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  • 1. Response to InterventionMotivation in the Classroom:A Five-Part FrameworkJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org www.interventioncentral.org
  • 2. Response to InterventionMotivating Environments: The Role of the Teacher www.interventioncentral.org 2
  • 3. Response to InterventionFive ‘Levers of Influence’ to Promote Student Motivation 1. School & Classroom Environment 2. Social Interactions 3. Instructional Activities 4. Individual Learning Challenges 5. Pay-Offs for Learning www.interventioncentral.org 3
  • 4. Response to Intervention1. School & Classroom Environment The setting in which we work can encourage us to give our best effort or discourage us from even trying to perform. www.interventioncentral.org 4
  • 5. Response to Intervention“We shape our buildings andafterwards our buildings shape us.”--Winston Churchill www.interventioncentral.org 5
  • 6. Response to InterventionThe Virtual School ‘Walkthrough’ www.interventioncentral.org 6
  • 7. Response to InterventionSchool Tour: Hallways www.interventioncentral.org 7
  • 8. Response to InterventionSchool Tour: Hallways www.interventioncentral.org 8
  • 9. Response to InterventionSchool Tour: Cafeteria www.interventioncentral.org 9
  • 10. Response to InterventionSchool & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…Employ Proximity Control (Ford, Olmi, Edwards, & Tingstrom,2001; Gettinger & Seibert, 2002; U.S. Department of Education,2004). Students typically increase their attention to task and showimproved compliance when the teacher is in close physicalproximity. During whole-group activities, circulate around theroom to keep students focused. To hold an individual studentsattention, stand or sit near the student before giving directions orengaging in discussion. www.interventioncentral.org 10
  • 11. Response to InterventionSchool & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…Give Clear Directions (Gettinger & Seibert, 2002; Gettinger,1988). Students will better understand directions when thosedirections are delivered in a clear manner, expressed in languagethe student understands, given at a pace that does notoverwhelm the student, and posted for later review. When givingmulti-step directions orally, write those directions on the board orgive to students as a handout to consult as needed. State multi-step directions one direction at a time and confirm that thestudent is able to comply with each step before giving the nextdirection. www.interventioncentral.org 11
  • 12. Response to InterventionSchool & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…Give Opportunities for Choice (Martens & Kelly, 1993; Powell &Nelson, 1997). Allowing students to exercise some degree ofchoice in their instructional activities can boost attention span andincrease academic engagement. Make a list of choice optionsthat you are comfortable offering students during typical learningactivities. During independent seatwork, for example, you mightroutinely let students choose where they sit, allow them to workalone or in small groups, or give them 2 or 3 different choices ofassignment selected to be roughly equivalent in difficulty andlearning objectives. www.interventioncentral.org 12
  • 13. Response to InterventionSchool & Classroom Environment: Selected Ideas…Use Preferential Seating (U.S. Department of Education, 2004).Preferential seating simply means that you seat the student in alocation where he or she is most likely to stay focused on whatyou are teaching. Remember that all teachers have an actionzone, a part of the room where they tend to focus most of theirinstruction; seat the student somewhere within that zone. Theideal seating location for any particular student will vary,depending on the unique qualities of the target student and ofyour classroom. Consider whether the student might be self-conscious about sitting right next to the teacher. Select a seatlocation that avoids other distractions—e.g., avoid seating thestudent by a window or next to a talkative classmate. www.interventioncentral.org 13
  • 14. Response to Intervention 2. Social InteractionsWe define ourselves in relation to others by oursocial relationships. These connections are acentral motivator for most people. www.interventioncentral.org 14
  • 15. Response to Intervention Social Interactions: Selected Ideas… Improving Relationships With Students: The Two- By-Ten Intervention (Mendler, 2000) •  Make a commitment to spend 2 minutes per day for 10 consecutive days in building a relationship with the student…by talking about topics of interest to the student. Avoid discussing problems with the student’s behaviors or schoolwork during these times.Source: Mendler, A. N. (2000). Motivating students who don’t care. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service. www.interventioncentral.org 15
  • 16. Response to InterventionSocial Interactions: Selected Ideas…Improving Relationships With Students: The Three-to-One Intervention(Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, 2002) •  Give positive attention or praise to problem students at least three times more frequently than you reprimand them. Give the student the attention or praise during moments when that student is acting appropriately. Keep track of how frequently you give positive attention and reprimands to the student.Source: Sprick, R. S., Borgmeier, C., & Nolet, V. (2002). Prevention and management of behavior problems in secondaryschools. In M. A. Shinn, H. M. Walker & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive andremedial approaches (pp.373-401). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. www.interventioncentral.org 16
