10. romanticism

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  • The Romantic Movement reached its peak in Europe from 1800 to 1840 and it challenged the entrenched values of Neo-Classicism. Its form of expression was found in music, literature and painting. It is said that the composer Beethoven, the poet Byron and painter Turner were the prophets of Romanticism. This period of Art history was influenced by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Christianity was replaced by an appreciation for nature. The ruins of the age of faith had become part of nature and also a source of inspiration for painters. Painters sought to evoke a nostalgic yearning for rural, pastoral life, the infinite possibilities of man and to accurately portray the power and grandeur of nature. English poets like Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats and Coleridge also celebrated the many facets of nature creating a situation where painting and poetry were an influence for each other.
  • Born at Charenton France. He began his training in the Neo-Classical style of painting of Jacques-Louis David at Lycée Pierre Corneille. Delacroix accepted the term Romanticism with reservation. He was influenced by Raphael and mainly Ruben’s mastery of colour and movement. His contemporary, Théodore Géricualt’s ‘Raft of Madussa’, had a profound influence on his subsequent painting. He was also influenced by Shakespeare. A dramatic shift came about in his painting from observing Constable’s use of pure colour and complimentary colours. Historic events often inspired his work for example the struggle for independence from the Turkish Empire by the Greeks. This can be seen in ‘Massacre at Scios’ (1824). A key painting of his was ‘Liberty Leading the People’ showing remnants of the neoclassical style and how he developed this in a Romantic depiction of this event.
  • Born in Rouen France. He studied classical figure painting under Pierre-Narcisse Guérin however soon left to study independently copying great masters. He was influenced by Rubens, Titian Velázquez and Rembrant. He was particularly fascinated by the work of Michelangelo and this influence is obvious in ‘The Raft of the Medusa’ (1819), a depiction of a French national scandal whereby a captain of a ship left his crew to perish on a raft. It shows a man’s struggle with the power of nature and their capacity to overcome it. During his time spent in London he made portraits of insane people. He died at the young age of 33 having sustained injuries from a previous riding accident.
  • Born in Covent Garden, London, England. Turner began his artistic studies at the age of 14 in the Royal Academy of Arts schools and was accepted the following year. His early interests were painting architecture and watercolours. Influences for Turner’s work were British watercolour paintings, architecture, and Chinese Art. The focus of Turner’s work was the violence of nature and that of light. He was interested in storms at sea and inland, avalanches and great fires. He went to great lengths to experience first-hand these events, from being tied to the mast of a ship during a storm seen in ‘Snowstorm; Steamboat’ (1842). His work is highly atmospheric and centred on capturing the fleeting moment. A notable work by this artist is ‘The Fighting Temeraire’ (1839) depicting a retired ship from the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. This painting succinctly portrays the time of industrial revolution where the old is being replaced with the new and it also suggest Turner’s own acknowledgment of mortality.
  • Born in Suffolk England (Known as Constable Country). He studied painting at the Royal Academy in Londan. Constable rejected the standard picturesque concept of landscapes from painters like Gainsborough (although still influenced by them). He believed there was no substitute for really looking and capturing nature accurately. He was influenced by the old masters like Claude Lorrain. Other artists that impacted his work were Rubens and Annibale Carracci. He can be described as a quiet revolutionary of painting, focusing on the English vernacular and depicting peace and simplicity in his work. He often quoted Wordsworth saying “closeness to nature was closeness to God”. In particular he devoted time to studying the sky and the passing of time and its effects on the sky. He sketched a great deal outdoors and painted large scale work in his studio. Breaking with many painting traditions he applied white paint directly to highlight foliage this becoming known by critics as ‘Constable’s white snow’. He painted with loose brush strokes and introduced optical-mixing and was the pre-cursor to Impressionism. ‘The Haywain’ painted in 1821 is a signature painting by this artist.
