  They  are  written  on  to   two  stone  arcs.         • Inside  the  ark  is  the  where  the  Torah  scrolls  are  kept.  This  is  to  keep  them   safe  and  free  from  being  destroyed  as  they  are  considered  very  special.     • North  of  this  and  on  the  ceiling  is  the  Ner  Tamid.  It  hangs  from  the  roof   and  is  always  alight.     • In  the  centre  of  the  room  on  the  floor  is  the  Bimah.       • Slightly  west  of  this  is  the  Rabbi’s  podium.  There  is  also  a  microphone  on   top  of  the  podium  so  that  when  the  Rabbi  speaks  everyone  can  hear  him.     • North  of  the  ark  but  south  of  the  Ner  Tamid  is  the  Star  of  David.  It  is  in  the   middle  of  the  two  on  the  back  wall.    There  is  also  a  Star  of  David  on  the   outside  of  the  synagogue  above  the  arched  doorways  in  a  circle.       • On   the   inside   of   the   synagogue,   on   the   eastern   walls   and   the   western   walls   are   two   stained   glass   windows   each.   On   the   outside   of   the   synagogue  are  4  stained  glass  windows  also;  two  on  the  left  hand  side  and   two  on  the  right.       • You  must  draw  a  stained  glass  window  on  the  outside  of  the  synagogue   directly  above  the  arched  doorway.       • The   Menorah   is   found   within   in   every   synagogue.   But   it   can   be   found   anywhere  with  in  the  synagogue.  Place  the  Menorah  where  you  feel  it  best   fits.                    
  •   41   Watch  the  following  video  clip  and  answer  the  questions  below   Video of a synagogue in Exeter showing the artefacts of the synagogue (9 minutes approximately); from http://pow.reonline.org.uk/judaism_video.htm 1. When was the synagogue built? 2. When were the Jews allowed back into England after Cromwell’s time? 3. What does the Star of David represent? 4. Where is the Bimah located in the synagogue? 5. What is the Ark? Describe in detail. 6. What is in the Torah scolls? 7. How are the scrolls written? 8. What happens if the scribe makes a mistake? 9. Why are the Tablets of the Commandments located above the Ark? 10. Describe the Torah scrolls and their coverings. 11. How is the Torah scroll read in the synagogue? 12. What is the high point of the Shabbat morning service? 13. What does the reader use to follow the script? 14. Why is this the case? 15. What is the meaning of having your head covered in the synagogue? 16. Describe the white prayer shawl and its origins. 17. What is written on the back of the collar of the prayer-shawl? 18. Why is the menorah kept in the synagogue? 19. Describe the menorah and its origins   BET  MIDRASH   (commonly   bet   midrash;   Yid.,   besmedresh;   lit.,   “study   house”),   a   voluntary,   public   institute   for   Torah   learning,   functioning   for   generations   within   Jewish   communities   alongside   the   synagogue   and,   from   certain   halakhic   standpoints,   even  surpassing  it  in  preference  and  importance.  Functioning  mainly  as  a  place   of  study,  the  bet  midrash  (universally  referred  to  by  East  European  Jews  in  its   Yiddish   form,   besmedresh)   has   also   served   as   an   alternative   place   of   worship   due  to  the  many  hours  students  spend  there.  In  fact,  students  in  Eastern  Europe   often  took  meals  there  and  slept  on  the  premises—so  that,  unlike  the  synagogue,   the  bet  midrash  required  a  mezuzah.  Yet  as  a  community  of  learners  whose  daily   routine  is  dictated  by  the  requirements  of  study,  the  bet  midrash  has  been  an   institution   that   is   in   essence   the   reverse   of   the   synagogue,   challenging   it   and   offering  a  certain  alternative  to  the  fixed  models  of  communal  life.     The  bet  midrash  differed  from  the  synagogue  also  in  form.  In  the  service  of  its   main  function,  which  was  study,  the  furnishings  of  a  bet  midrash  were  simple   and  functional—chairs  and  tables.  The  accoutrements  of  prayer,  such  as  the  ark   for   the   Torah,   were   simpler   and   smaller   than   those   of   the   synagogue.   The   orientation   of   seating   in   the   bet   midrash,   unlike   the   synagogue,   was   not   necessarily   to   the   east,   but   was   determined   by   the   way   people   sat   for   study.   While,  in  the  case  of  the  synagogue,  an  effort  was  customarily  made  to  beautify  it   so  that  it  stood  out  from  its  surroundings,  the  bet  midrash  had  no  architectural  