  • 17. Response to InterventionSocial Interactions: Selected Ideas…Emphasize the Positive in Teacher Requests (Braithwaite,2001). When an instructors request has a positive spin, thatteacher is less likely to trigger a power struggle and more likely togain student compliance. Whenever possible, avoid usingnegative phrasing (e.g., "If you dont return to your seat, I can’thelp you with your assignment"). Instead, restate requests inpositive terms (e.g., "I will be over to help you on the assignmentjust as soon as you return to your seat"). www.interventioncentral.org 17
  • 18. Response to InterventionSocial Interactions: Selected Ideas…Seat the Student Next to Distraction-Resistant or SupportivePeers (DuPaul & Stoner, 2002; Kerr & Nelson, 1998). One usefulstrategy for managing low-level motor behaviors is to seat thestudent next to peers who can generally ignore those behaviors.Or handpick a classmate who has a good relationship with thestudent but is not easily drawn off-task and appoint that studentas a helper peer. Tell the peer that whenever he or she noticesthat the students verbal or motor behavior has risen to the levelof distracting others, the peer should give the student a brief,quiet, non-judgmental signal (e.g., a light tap on the shoulder) tocontrol the behavior. www.interventioncentral.org 18
  • 19. Response to Intervention3. Instructional ActivitiesMotivated students are engaged in interestingactivities that guarantee a high success rate andrelate to real-world issues. www.interventioncentral.org 19
  • 20. Response to InterventionInstructional Activities: Selected Ideas…Make the Activity Stimulating (U.S. Department of Education,2004). Students require less conscious effort to remain on-taskwhen they are engaged in high-interest activities. Makeinstruction more interesting by choosing a specific lesson topicthat you know will appeal to students (e.g., sports, fashion). Orhelp students to see a valuable real-word pay-off for learning thematerial being taught. Another tactic is to make your method ofinstruction more stimulating. Students who dont learn well intraditional lecture format may show higher rates of engagementwhen interacting with peers (cooperative learning) or whenallowed the autonomy and self-pacing of computer-deliveredinstruction. www.interventioncentral.org 20
  • 21. Response to Intervention Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas…Stimulate Writing Interest With an Autobiography Assignment (Bos &Vaughn, 2002) Assigning the class to write their own autobiographies can motivate hard-to-reach students who seem uninterested in most writing assignments. Have students read a series of autobiographies of people who interest them. Discuss these biographies with the class. Then assign students to write their own autobiographies. (With the class, create a short questionnaire that students can use to interview their parents and other family members to collect information about their past.) Allow students to read their autobiographies for the class. www.interventioncentral.org 21
  • 22. Response to InterventionInstructional Activities: Selected Ideas…Instruct at a Brisk Pace (Carnine, 1976; Gettinger & Seibert,2002). When students are appropriately matched to instruction,they are likely to show improved on-task behavior when they aretaught at a brisk pace rather than a slow one. To achieve a briskpace of instruction, make sure that you are fully prepared prior tothe lesson and that you minimize the time spent on housekeepingitems such as collecting homework or on transitions from onelearning activity to another. www.interventioncentral.org 22
  • 23. Response to InterventionInstructional Activities: Selected Ideas…Structure Instructional Activities to Allow Interaction andMovement (DuPaul & Stoner, 2002; Sprick, Borgmeier & Nolet,2002; U.S. Department of Education, 2004). Students with highenergy levels may be more likely to engage in distractingbehavior when they are forced to sit through long periods oflecture or independent seatwork. Instead, offer students frequentopportunities for more movement by designing instruction toactively engage them as learners (e.g., cooperative learning). Anadditional advantage of less formal, more spontaneous learningactivities is that when the overactive child does happen to displaymotor behaviors in this relaxed setting, those behaviors are lesslikely to distract peers. www.interventioncentral.org 23
  • 24. Response to Intervention Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas… Math Computation: Problem Interspersal Technique •  The teacher first identifies the range of ‘challenging’ problem-types (number problems appropriately matched to the student’s current instructional level) that are to appear on the worksheet. •  Then the teacher creates a series of ‘easy’ problems that the students can complete very quickly (e.g., adding or subtracting two 1-digit numbers). The teacher next prepares a series of student math computation worksheets with ‘easy’ computation problems interspersed at a fixed rate among the ‘challenging’ problems. •  If the student is expected to complete the worksheet independently, ‘challenging’ and ‘easy’ problems should be interspersed at a 1:1 ratio (that is, every ‘challenging’ problem in the worksheet is preceded and/ or followed by an ‘easy’ problem).Source: Hawkins, J., Skinner, C. H., & Oliver, R. (2005). The effects of task demands and additive interspersal ratios on fifth-grade students’ mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review, 34, 543-555.. www.interventioncentral.org 24