  • Born in Greifswald, Germany. Friedrich’s mother died when he was 7 shortly after his sister’s untimely death. A tragic accident occurred where he fell into ice water at the age of 13 and was saved, however his brother died while saving him. Much of this toil underpinned his work as an artist all of his life. He began formal studies with Johann Gottfried Quistrop at the University of Griefswald in 1790. He was influenced by theologian Ludwig Gotthard Koesgarten who taught that ‘nature was a revelation of God’. He also studied in the Academy of Copenhagan where he met and was influenced by artists like Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel. These artists taught him the importance of mood and atmosphere in his work. A signature of his work was Rückenfigur(a person seen from behind) and this appeared often in his work. This device encouraged the viewer to enter into his space and begin to appreciate the sublime elements of nature that Friedrich did. This can be seen in ‘Stages of Life’ (1835) showing five ships at varying distances and five figures at varying stages of life; all representing the artist’s own mortality. His paintings contained much symbolism like ‘The Abbey in the Oakwood’ (1809), depicting monks carrying a coffin past an open grave lit by two solitary candles towards a ruin. This could easily be a document of his earlier life.
  • Born in Greifswald, Germany. Friedrich’s mother died when he was 7 shortly after his sister’s untimely death. A tragic accident occurred where he fell into ice water at the age of 13 and was saved, however his brother died while saving him. Much of this toil underpinned his work as an artist all of his life. He began formal studies with Johann Gottfried Quistrop at the University of Griefswald in 1790. He was influenced by theologian Ludwig Gotthard Koesgarten who taught that ‘nature was a revelation of God’. He also studied in the Academy of Copenhagan where he met and was influenced by artists like Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel. These artists taught him the importance of mood and atmosphere in his work. A signature of his work was Rückenfigur(a person seen from behind) and this appeared often in his work. This device encouraged the viewer to enter into his space and begin to appreciate the sublime elements of nature that Friedrich did. This can be seen in ‘Stages of Life’ (1835) showing five ships at varying distances and five figures at varying stages of life; all representing the artist’s own mortality. His paintings contained much symbolism like ‘The Abbey in the Oakwood’ (1809), depicting monks carrying a coffin past an open grave lit by two solitary candles towards a ruin. This could easily be a document of his earlier life.
  • Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) Born in Paris, France. He was known as the greatest Romantic sculptor. He was largely self-educated and attended Petite École a school for art and mathematics. He failed twice, entry to Grand École which were major setbacks, and having left college he spent two decades as an ornamenter. During his career he reached great heights of realistic interpretation and so much so he was accused of being an imposture. This is testament to the level of accuracy and fluidity that Rodin rendered the figure in 3D and this skill had not been seen in Art History since Bernini during the 16 century. He was influenced greatly by Donatello and Michelangelo this can be seen in ‘Age of Bronze’ (1877), Rodin’s tile for this work was ‘man arising from nature’ displaying his love for nature and its source of inspiration for his work like many of the Romantic artists of this time. Another important work by Rodin was ‘The Thinker’ (1889) which is often seen as a symbol for human emotion and consciousness.Francisco Goya (1746-1828) Born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain. Goya began studying painting at the age of 14 with José Luzán Martínez copying the works of great masters such as Rembrandt. During his career he also visited Rome to further his study of past work. From painting scenes of everyday life he was appointed as a painter to the Royal Court and then received admission to the Royal Academy of San Fernando. In 1792 he became deaf from a severe illness and at this time of recovery his style changed. He often made satirical drawings and etchings depicting scandals and political occurrences of the time. He made large paintings of key events in history for example ‘Shootings of the 3rd of May’ (1814) marking Spanish resistance to the armies of Napolean. This was a highly emotive image of its time, painted with blazing colour, fluid broad brush strokes and dramatic light that could be traced as an influence from the Baroque style of painting.William Blake (1757-1827) Born in Soho, London, England. Blake received little formative education and later became apprentice to the engraver James Basire to later become a student of the Royal Academy. Blake rejecting much of the teachings about artists such as Rubens and was more interested in the art of the imagination and poetry. He was influenced strongly by Greek and Medieval Art, Italian Mannerism and above all Michelangelo. He believed that line was the most important element of art and this was followed by colour. He was a forerunner of the movement, Art Nouveau. Blake’s work is highly spiritualised leading to more questions than answers for example ‘Ancient of Days’ (1794). This is an example of Blake designing his own symbolism and mythology which is reference and expressed in his Prophetic Books that he wrote and illustrated. Blake’s work was and still is visionary, looking inward at man and his relationship to the world and the universe.