  •   42   distinctiveness.   In   certain   communities   where   the   synagogue   and   the   bet   midrash  shared  the  same  building,  this  distinction  was  particularly  obvious.   Generally,   there   are   either   benches   or   chairs   and   tables,   on   which   books   are   placed.  In  Lithuanian  Yeshivos  the  Beth  Midrash  will  have  shtenders    (standing   desks  resembling  lecterns).   A   characteristic   bet   midrash   has   many   hundreds   of   books,   including   at   least   several  copies  of  the  entire  Talmud,  Torah,  siddurim  (prayer  books),  Shulchan   Aruch   (Code   of   Jewish   Law),   Mishneh   Torah2,   Arbaah   Turim3   and   other   frequently  consulted  works.   In  modern  times,  "batei  midrash"  are  typically  found  as  the  central  study  halls  of   yeshivas  or  independent  kollels4,  both  institutions  of  Torah  study.  The  location   and  institution  of  study  are  often  interchanged,  so  in  popular  parlance,  yeshivot   are  sometimes  referred  to  as  batei  midrash.  A  bet  midrash  may  also  be  housed  in   a  synagogue,  or  vice  versa.  In  antiquity,  this  is  a  matter  of  debate.    Many  batei   midrash   originally   serve   the   community   but   attract   a   yeshiva   in   the   course   of   their  existence.   A  bet  wa’ad,  meeting  place  of  scholars,  existed  as  early  as  the  Maccabean  times:     ‘let  thy  house  be  a  bet  wa’ad  for  the  wise’  (Jose  ben  Joezer  of  Zereda,  martyr  of   the  Maccabean  time).   The  bet  wa’ad  is  also  mentioned  in  Sotah  ix.  15.    The  hearers  or  disciples  were   seated  on  the  ground  at  the  feet  of  their  teachers.    In  the  first  century,  schools   existed   everywhere   at   the   side   of   the   synagogues.     The   primary   school,   bet   hasefer,  was  a  later  development  by  100  BCE  in  Jerusalem.   The  Hagaddah  speaks  of  a  bet  ha-­‐midrash  of  Shem  and  Eber  which  was  attended   by   Isaac,   occasionally   by   Rebekah,   and   regularly   by   Jacob;   of   that   of   Jacob   at   Sukkot,  which  Joseph  frequented;  of  that  which  Judah  was  sent  to  build  for  Jacob   in  Egypt;  or  that  of  Moses,  where  Moses  and  Aaron  and  his  sons  taught  the  Law.     The   prophet   Samuel   had   his   bet   ha   midrash   in   Ramah.     Solomon   built   synagogues  and  schoolhouses.    King  Hezekiah  furnished  the  oil  for  lamps  to  burn   in  the  synagogues  and  schools  and  threated  to  have  killed  by  the  sword  anyone   who  would  not  study  the  Law.    The  tribe  of  Issachar  devoted  their  time  to  the   study  of  the  Law  in  the  bet  ha-­‐midrash,  Zebulin  the  merchant  supporting  it.                                                                                                                   2  Sefer  Yad  HaHazaka  ("Book  of  the  Strong  Hand,")  is  a  code  of  Jewish  religious  law  (Halakha)   authored  by  Maimonides  (Rabbi  Moshe  ben  Maimon,  also  known  as  RaMBaM  or  "Rambam"),  one   of  history's  foremost  rabbis.  The  Mishneh  Torah  was  compiled  between  1170  and  1180  (4930-­‐ 4940),  while  Maimonides  was  living  in  Egypt,  and  is  regarded  as  Maimonides'  magnum  opus.   Accordingly,  later  sources  simply  refer  to  the  work  as  "Maimon",  "Maimonides"  or  "RaMBaM",   although  Maimonides  composed  other  works.   3  Tur,  is  an  important  Halakhic  code,  composed  by  Yaakov  ben  Asher  (Cologne,  1270  -­‐  Toledo   c.1340,  also  referred  to  as  "Ba'al  ha-­‐Turim",  "Author  of  the  Tur").  The  four-­‐part  structure  of  the   Tur  and  its  division  into  chapters  (simanim)  were  adopted  by  the  later  code  Shulchan  Aruch.   4  A  kollel  (a  "gathering"  or  "collection"  [of  scholars])  is  an  institute  for  full-­‐time,  advanced  study   of  the  Talmud  and  rabbinic  literature.  Like  a  yeshiva,  a  kollel  features  shiurim  (lectures)  and   learning  sedarim  (learning  sessions);  unlike  a  yeshiva,  the  student  body  of  a  kollel  are  all  married   men.  Kollels  generally  pay  a  regular  monthly  stipend  to  their  members.  