  • 25. Response to InterventionHow to… Create an Interspersal-Problems Worksheet www.interventioncentral.org 25
  • 26. Response to Intervention Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas… Math Computation: Motivate With ‘Errorless Learning’ Worksheets In this version of an ‘errorless learning’ approach, the student is directed to complete math facts as quickly as possible. If the student comes to a number problem that he or she cannot solve, the student is encouraged to locate the problem and its correct answer in the key at the top of the page and write it in. Such speed drills build computational fluency while promoting students’ ability to visualize and to use a mental number line. TIP: Consider turning this activity into a ‘speed drill’. The student is given a kitchen timer and instructed to set the timer for a predetermined span of time (e.g., 2 minutes) for each drill. The student completes as many problems as possible before the timer rings. The student then graphs the number of problems correctly computed each day on a time-series graph, attempting to better his or her previous score.Source: Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278-282 www.interventioncentral.org 26
  • 27. Response to Intervention ‘Errorless Learning’ Worksheet SampleSource: Caron, T. A. (2007). Learning multiplication the easy way. The Clearing House, 80, 278-282 www.interventioncentral.org 27
  • 28. Response to Intervention Instructional Activities: Selected Ideas… Math Peer Guided Pause •  Students are trained to work in pairs. At one or more appropriate review points in a math lecture, the instructor directs students to pair up to work together for 4 minutes. •  During each Peer Guided Pause, students are given a worksheet that contains one or more correctly completed word or number problems illustrating the math concept(s) covered in the lecture. The sheet also contains several additional, similar problems that pairs of students work cooperatively to complete, along with an answer key. •  Student pairs are reminded to (a) monitor their understanding of the lesson concepts; (b) review the correctly math model problem; (c) work cooperatively on the additional problems, and (d) check their answers. The teacher can direct student pairs to write their names on the practice sheets and collect them to monitor student understanding.Source: Hawkins, J., & Brady, M. P. (1994). The effects of independent and peer guided practice during instructional pauses onthe academic performance of students with mild handicaps. Education & Treatment of Children, 17 (1), 1-28. www.interventioncentral.org 28
  • 29. Response to Intervention4. Individual Learning ChallengesMotivated students are engaged in interestingactivities that guarantee a high success rate andrelate to real-world issues. www.interventioncentral.org 29
  • 30. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Have the Student Monitor Motor Behaviors and Call-Outs(DuPaul & Stoner, 2002). Have the student monitor his or hermotor behaviors or call-outs. First, choose a class period or partof the day when you want the student to monitor distractingbehaviors. Next, meet privately with the student to discuss whichof that students behaviors are distracting. Then, together with thestudent, design a simple distractible behavior-rating form with nomore than 3 items (For a student who calls out frequently, forexample, a useful rating item might be "How well did I observethe rule today of raising my hand and being called on beforegiving an answer? Poor – Fair – Good".) Have the student ratehis or her behaviors at the end of each class period. www.interventioncentral.org 30
  • 31. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Allow Discretionary Motor Breaks (U.S. Department ofEducation, 2004). When given brief movement breaks, highlyactive students often show improvements in their behaviors.Permit the student to leave his or her seat and quietly walkaround the classroom whenever the student feels particularlyfidgety. Or, if you judge that motor breaks within the classroomwould be too distracting, consider giving the student adiscretionary pass that allows him or her to leave the classroombriefly to get a drink of water or walk up and down the hall. www.interventioncentral.org 31
  • 32. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Adopt a Silent Signal (U.S. Department of Education, 2004).You can redirect overactive students in a low-key manner byusing a silent signal. Meet privately with the student and identifyfor the student those motor or verbal behaviors that appear to bemost distracting. With the students help, select a silent signal thatyou can use to alert the student that his or her behavior hascrossed the threshold and now is distracting others. Role-playseveral scenarios with the student in which you use the silentsignal and the student then controls the problem behavior. www.interventioncentral.org 32
  • 33. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Provide a Quiet Work Area (U.S. Department of Education,2004). Distractible students benefit from a quiet place in theclassroom where they can go when they have more difficultassignments to complete. A desk or study carrel in the corner ofthe room can serve as an appropriate workspace. Whenintroducing these workspaces to students, stress that the quietlocations are intended to help students to concentrate. Never useareas designated for quiet work as punitive time-out spaces, asstudents will then tend to avoid them. www.interventioncentral.org 33