  • 10. romanticism

    1. 1. Romanticism 1780-1850
    2. 2. Romantic Period: Overview  Challenged Neo-Classicism  It focused on Music, Literature and Painting  The Social Background was: – French Revolution (1789-1799) – American Revolution (1775-1783) – Napoleon made Emperor (1803)  Christianity was Replaced by a Love of Nature
    3. 3. Romantic Period: Overview Painters were concerned with:  The Power of Nature  The Nostalgic and Emotion of Man  Looking Inward  Looking at Nature as it Really is
    4. 4. Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863)  French Painter  Influenced by Raphael, Rubens, Géricualt and Constable  Painted in Neoclassical Style  Painted Historic Events  Bold Brush Strokes with Vivid Colours  Avoided Black and Studied Colour Theory
    5. 5. Eugéne Delacroix Title: Liberty Leading the people (1830) http://www.artble.com/artists/eugene_delacroix
    6. 6. Théodore Géricault (1791-1824)  French Painter  Studied Classical Figure Painting  Influenced by Rubens, Titian and Michelangelo  Depicted Epic Historic Events  Studied Portraiture in London  Died Age 33
    7. 7. Théodore Géricault Title: The Raft of the Medusa (1819) http://www.vangoghgallery.com/artistbios/Theodore_Gericault.html
    8. 8. Joesph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851)  British Painter  Firstly Studied Watercolour Painting  Influenced by Landscape Painters of 1500’s  An Innovator of his Time  Depicted the Ferocity of Nature in Oils  Painted Atmospheric & Fleeting Imagery  Influenced Impressionism
    9. 9. J. M. W. Turner Title: The Fighting Téméraire (1839) http://www.william-turner.org/The-Fighting-'T%C3%A9m%C3%A9raire'-tugged-to-her-last-Berth-to-be-broken-up.html
    10. 10. John Constable (1776-1837)  British Painter  Influenced by Claude Lorrain (Landscape Artist 16th C)  A Passion for looking at Nature  Scenes of Rural Life and Tranquillity  Studied Outdoors  Optical-Mixing, Loose Brush Strokes and Bold Colour
    11. 11. John Constable Title: The Hay Wain (1821) http://www.cssplay.co.uk/menu/safari.html
    12. 12. Casper David Friedrich (1774-1840)  German Painter  Influenced by Painter Jens Juel & Theology  A Style of Mood, Atmosphere & Symbolism  Melancholy Depiction of Man and Nature  Celebrated the Sublime through Complex Compositions
    13. 13. Casper David Friedrich Title: The Stages of Life http://silverandexact.com/2012/06/01/the-stages-of-life-caspar-david-friedrich-1835/
    14. 14. Other Artists from this Period  Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) French Sculptor  Francisco Goya (1746-1828) Spanish painter  William Blake (1757-1827) English Painter
    15. 15. References Clark, K. (1969), ‘Civilisation’, BBC, London. Chártaigh, A. N. and O’Sullivan, A. (2011), ‘Appreciating Art for the Leaving Cert’, Gill and Macmillian, Dublin. Sheppard, L. (1987), ‘History and Appreciation of Art’, Folens, Dublin 24. Sharpe, H.J. (1976), ‘Art History and Appreciation’, Gill and Macmillian, Dublin. Reference for Images are on side of each slide linked to Web Page Compiled by Keith O’Rahilly
    16. 16. Acknowledgements Art Associates Maria Moore Margaret O’Shea Local Facilitator Team Aine Andrews Joe Caslin Jane Campbell Siobhan Campbell Niamh O’Donoghue Niamh O’Neill Keith O’Rahilly Sheena McKeon Tony Morrissey Monica White Many thanks to the following for their invaluable contribution to the European Art History and Appreciation series of workshops and resource materials. PDST Professional Development Service for Teachers
    17. 17. PDST Professional Development Service for Teachers The PDST is funded by the Department of Education and Skills under the National Development Plan 2007 - 2013 Cultural & Environmental Education Professional Development Service for Teachers (PDST) Dublin West Education Centre, Old Blessington Road, Tallaght, Dublin 24 National Co-ordinator Conor Harrison Mobile: 087 240 5710 E-mail: conorharrison@pdst.ie Administrator Angie Grogan Tel: 014528018 Fax: 014528010 E-mail: angiegrogan@pdst.ie.

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