  •   43   Early   rabbinic   literature,   including   the   Mishnah   makes   mention   of   the   bet   midrash   as   an   institution   distinct   from   the   bet   din   (House   of   Judgement/Rabbinical   Court)   and   Sandhedrin   (central   rabbinical   court   of   ancient  Israel,  consisted  of  71  sages  and  was  a  crucial  source  of  leadership  after   the  destruction  of  the  Second  Temple).  It  was  meant  as  a  place  of  Torah  study   and   interpretation,   as   well   as   the   development   of   halakhah   (the   practical   application  of  the  Jewish  Law).   Bet  Midrash:    After  the  Destruction  of  the  Second  Temple  and  the  Fall  of   Jerusalem  70  CE   The   origin   of   the   bet   midrash,   or   house   of   study   can   be   traced   to   the   early   rabbinic  period,  following  the  destruction  of  the  Temple  in  Jerusalem  in  70  CE.   The   earliest   known   rabbinical   school   was   established   by   Rabbi   Yochanan   ben   Zakkai  at  Yavneh  (20km  south  of  Jaffa  on  the  eastern  Mediterranean).      He  was   the  youngest  and  most  distinguished  disciple  of  Rabbi  Hillel5.  He  has  been  called   the   "father   of   wisdom   and   the   father   of   generations   (of   scholars)"   because   he   ensured  the  continuation  of  Jewish  scholarship  after  Jerusalem  fell  to  Rome  in  70   C.E       Vespasian's   troops   brutally   conquered   the   north   of   Israel,   eradicating   all   resistance.6  Meanwhile,  the  Jewish  factions  –  now  increasingly  concentrated  in   Jerusalem  –  moved  beyond  power  struggles  into  open  civil  war.  While  Vespasian   merely  watched  from  a  distance,  various  factions  of  Zealots  (political  opponents   of   Roman   rule)   and   Sicarii   (more   militant   and   violent   Zealots   known   as     ‘daggermen’)  fought  each  other  bitterly,  even  those  that  had  common  goals.  They   killed  those  advocating  surrender.  Thousands  of  Jews  died  at  the  hands  of  other   Jews  in  just  a  few  years.   Long  before,  the  residents  of  Jerusalem  had  stored  provisions  in  case  of  a  Roman   siege.   Three   wealthy   men   had   donated   huge   storehouses   of   flour,   oil,   and   wood—enough  supplies  to  survive  a  siege  of  21  years.   The  Zealots,  however,  wanted  all-­‐out  war.  They  were  unhappy  with  the  attitude   of  the  Sages,  who  proposed  sending  a  peace  delegation  to  the  Romans.  In  order   to  brings  things  to  a  head  and  force  their  fellow  Jews  to  fight,  groups  of  militia  set   fire  to  the  city's  food  stores,  condemning  its  population  to  starvation.  They  also   imposed  an  internal  siege  on  Jerusalem,  not  letting  their  fellow  Jews  in  or  out.   The  greatest  Jewish  sage  of  the  time  was  Rabbi  Yochanan  ben  Zakkai.  He  wisely   foresaw  that  Jerusalem  was  doomed  and  understood  the  need  to  transplant  the   center  of  Torah  scholarship  to  another  location,  to  ensure  the  survival  of  Torah   study  after  Jerusalem's  destruction.  He  devised  a  plan  that  would  allow  him  to   leave  Jerusalem,  despite  the  Zealots'  blockade.  