  • 34. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Break Larger Assignments into Smaller Chunks (Skinner,Pappas & Davis, 2005). Students are likely to show higher levelsof motivation and academic engagement when they are given aseries of shorter assignments in place on a single longerassignment. Keep assignments short and give students frequentperformance feedback to ensure their understanding of thecontent. www.interventioncentral.org 34
  • 35. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Class Participation: Keep Students Guessing (Heward, 1994).Students attend better during large-group presentations if theycannot predict when they will be required to actively participate.Randomly call on students, occasionally selecting the samestudent twice in a row or within a short time span. Or pose aquestion to the class, give students wait time to formulate ananswer, and then randomly call on a student. www.interventioncentral.org 35
  • 36. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Capture Students Attention Before Giving Directions (Ford,Olmi, Edwards, & Tingstrom, 2001; Martens & Kelly, 1993). Gainthe students attention before giving direction. When givingdirections to an individual student, call the student by name andestablish eye contact before providing the directions. When givingdirections to the whole class, use group alerting cues such asEyes and ears on me! to gain the classs attention. Wait until allstudents are looking at you and ready to listen before givingdirections. When you have finished giving directions to the entireclass, privately approach any students who appear to needassistance. Quietly restate the directions to them and have themrepeat the directions back to you as a check for understanding. www.interventioncentral.org 36
  • 37. Response to Intervention Math Shortcuts: Cognitive Energy- and Time-Savers “Recently, some researchers…have argued that children can derive answers quickly and with minimal cognitive effort by employing calculation principles or “shortcuts,” such as using a known number combination toderive an answer (2 + 2 = 4, so 2 + 3 =5), relations among operations (6 + 4 =10, so 10 −4 = 6) … and so forth. This approach to instruction is consonant with recommendations by the National Research Council (2001). Instruction along these lines may be much more productive than rote drill without linkage to counting strategy use.” p. 301Source: Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., & Flojo, J. R. (2005). Early identification and interventions for students with mathematicsdifficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 293-304. www.interventioncentral.org 37
  • 38. Response to Intervention Math Multiplication Shortcut: ‘The 9 Times Quickie’ •  The student uses fingers as markers to find the product of single- digit multiplication arithmetic combinations with 9. •  Fingers to the left of the lowered finger stands for the ’10’s place value. •  Fingers to the right stand for the ‘1’s place value. 9 xx10 9 19 8 7 6 5 4 3 2Source: Russell, D. (n.d.). Math facts to learn the facts. Retrieved November 9, 2007, from http://math.about.com/bltricks.htm www.interventioncentral.org 38
  • 39. Response to InterventionIndividual Learning Challenges: Selected Ideas…Schedule Challenging Tasks for Peak Attention Times (Brock,1998). Many students with limited attention can focus better in themorning, when they are fresh. Schedule those subjects or tasksthat the student finds most difficult early in the day. Save easiersubjects or tasks for later in the day, when the students attentionmay start to wane. www.interventioncentral.org 39
  • 40. Response to Intervention5. Pay-Offs for LearningMotivated students are engaged ininteresting activities that guarantee ahigh success rate and relate to real-world issues. www.interventioncentral.org 40
  • 41. Response to InterventionPay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas…Pay Attention to the On-Task Student (DuPaul & Ervin, 1996;Martens & Meller, 1990). Teachers who selectively give studentspraise and attention only when those students are on-task arelikely to find that these students show improved attention in classas a result. When you have a student who is often off-task, makean effort to identify those infrequent times when the student isappropriately focused on the lesson and immediately give thestudent positive attention. Examples of teacher attention thatstudents will probably find positive include verbal praise andencouragement, approaching the student to check on how he orshe is doing on the assignment, and friendly eye contact. www.interventioncentral.org 41
  • 42. Response to Intervention Pay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas… Math Intervention: Tier I or II: Elementary & Secondary: Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills With Performance Self-Monitoring & Incentives1.  The student is given a math computation worksheet of a specific problem type, along with an answer key [Academic Opportunity to Respond].2.  The student consults his or her performance chart and notes previous performance. The student is encouraged to try to ‘beat’ his or her most recent score.3.  The student is given a pre-selected amount of time (e.g., 5 minutes) to complete as many problems as possible. The student sets a timer and works on the computation sheet until the timer rings. [Active Student Responding]4.  The student checks his or her work, giving credit for each correct digit (digit of correct value appearing in the correct place-position in the answer). [Performance Feedback]5.  The student records the day’s score of TOTAL number of correct digits on his or her personal performance chart.6.  The student receives praise or a reward if he or she exceeds the most recently posted number of correct digits.Application of ‘Learn Unit’ framework from : Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active studentresponse during group instruction. In R. Gardner, D. M.S ainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L. Heward, J. W. Eshleman,& T. A. Grossi(Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320). Pacific Grove, CA:Brooks/Cole. www.interventioncentral.org 42
