Research for better understanding the article: “Helping the Hazara ofAfghanistan and Pakistan”by Saleem Ali of University of Queensland (Australia) January 16, 2012 http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2012/01/16/hazara_afghanistan_pakistan/ Elena A. Brown Program College Ready Tucson Arizona December 2012
Who is Dr. Saleem Ali?Dr. Alis research focuses on the causes and consequences ofenvironmental conflicts and how ecological factors can promote peace.He is author of the book:Islam and EducationConflict and Conformity in Pakistans Madrassahs (2009) Associate Professor of Environmental Planning and Asian Studies at the University of Vermont. The founding Director of the Institute for Environmental Diplomacy and Security at UVMs James Jeffords Center for Policy Research Senior Fellow at the United Nations mandated University for Peace in Costa Rica.Dr. Ali is also a regular columnist for Pakistans Daily Times and haseditorials published in The International Herald Tribune and The BostonGlobe.
What does he say? “At the end of the day, what we need is a major pan-Islamic reconciliation process between sects, particularly Shias and Sunnis…... Whether it is the acerbic strife between the Hazara and the Pashtuns or the insanity of Shia-Sunni violence ……..Peace education is also desperately needed in Islamic schools.”
Hazara’s etymology The word Hazara most likely derives from the Persian word for Thousand (Persian: - hazār). It may be the translation of the Mongol word ming (or minggan), a military unit of 1000 soldiers at the time of Gengis Khan.
Hazara’s characteristics They are the most vulnerable minority group. Phenotypically, the Hazaras have distinct similarities to Mongols. Most of them speak Dari (Persian language) Most of them are Shi’a (a branch of Islam; it was imposed by ayatollahs in Iran)
Ethnicities of Afghanistan.Map by US Army Combined Arms Center, Leavenworth, Kansas, USA
Afghan census ? “Hazara population is 5 million ..”?? “Most of them live in Afghanistan constituting at least 20% of the country’s population” ?? “There are around 1 million Hazaras in Pakistan” or 500,000?? “Pashtun population is 70%”??The last census was taking in 1979, and it was never completedbecause of the Soviet invasion. There is not official demographicinformation.
The World Factbook Also known as the CIA World Factbook, it is a reference resource about the countries of the world. We can find a summary of the demographics, geography, communication s, economy and military of 267 entities, including Afghanistan. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
A Hazara boyhttp://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Middle_East/Iran/East/Semnan/Semnan/photo285797.htm
An Afghan man walks with his son at a market in Kabul on September 4, 2012.(Jose Cabezas/AFP/GettyImages)
The Kite Runner: Author Khaled HosseiniDiscrimination towards the Hazara The Kite Runner is a historical novel. It is a denunciation of the terrible situation of the Hazara people in Afghanistan. Afghan problems: economic, social, religious, and political. All of these make Afghanistan a difficult and dangerous place to live.
Hazara uprisings: Emir Abdur Rahman Khan First uprising (1888-1890) Control over large parts of Hazarajat. people were disarmed, villages were looted. Local tribal chiefs imprisoned or executed. Second uprising (Spring 1892) The cause of the uprising was the alleged gang rape of the wife of a Hazara chief. The Emir declared a “jihad” (holy war) against the Shia’s. Numerous Hazaras were kill and thousands were sold as slaves. Third uprising (1893) 35, 000 families fled to northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran. 60% of the Hazara population was massacred.
Soviet war in Afghanistan 1979 Hazara fought against the communist Afghan government .They claimed Hazarajat their homeland. 1980 Hazara factions were engaged in a civil war between them. 1989 Hezb-e Wahdat, an alliance of all the Hazara resistance groups. 1996 Hazara groups united with the northern Alliance against the Taliban.
Repression against HazarasMassacred1998 – 2002 Mazar -e- Shariff (1998) Rotak Pass (2000) Yakao lang (January 2001) It is widely believed that it was an official policy of the Taliban to marginalize the Hazara, confiscate their lands and Hazaras into exile, particularly in Iran.
Hazaras 2002 -2012On one side: Karim Khalili (Hazara) became the Vice President of Afghanistan. A number of ministers and governors are Hazaras. The National Assembly of Afghanistan (Parliament) is 25% made up of ethnic Hazaras.
Hazaras 2002 -2012On the other hand Kuchis are allowed to use Hazarajat pastures during summer season. 2004 16 Hazaras were executed by Taliban forces Since 2007 – in Behsud- hundreds of Hazaras have been massacred by Kuchi. December 2011 - 70 shias were killed in Kabul and Mazar e- Shariff.
HAZARA GENOCIDE IN PAKISTAN : FACTS & FIGURES (Courtesy: HOPE ; As of Nov 28, 2012)Total Population of Hazaras in Quetta, 600,000 (approx)PakistanTotal Number of Attacks (partial list) 121 (since 1999) [ Google Map of Attacks ]Total Number of Attacks in 2012 57 (in 2012 only)Total Hazaras Killed 800 (approx) [ Victims / Injured List ] *1100 (approx) when including 300 Hazaras dying as a result of boat capsizing during migrationTotal Hazaras Injured 3,000 (approx)Num of Hazaras migrated offshore 50,000 (minimum)
Afghan Hazara people hold a demonstration to protest against thekilling of their ethnic people in Quetta of Pakistan, in Kabul,Afghanistan, Oct. 7, 2011.(Xinhua/Omid)
Mohammad Fazl Mohammad Fazl is the Talibans former Deputy Defense Minister. He is being held in the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba –January 2002. He was born in 1967 in Afghanistan. It is alleged that he is responsible for killing thousands of Shi’a Afghans between 1996 and late 2001.
Mohammad Fazl Throughout the fall of 2011 and the winter of 2012 the United States conducted peace negotiations with the Taliban. The key sticking point was the ongoing detention of Fazl and four other senior Taliban. Negotiations hinged around sending the five men directly to Doha, Qatar, where they would be allowed to set up an official office for the Taliban.
Now, It is easy to understand why Saleem Aliadvocates for peace to prevail in Afghanistan andPakistan “Assuring security of the Hazara minority is essential.” “The United States and all interested states must not compromise on the security of this persecuted minority population in their peace talks.” “The Hazara constitute a vital indigenous culture that has survived for centuries and is threatened.” “While all groups must try to promote sectarian harmony internally, the responsibility of protecting the fundamental human rights of the Hazara remains with the Afghan and Pakistani states and their allies who purport to support peaceful pluralism.”