He  feigned  death  so  that  he  could                                                                                                                   5  Hillel  and  his  descendants  established  academies  of  learning  and  were  the  leaders  of  the  Jewish   community  in  the  Land  of  Israel  for  several  centuries.    Shammai  was  concerned  that  if  Jews  had   too  much  contact  with  the  Romans,  the  Jewish  community  would  be  weakened,  and  this  attitude   was  reflected  in  his  strict  interpretation  of  Jewish  law.  Hillel  did  not  share  Shammai's  fear  and   therefore  was  more  liberal  in  his  view  of  law.   6  Roman  Emperor  69-­‐79  CE  
  •   44   be  carried  out  of  the  city.  His  disciples  carried  the  coffin  out  of  the  city's  walls,   and  Rabbi  Yochanan  proceeded  directly  to  Vespasian's  tent.  He  entered  the  tent   and  addressed  Vespasian  as  "Your  Majesty."   "You  are  deserving  of  death  on  two  accounts,"  said  Vespasian.  "First  of  all,  I  am   not  the  emperor,  only  his  general.  Secondly,  if  I  am  indeed  emperor,  why  did  you   not  come  to  me  until  now?"    Rabbi  Yochanan  answered:  "You  are  an  emperor,   because  otherwise  the  Holy  Temple  would  not  be  delivered  in  your  hands.…  And   as  for  your  second  question,  the  reckless  Zealots  would  not  allow  me  to  leave  the   city."   While  they  were  speaking,  a  messenger  came  and  told  Vespasian  that  Nero  was   dead   and   he   had   been   appointed   the   new   Roman   emperor.   Vespasian   was   so   impressed   with   Rabbi   Yochanan's   wisdom   that   he   offered   to   grant   Rabbi   Yochanan  anything  he  wanted  as  a  reward.  Rabbi  Yochanan  made  three  requests.     The  primary  request  was  that  Vespasian  spare  Yavne    –  which  would  become  the   new  home  of  the  Sanhedrin  –  and  its  Torah  sages.   Rabbi   Yochanan   thus   ensured   the   continuation   of   Jewish   scholarship   after   the   fall   of   Jerusalem.   Even   though   they   would   no   longer   have   a   Temple   or   a   homeland,  the  Jews  would  always  have  a  spiritual  center  in  the  Torah.   In  69  CE,  Vespasian  returned  to  Rome  to  serve  as  emperor,  but  first  he  appointed   his  son,  Titus,  to  carry  on  in  his  stead.  In  70  CE,  Titus  came  towards  Jerusalem   with  an  army  of  80,000  soldiers.   Other  official  schools  were  soon  established  under  different  rabbis.  These  men   traced   their   ideological   roots   back   to   the   Pharisees   of   the   late   Second   Temple   Period,  specifically  the  Houses  of  Hillel  and  Shammai,  two  "schools"  of  thought.     By  late  antiquity,  the  "bet  midrash"  had  developed  along  with  the  synagogue  into   a  distinct  though  somewhat  related  institution.  The  main  difference  between  the   "bet   midrash"   and   "bet   hakeneset"   (synagogue)   is   that   the   "bet   hakeneset"   is   sanctified   for   prayer   only   and   that   even   the   study   of   Torah   would   violate   its   sanctity  while  in  the  "bet  midrash"  both  Torah  study  and  prayer  are  allowed.  For   this  reason  most  synagogues  designate  their  sanctuary  as  a  "bet  midrash"  so  that   in  addition  to  prayer  the  study  of  the  Torah  would  also  be  permitted.                            
  •   45