  • 43. Response to InterventionSelf-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills:Examples of Student Worksheet and Answer KeyWorksheets created using Math Worksheet Generator. Available online at:http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/mathprobe/addsing.php www.interventioncentral.org 43
  • 44. Response to Intervention Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills… Reward Given Reward Given Reward Given Given Reward No Reward No RewardNo Reward www.interventioncentral.org 44
  • 45. Response to InterventionHow to… Use PPT Group Timers in the Classroom www.interventioncentral.org 45
  • 46. Response to InterventionPay-Offs for Learning: Selected Ideas… Monitoring to Increase Writing Fluency (Rathvon, 1999)Students gain motivation to write through daily monitoringand charting of their own and classwide rates of writingfluency.–  Assign timed freewriting several times per week.–  After each freewriting period, direct each student to count up the number of words he or she has written in their daily journal entry (whether spelled correctly or not).–  Have students to record their personal writing-fluency score in their journal and also chart the score on their own time-series graph for visual feedback.–  Collect the day’s writing-fluency scores of all students in the class, sum those scores, and chart the results on a large time-series graph posted at the front of the room.–  Raise the class goal by five percent per week. www.interventioncentral.org 46
  • 47. Response to InterventionFive ‘Levers of Influence’ to Promote Student Motivation 1. School & Classroom Environment 2. Social Interactions 3. Instructional Activities 4. Individual Learning Challenges 5. Pay-Offs for Learning www.interventioncentral.org 47
  • 48. Response to InterventionTHE SKEPTIC: “Why do I have to know aboutquadratic equations or who wrote the U.S. Constitution?When am I ever going to use any of THAT stuff in mylife?”Discuss motivating ideas for this student…• School & Classroom Environment• Social Interactions• Instructional Activities• Individual Learning Challenges• Pay-offs for Learning www.interventioncentral.org 48
  • 49. Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 49
  • 50. Response to InterventionBOREDOM: “Every day, we just do math work sheets atour desks. The same problems over and over. We don’tget to talk to anybody. I am SOOO bored in this class!”Discuss motivating ideas for this student…• School & Classroom Environment• Social Interactions• Instructional Activities• Individual Learning Challenges• Pay-offs for Learning www.interventioncentral.org 50
  • 51. Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 51
  • 52. Response to InterventionATTITUDE: “My dad said that I don’t have to learn thisstuff and you can’t make me! I can do what ever I want!And you can’t make me do any work if I don’t want to! ”Discuss motivating ideas for this student…• School & Classroom Environment• Social Interactions• Instructional Activities• Individual Learning Challenges• Pay-offs for Learning www.interventioncentral.org 52
  • 53. Response to Intervention www.interventioncentral.org 53
  • 54. Response to InterventionHow Attributions About Learning Contribute toAcademic Outcomes People regularly make ‘attributions’ about events and situations in which they are involved that ‘explain’ and make sense of those happenings. www.interventioncentral.org 54
  • 55. Response to InterventionHow Attributions About Learning Contribute toAcademic Outcomes Attribution Theory: Dimensions Affecting Student Interpretation of Academic Successes & Failures (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002)The situation or event is… • Unstable (changes often) • Stable (can be counted on to remain relatively unchanged) • Internal (within the student) • External (occurring in the surrounding environment) • Uncontrollable (beyond the • Controllable (within the ability of the student to student’s ability to influence) influence) www.interventioncentral.org 55
  • 56. Response to InterventionHow Attributions About Learning Contribute toAcademic OutcomesSo can’tlousy any studying done atOK. Next Thisdid get always springs pop quizzes on us— Some people are bornThat’s home because my I I teacher on this one test. writers.time, picks study harder and my grades should bounce back. and I will listens to that are impossible time. for! brother questions the radio all the to studyI was born to watch TV.The situation or event is… • Unstable (changes often) • Stable (can be counted on to remain relatively unchanged) • Internal (within the student) • External (occurring in the surrounding environment) • Uncontrollable (beyond the • Controllable (within the ability of the student to student’s ability to influence) influence) www.interventioncentral.org 56